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Family Anonaceae
Annona squamosa Linn.

Fan li zhi

Scientific names  Common names 
Annona asiatica Linn. Ates (Tag.) 
Annona asiatica Vahl. Atis (Tag.) 
Annona cinerea Dunal Yates (Tag.)
Annona distincta Raeusch. Bullock's heart (Engl.)
Annona forskahlii DC. Custard apple seed (Engl.)
Annona glabra Forssk. Sugar apple (Engl.)
Annona squamosa Delile Sweetsop (Engl.)
Annona squamosa Linn.  
Annona squamosa f. parvifolia Kuntze  
Xylopia frutescens Sieber ex C.Presl  
Xylopia glabra L.  
Xylopicron glabrum (L.) Crantz  
Custard apple is a shared common name of several fruits and may refer to Annonaceae, the custard aooke family, which includes several species referred to as custard apples:  Annona squamosa (sugar apple or sweetsop), A. troloba (pawpaw), A. cherimola (cherimoya), A. muricata (guanabana or soursop), A. reticulata, A. senegalensis (wild custard apple).
Annona squamosa L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAAN: Tubabu susun.
ARABIAN: Sharifa.
BURMESE: Arnesa.
CHINESE: Lin qin, Ma luo tuo, Yang bo luo. Fan li zhi, Pu uon xu.
DUTCH: Kaneelappel.
FRENCH: Annone écailleuse, Cachiman cannelle (Haiti), Pomme cannelle (Antilles), Allier.
GERMAN: Rahmapfel, Süßsack, Schuppenannone (Rehm) , Schuppen-Annone, Zimtapfel, Zuckerapfel.
HAWAIIAN: Talapo fua pekepeke.
HINDI: Raamaphal, Shariiphaa, Sitaphal.
ITALIAN: Mela canella, Pomo canella.
JAPANESE: Banreishi.
LATIN AMERICAN: Guanabana, Caramuyo.
MALAY: Buah nona, Sarikaya (Prosea) (Indonesia), Seri kaya, Srikaya (Prosea) (Indonesia).
NEPALESE: Shariiphaa, Sariphal, Sitaaphal.
PORTUGUESE: Atá, Ateira, Cabeça-de-negro, Condessa, Coração-de-boi, Fruta da condessa, Fruta de condessa, Fruta do conde, Pinheira.
SANSKRIT: Gandhagatra, Shubba.
SPANISH: Ahate, Anón, Anón candonga, Anona blanca,Anona de Castilla, Chirimoya, Rinón.
THAI: Noina, Noie-nah.
VIETNAMESE: Cay mang cau.

General info
- Annona squamosa is a well-branched tree or shrub from the family Annonaceae that bears edible fruits called sugar apples or sweetsops.
- Native of tropical climate in the Americas and West Indies, brought to the Philippines by Spanish traders aboard the Manila galleons.
- Custard apple is a shared common name of several fruits and may refer to Annonaceae, the custard apple family, which includes several species referred to as custard apples:  Annona squamosa (sugar apple or sweetsop), A. troloba (pawpaw), A. cherimola (cherimoya), A. muricata (guanabana or soursop), A. reticulata, A. senegalensis (wild custard apple). (88)
- Etymology: The genus name Annona is the Latin American name for the 'harvest goddess'. The species epithet derives from Latin, meaning "scale or scale-like", referring to the immature's fruit scaly apppearance. (93)

• Atis is a small tree 3 to 5 meters in height. Leaves are somewhat hairy when young, oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with a petiole 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves, about 2.5 centimeters long, pendulous, hairy, three-angled, light green to yellow. Fruit is large, somewhat heart-shaped, 6 to 9 centimeters long, the outside marked with knobby polygonal tubercles. When ripe, the fruit is light yellowish-green. Flesh is white, sweet, soft, and juicy, with a mild and very agreeable flavor.

