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Family Araceae

Arrow leaf
Syngonium podophyllum Schott
ARROWHEAD VINE

Scientific names Common names
Pothos auritus Willd. ex Schult. Syngonium
Syngonium affine Schott American evergreen (Engl.)
Syngonium amazonicum Engl. Arrow leaf (Engl.)
Syngonium decipiens Schott Arrowhead vine (Engl.)
Syngonium gracile (Miq.) Schott Goosefoot plant (Engl.)
Syngonium podophyllum Schott Nephthytis (Engl.)
Syngonium poeppigii Schott Whitefly (Engl.)
Syngonium riedelianum Schott  
Syngonium ruizii Schott  
Syngonium ternatum Gleason  
Syngonium vellzoanum Schott  
Syngonium willdenowii Schott  
Syngonium xanthophilum Schott  
Xanthosoma gracile Miq.  
Syngonium podophyllum Schott is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Dhobol-kochu.
GERMAN: Eselskopf, Fussblatt, Veränderliche Purpurtüte.
SURINAM: Pah-ke-rah pah-nah; Kam-hi-det.

Gen info
Syngonium is a genus of about 36 species of flowering plants in the Araceae family.

Botany
Syngonium podophyllum is a perennial vine growing to a height of 10-20 meters. Petioles are slender. Leaves are arrow-shaped, thin, green and undulating. Leaves change shape as they mature, becoming bigger and lobed.

Distribution
- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Native to Mexico and Costa Rica.

Constituents
- Analysis of volatile oil by GC/MS yielded forty-three compounds. Main compounds were alpha-ionone, geranyl acetone, ß-ionone, dithdroactinidiolide, hexadecanoic acid, phytol, and linoleic acid, among others, together with carbonyl chemicals, fatty acid, and hydrocarbon. (8)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids and saponins. (11)
- Phytochemical screening of acetate extract of dried leaf samples yielded the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, and saponins. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 3.67 ± 0.02 mg propyl galate equivalent and 3.23 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of sample. (see study below) (12)

Properties
- Studies suggest antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic properties.
- Air-purifying plant.

Parts utilized
Bark, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In Belize, roots and bark used in traditional medicine for treatment of superficial and deep wounds.
• In Central American, used for various skin disorders.
• In Suriname, sap is swabbed into the cavity of an aching tooth to relieve pain. Decoction of crush leaves use as wash to treat stomachache. (13)
• In Bangladesh, whole plant considered tonic; used for dermatitis. (14)
Others
Indoor Plant / Air Purifier: One of the plants studied and found effective in helping to remove indoor air pollutants.

Studies
Antibacterial: A study was done on 21 extracts of seven plants used in wound healing, including Syngonium piodophyllum leaves and bark, to evaluate antibacterial properties against strains of E coli, P aeruginosa, S aureus and E faecalis. Almost all the extracts showed some growth inhibition of one or more bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity was reported for the first time for Syngonium podophyllum.   (1)
Anti-Inflammatory: Extracts of seven herbal drugs used in Central American folk medicined were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. All the extracts, including S podophyllum induced dose-dependent edema reduction, presenting potential sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity. (4)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Hepatotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic potential of Syngonium podophyllum and Eichhornia crassipes leaf aqueous extracts and their in vivo effect of oxidative stress and hepatic biomarkers in isoniazid induced rats. Both extracts showed considerable antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. SP showed 51% cytotoxicity against lung cancer (NCI-H322) cell line. SP showed a phenolic content of 5.36 ± 0.32 PGE/g. Both showed 13%-65% protection against lipid peroxidation in rat tissue. However the S. podophyllum extract was found to be hepatotoxic. (6)
Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxic potential and phytochemical screening of S. podophyllum leaves and X. safittifolium rhizomes. Among all extracts, Syngonium podophyllum leaves showed the highest cytotoxic potential with LD50 value of 16.67 µg/ml. (7)
Isoschaftoside / Potential Antihypertensive: Study investigated the in vitro effects of isoschaftoside isolated from Syngonium podophyllum on pig kidney Na+, K+, ATpase. Isoschaftoside significantly decreased renal Na+K+ATpase. Results suggest a promising compound for the treatment of hypertension. (9)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Anticancer / Leaves: Study of ethyl acetate leaf extract reducing ability in the range of 0.170-0.350. Extract showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging potential (50%) and metal ion chelating ability (55%) at higher concentrations. Extract showed 43% growth inhibition against lung cancer (NCI-H322) and 53% against breast cancer (T4D) lines. It showed considerable antibacterial activity by disc diffusion assay against Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, and Brodetella bronchiseptica. (12)