A small tree with an open, irregular crown. Foliage: Leaves are elliptic to oblong with rounded to acute apex, 5-15 cm long, 2 - 5 cm wide, alternate with entire leaf margins. Flowers: Fragrant yellowish green flowers hang downwards either singly or in groups of 2 - 4. Each oblong flower has 3 elongated outer petals and 3 inconspicuous inner petals, 2.5 - 4 cm long. Fruit: Fruit are usually round with a knobby surface. Sweet and juicy flesh occurs in elongated segments, each surrounding a brown to black, oblong seed (1 cm long). Each fruit has 20 - 40 seeds. (93)

- Naturalized.
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines; occasionally spontaneous.
- Introduced from tropical America by the Spaniards.
- Now pantropic.
- Native to
Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá. (43)

- The leaves yield an alkaloid, chloroplatinate.
- Anonaine, an alkaloid, is found in the bark, leaves and seeds.
- Seed yields an alkaloid, neutral resin, fixed oil.
- Seed contains a yellow, non-drying oil and an irritant which kills lice.
- Fruit peel extracts yielded alkaloids, proteins, carbohydrates, flavanoids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins. (28)
- Roots yielded two oxoaporphine alkaloids: liriodenine and oxoanalobine.
- Volatile oil study comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0–11.9%), limonene (0.8–11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5–13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6–24.5%), spathulenol (0.8–9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0–10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3–7.8%). (
- Various solvent extracts of seeds showed the presence of flavanoids, coumarins, alkaloids, and terpenoids, with absence of saponins. (
- Study isolated 12 compounds from Annona squamosa viz., liriodenine (AS-1), moupinamide (AS-2),  -(-)-kauran-16 alpha-ol-19-oic acid (AS-3), 16 beta, 17-dihydroxy-(-)-kauran-19-oic acid (AS-4), anonaine (AS-5), 16 alpha, 17-dihydroxy-(-)-kauran-19-oic acid (AS-6), (-)-isokaur-15(16)-en-17,19-dioic acid (AS-7), squamosamide (AS-8), 16 alpha-methoxy-(-)-kauran-19-oic acid (AS-9), sachanoic acid (AS-10), (-)-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid (AS-11), daucosterol (AS-12). (
- Study of leaves for essential oil composition yielded 43 components, representing 88.6% of the total oil composition. Essential was composed to sesquiterpenoids i.e., sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (63.4%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (21.8%). Major oil constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (15.9%), y-cadinene (11.2%), epi-α-cadinol (9.4%), (Z)-caryophyllene (7.3%), γ-muurolene (5.4%), α-humulene (5.2%), viridiflorene (5.0%), α-cadinol (3.9%), aromadendrene (2.9%), δ-cadinene (2.9%), α-cadinene (2.9%), (2Z,6Z)-farnesal (2.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.1%). (59)
- Leaves yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, fixed oils, tannins, and phenolics. (see study below) (63)
- GC-MS analysis of essential oil of pericarps yielded a total of 59 compounds The major compound in the oil was (-)-spathulenol (32.51%). (see study below) (65)
- Total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanol extracts of leaves and bark were 217.82 and 160.48 mg/g GAE and 66.92 and 76.50 mg/g QE, respectively. (
- Percentage composition of nutritional parameters in A. squamosa fruit (nutritional value/100g fruit) yielded: moisture 59.38, total ash 4.58, crude fat 0.22, protein 3.78, crude fiber 10.09, and carbohydrate 21.95. (
- Study of EtOH extract of seeds isolated three new bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins (1-3) along with four known annonaceious acetogenins, uvarigrandin A (4), bullatacin (5), squamostatin-A (6) and squamostatin-D (7). (see study below) (
- Nutritional value of raw sugar-apple per 100 g (3.5 oz): Energy 393 kJ (94 kcal); Carbohydrates 23.64 g, dietary fiber 4.4 g; Fat 0.29 g; Protein 2,06 g; Vitamins: thiamine (B1) 0.11 mg, riboflavin (B2) 0.113 mg, niacin (B3) 0.883 mg, pantothenic acid (B5) 0.226 mg, pyridoxine (B6) 0.2 mg, folate (B9) 14 µg, vitamin C 36.3 mg; Minerals: calcium 24 mg, iron 0.6 mg, magnesium 21 mg, manganese 0.42 mg, phosphorus 32 mg, potassium 247 mg, sodium 9 mg. zinc 0.1 mg. (USDA National Nutrient Database) (89)
- Phytochemical screening of petroleum seed extract yielded steroids, saponin glycoside, and tannin, with absence of alkaloid and cardiac glycoside.. Ethanol extract of seed yielded alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, saponin glycoside, and steroid, wit absence of tannin. (94)

- The leaves, fruit and seeds are vermicidal and insecticidal.
- The unripe fruit is astringent, used for diarrhea and dysentery and dyspepsia.
- The bark is astringent and tonic.
- Roots make a drastic purgative.
- Leaves are emmenagogue, febrifuge, tonic
- Insecticide, antiovulatory, abortifacient.

- Studies have showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antilipidemic, anti-ulcer, molluscicidal, genotoxic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Leaves, fruit, bark, seeds.

- Eaten raw or makes a delicious ice cream.
- The fermented fruit used to make cider.
- Salted bruised leaves used to hasten suppuration.
- Bark decoction is used as tonic and to stop diarrhea.
- Root has purgative action.
- Leaf decoction used for rheumatic baths to alleviate pain.

- For fainting and hysteria, crush fresh leaves and place over nose.
- For infected insect bites, pound and extract the juice from one unripe fruit and apply the juice directly to the affected areas, 3 times daily.
- For lice infestation of the head, atis has a herbal treatment regimen: (1) Shampoo hair with gugo bark or any commercial shampoo daily for one week; with "suyod" combing twice daily. (2) For lice eggs (nits), apply hot vinegar for half an hour after shampooing; then "suyod" (fine combing) thoroughly. (3) Bedtime, pound 1/2 cup of atis seeds and mix with 1/4 cup of oil. Apply mixture thoroughly to the scalp and hair. Wrap the hair and head overnight. Shampoo in the morning and follow with fine tooth combing. Do daily for 3-5 days. (4) Paste of the crushed seeds in water, applied to the scalp. The same used as abortifacient applied to the os uteri.
- In Northern India, young leaves used for diabetes.
- In Malaysia, used for skin infections, diarrhea, dysentery and UTIs.
- In India, leaves are crushed and applied to wounds, ulcers and sniffed to relieved hysteria and fainting spells. Leaf decoction used for treatment of dysentery; also, as tonic, febrifuge and cold remedy. (
- Unton: The blackened aborted atis fruit is a preferred by some healers as an ingredient in the making of the "unton", a small pinned-pouch filled with various indigenous materials, a fringe Philippine preventive treatment modality for " bales", a common folklore malady in infants and young children attributed by local Tagalog healers (albularyos) to "bad wind" or "negative energy".
- Seeds:
Seeds are toxic and have been used as insecticide and for treatment of head lice. Seeds are also high in oil, which can be used for making soap.
- Fiber: Fiber from the bark are used to make cords and ropes.