Toxicity / Concerns
• All parts of the plant are considered poisonous and causes severe mouth pain if eaten.
Araceae contain calcium oxalate crystals, believed to cause intense local irritation on handling or consuming. Some attribute the reaction to other compounds present as the irritation is not seen in properly cooked plants, although the crystal persist after heating.

Availability
Wild-crafted

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated July 2017 / April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Starr 070124-3835 Syngonium podophyllum.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 24 January 2007 / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America)
/ A Camporese et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 87, Issue 1, July 2003, Pages 103-107 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00115-6 |
(2)
Syngonium / Wikipedia
(3)
Syngonium podophyllum (American Evergreen) / ZipcodeZoo
(4)
Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants / S Sosa et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 81, Issue 2, July 2002, Pages 211-215/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00080-6
(5)
Syngonium podophyllum Schott / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6)
In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activity and In Vivo Effect of Syngonium podophyllum and Eichhornia crassipes Leaf Extracts on Isoniazid Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Markers
/ Shashank Kumar, Ramesh Kumar, Astha Dwivedi, and Abhay K. Pandey* / Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014 / doi: 10.1155/2014/459452
(7)
Comparative study of cytotoxic potential and phytochemical screening of Xanthosoma sagittifolium rhizome and Syngonium podophylam leaf / Md. Sarwar Hossain, Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Moniruzzaman, Md. Asaduzzaman / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2015; 3(3): 43-46
(8)
Study on chemical constituents of volatile oil from Whitefly (Syngonium podophyllum Schott) / Zhou Qiong, Liang Guangwen , Kong Chuihua / Natural Product Research and Development, 16(1):31-32,35 (2004)
(9)
In vitro effect of isoschaftoside isolated from Syngonium podophyllum on pig kidney Na+, K+-ATPase / Anne Caroline Candido GomesI,*; Luzia da Silva SampaioII; Paulo André da SilvaII; Marcelo Einicker LamasII; Cassia Mônica SakuraguiIII; Cleber Bomfim Barreto JuniorIV; Naomi Kato SimasV; Ricardo Machado KusterI / Quím. Nova, Vol 37, No 10 São Paulo 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140257
(10)
Syngonium podophyllum (Arrowhead Plant) / 10 Magical Air Cleaning Plants
(11)
Phytochemical analysis of 50 selected plants found in the University Botanic Garden, Maseno, Kenya
for their chemotaxonomic values
/ Seline Omondi*, J. C. Omondi / Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine, Vol 1, 2015
(12)
Preliminary Evaluation of 'Biological Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Syngonium podophyllum Leaf / Kumar, Shashank; Dwivedi, Asthaa; Kumar, Ramesh; Pandey, Abhay / Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. (March-April 2015) 38(2): 143-146 / DOI: 10.1007/s40009-014-0318-4
(13)
Syngonium podophyllum / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / botany.si.edu
(14)
A SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY KAVIRAJES OF CHALNA AREA, KHULNA DISTRICT, BANGLADESH / Mohammed Rahmatullah*, Dilara Ferdausi, Md. Ariful Haque Mollik, Rownak Jahan, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Wahid Mozammel Haque / Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2010) 7 (2): 91 - 97 91
(15)


It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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