Anti-Inflammatory / Cyclic Peptides:
Study yielded two new cyclic peptides, cyclosquamosin H and I, together with six known cyclic peptides, squamin A, squamin B, cyclosquamosin A, D E and cherimolacyclopeptide B from the seeds. Compound 7 showed an inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Cytotoxicity / Anticancer:
Extracts of A squamosa fruit pericarp was tested for cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma cells and HeLa cells. The chloroform extract was found cytotoxic to the different cell lines tested and suggests the potential for AS fruit pericarp for the development of treatment for cancers.
(1) Study results showed that A. squamosa extract has an antihyperglycemic effect and alleviated liver and renal damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. (2) Study of aqueous leaf extracts were investigated on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The diabetic groups treated with aqueous leaf extract were compared with standard glibenclamide.
Anti-Cancer / Squadiolins:
Mono-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous Acetogenins from Annona squamosa as Cytotoxic Agents and Calcium Ion Chelators: Squadiolins A and B showed potency against human Hep G2 and 3B hepatoma and MCF-y breast cancer cells.
Hepatoprotective / DEN-induced Hepatotoxicity:
Study on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice showed hepatoprotective effect, with improvement in biochemical parameters and confirmation by histopathological studies. (5)
Hepatoprotective: Study showed the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to completely revert the hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampin, but it could limit the effect of the drugs on the liver. The effect compared with standard drug silymarin.
Antibacterial / Fruit:
Study screened the ethanol crude extract of the fruit of A squamosa for antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microorganisms. It showed inhibitory activity against S aureus and S pneumoniae. Results conclude the plant extract may serve as a valuable source of compounds with therapeutic antibiotic potentials. (6)
Antithyroid Activity / Quercetin:
Extract of the seeds of A squamosa was evaluated for it ameliorative effect in the regulation of hyperthyroidism in a mouse model. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of quercetin in the seed extract and the results of the effects of quercetin suggest an involvement of this phytochemical in the mediation of antithyroidal activity of A squamosa seed extract. (7)
Antigenotoxic Activity:
Study showed both aqueous and ethanolic bark extracts of A squamosa showed antigenotoxic effect. The bark extract demonstrated more prominent antigenotoxic effect in DBMA induced genotoxicity in Syrian hamsters. (8)
Antiplasmodial Activity:
Methanolic extract of Annona squamosa leaves showed high antiplasmodial activity. Preliminary studies yielded terpenoids and traces of phenolic principles with no alkaloids, tannins or flavonoids. (9)
Molluscicidal Activity:
Study on molluscicidal activity of leaves, bark and seed of Annona squamosa against snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. Highest activity was observed in the seed extracts. The acetogenins from the seed were more toxic than synthetic pesticides. (10)
Anti-Head Lice Activity:
Study identified the active compounds against head lice from the hexane extract of Annona squamosa seeds. The two major compounds were oleic acid and triglyceride with one oleate ester. The triglyceride with one oleate ester and the crude hexane extract diluted with coconut oil 1:1 were found to kill all tested head lice.(11)
Lipoxygenase Inhibition:
Study yielded from the seeds a novel lipoxygenase inhibitor fatty acid ester, (+) - annonlipoxy, which showed enzyme inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase. The crude ethanolic extract of fruit pulp and seeds of AS also exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. (12)
Hepatoprotective / INH-Rifampicin Induced Enzyme Elevation: Administration of methanolic extracts of A. squamosa significantly prevented isoniazid-rifampicin-induced elevation in liver marker enzymes, together with increased total protein and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. (16)
Gestational Malformation Alleviation:
Study diabetic albino rats concluded the gestational use of A. squamosa tends to alleviate the diabetes induced fetal malformations. (17)
Antimicrobial / Phytochemicals / Seeds / Leaves:
Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids, reducing sugars and oil. The methanol extract showed maximum antibacterial activity against E. coli. Seed extract showed maximum antifungal activity against T. rubrum. (18) Comparative study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of dried leaf extracts against two gram negative bacterial strains (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and two clinical fungal pathogens (C. albicans and A. niger). The leaf extracts showed higher antibacterial activity than anti-fungal activity. Phytochemical screening yielded glycosides, alkaloids, oils, saponins, and flavanoids. (61)
Antimalarial Alkaloids:
Bark extract yielded N-Nitrosoxylopine, roemerolidine and duguevalline. All compounds showed moderate activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain and a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum.
Antioxidant / Leaves:
Extract of leaves showed only moderate scavenging activity of superoxide radicals and antilipid peroxidation potential. (23)
Antibacterial / Stem Bark:
Extract of stem bark was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus coagulans and Escherichia coli. Results showed activity on test bacteria. (25)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves:
Hot water extract of leaves showed a beneficial effect in controlling elevated blood glucose in alloxan and STZ-induced diabetic rabbit and rat models. Preliminary data suggest various mechanisms: pancreatic release of insulin and uptake of glucose through specific receptor. (26)
Cytotoxic Acetogenins / Seeds / Anticancer on Five Tumor Cell Lines:
Study of seeds isolated six new annonaceious acetogenins, annosquacins A-D, annosquatin A and annosquatin B. The compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumor cell lines, and 5 and 6 showed high selectivity toward MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. (27)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa in experimentally induced diabetic rat model. Extract of leaves showed significant reduction in blood glucose after glucose loading, with activity comparable to glibenclamide. (29)
Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study of lyophilized powder of Annona squamosa fruit showed antimicrobial activity against microbial isolates. Significant activity was compared with standard Chloramphenicol. Preliminary screening yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, and glycosides as major constituents. (
Biodiesel Production from Custard Apple Seed Oil: Paper reported on the transesterification of custard apple seed oil. The viscosity of biodiesel produced from the seed oil is nearer to that of the commercially available diesel. (
31) Study presents the production of biodiesel from non-edible, renewable sugar apple seed oil. The biodiesel yielded was 95.15% at optimal process parameters. The fuel properties were found close to that of diesel fuel and meet specifications of ASTM standard. (66)
Pediculicide / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded anthraquinones, a derivative of anthracene which can be used as insecticide. Study showed the leaves extract can be useful as a lice remover, which is cheaper than commercial products. (
Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of seeds showed significant hypoglycemic activity in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. (
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Bark: Study of methanolic extract of bark of Annona squamosa yielded caryophyllene oxide. Caryophyllene oxide showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity along with anti-inflammatory activity. Effect was comparable to standard drug Pentazocin. (
Corrosion Inhibition: Study evaluated an alkaloids extract from Annona squamosa for possible corrosion inhibition for C38 steel in 1 M HCl. Results showed AS extract was a mixed type inhibitor, with an inhibition efficacy that was temperature-dependent. Inhibitive effect was ascribed to the presence of organic compounds. (
Cytotoxic Effect on Human Tumor Cell Lines: Study evaluated organic and aqueous extracts from defatted seeds of Annona squamosa for antitumor activity on different human tumor cell lines. Organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, with nuclear condensation., DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. (
Insecticidal / Seeds: Study evaluated the insecticidal properties of an ether extract of Annona squamosa seeds. As a contact poison, the extract is toxic to Musca nebulo and Tribolium castaneum adults; DDT is 7 to 10 times more toxic, respectively. Extract also acts as a stomach poison against the larvae of Bonbyx mori, although ten times less than DDT. (
37) Study evaluated seed extracts against various strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. A petroleum spirit extract showed highest toxicity (LD50=15.697 µg cm2) in CTC 12 strain. (50)
Toxicity Studies / Roots: The ethanolic extract of roots showed toxicity in acute toxicity studies while the aqueous extract was found to be non-toxic in oral acute and subacute studies in rats. (
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Fruit Peels: Study investigated the effect of various extracts of fruit peels of Annona squamosa on blood glucose and lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and a significant decrease in lipid profile. (
Anti-Ulcer / Twigs: - Phytochemical investigation of twigs isolated twelve known compounds. Three of the compounds, (+)-O-methylarmepavine (2), N- methylcorydaldine (3), isocorydine (6), showed promising anti-secretory activity, comparable to standard drug omeprazole. An ethanol extract and its chloroform and hexane fractions exhibited gastroprotection via inhibition of H+K+-ATPase (proton pump) activity and simultaneously strengthening mucosal defense mechanisms. (
Antifungal / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant activities of various extracts of A. squamosa leaves. All extracts exhibited radical scavenging activity and reducing power property in a concentration dependent manner, with the methanol extract showing higher antioxidant activity. Both organic and aqueous extracts showed dose dependent antifungal activity against all tested strains. (
Neuroprotective / Nootropic / Antiepileptic / Anonaine: Study evaluated the neuroprotective property of Annona squamosa and its active alkaloid content (-) Anonaine as an antiepileptic agent by acting on GABA receptor. Results showed memory boosting and memory regaining effects in radial arm and y-maze model. There were also significant improvement in epileptic rat's behavior and decreased GABA receptors. (
Oral Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous-ethanol (AE), dichloromethane (DM), and petroleum ether (PE) fractions for oral acute toxicity using albino mice. The LD50s were >1000 mg/kbw DM, >1500 mg/kbw AE, and >3000 mg/kbw for PE fraction, suggesting the DM and AE are harmful if swallowed while the PE may be harmful. (
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the effects of A. squamosa on the formation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen during wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. Results showed wound healing efficacy in human dermal fibroblast through promotion of active synthesis of GAGs and collagen maturation during wound healing. (
47) Study of a methanolic leaf extract using albino mice showed very good wound healing property. (49)
Antiulcer / Seeds: Study evaluated extracts of seeds of Annona squamosa in a pyloric ligation rat model. Results showed significant inhibition of gastric lesions. The alcoholic extract extract significantly (p<0.001) decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index.    (
Antidiabetic Effect: Study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of A. squamosa extract on certain biochemical markers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract to diabetic rats for 30 days significantly reduced blood glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. with increased activities of insulin, C-peptide, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and restored all marker enzymes to near control levels. (
53) Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of A. squamosa leaves in experimentally induced diabetic rat model. Result showed antidiabetic activity comparable to Glibenclamide. (56)
Antipsoriatic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the suppressive effect of various Thai plants with anti-psoriatic activity on the expression of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id1 (inhibitor of differentiation or inhibitor of DNA binding), which is a known biomarker for psoriasis. Western blot analysis confirmed the Id1 protein was significantly attenuated after treating FaCaT cells with all tested concentrations of A. squamosa leaves (p<0.05).
• Anti-Ulcerative Colitis Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of A. squamosa leaf aqueous extract against acetic acid induced colitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed extract treatment counteracted acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis by a significant (p<0.05) decrease of colonic tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and significant increases of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). The leaf extract showed potential anti-ulcer activity for alleviating colitis. (57)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of roots of A. squamosa in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. An alcoholic extract at 200 mg and 400 mg/kbw showed better inhibition (p<0.01). (58)
• Insecticidal: Study investigated the insecticidal activity of ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa. The extract produced significant "knockdown" (KD50) in concentration of 1% w/v and 5% w/v with 100% mortality at 39.6 ± 1.4 and 14.5 ± 1.1, respectively. The ethanolic extract showed potent activity against Sitophilus oryzae pest. (60)
• Nanoparticles / Effect on Liver (HepG2) Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study reports on the rapid biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle using A. squamosa leaf extract. The Annona squamosa iron oxide nanoparticle exhibited promising anticancer activity against human liver cancer cell line. (62)
• DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of Annona squamosa leaves for in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Of all the extracts, the ethyl acetate extract showed significant antioxidant action. (63)
• Anti-Lice Component / Seed: In Thailand, a petroleum ether extract cream formulation is reported to kill 93% of head lice within 3 hours. This study focused on the identification of the active compound from a hexane extract of seeds of custard apple. A triglyceride with one oleate ester was the active compound against human head lice. Results suggest it can be used as a marker for quality control and standardization of custard apple seeds, extracts, and anti-head lice preparations. (64)
• Anti-Hepatoma / Essential Oil / Pericarp: Annona squamosa fruit pericarps are discarded as waste. Study evaluated the essential oil extracted from A. squamosa pericarps for anti-hepatoma activities. The APEO demonstrated anti-hepatoma activities against SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line with IC50 lower than 55 µg/mL. Pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest effects were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. (see constituents above) (65)
• Pediculicide / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the pediculicidal activity of Annona squamosa seed oil extract in emulsion. Results showed pediculicidal effect. The 100% concentration produced the highest number of lice killed at one-hour time interval. (67)
• Diethanolamide / Seed Oil: Diethanolamides are nonionic emulsifiers widely used in industries as cosmetics and detergent industries. The diethanolamides prepared from apple seed oil were found to be non-irritating to the skin and can be used in various detergent preparations. (68)
• Larvicidal Effect / Cx. quinquefasciatus: Study evaluated the larvicidal activity of A. squamosa plant over the mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results showed concentration dependent larvicidal activity, with 100% mortality recorded with 10 mg/ml concentration. Results suggest a potential, eco-friendly, biodegradable and economic larvicide in integrated mosquito control program. (69)
• Alkaloids / Anti-Infective / Anticancer Effect: Studies have isolated more than 83 alkaloids from this genus, and an isoquinoline backbone is a major structural alkaloid moiety of the Annona genus. Isolated alkaloids including liriodenine, anonaine, asimilobine showed sensitivity against Staphylococcus epidermis. Other alkaloids such as (+)-xylopine and isocoreximine showed significant anticancer activity against A549 and K-562 cell lines, respectively. Review reports o the rich structural diversity and pharmacological activities of Annona genus. (71)
• Antidiabetic / Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic and acute toxicity of A. squamosa ethanolic extract of leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats and mice. On acute toxicity testing, no toxicity was observed at 800 and 1600 mg/kg doses. At 5000 mg/kbw dose, 100% fatality was observed within 24 hours. Using doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg, leaves extract showed significant anti-diabetic activity. (72)
• Flavonoid / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor / Potential Gout Treatment / Fruit: Study isolated flavonoid compounds from ethanol extracts of sugar apple and tested it for activity as xanthine oxidase inhibitor relative to allopurinol. From 275 grams of fruit, study isolated 6 grams of flavonoid with 95.26% purity with xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of 83% compared to allopurinol with 48% at the same concentration of 100 ppm. Results suggest promising anti-gout treatment for the isolated flavonoid. (73)
• Chemopreventive / DMBA- Induced Papillomagenesis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of A. squamosa leaves extract against DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed dose-dependent protection of microsomal aberrations and micronucleus formations in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. The anticarcinogenic activity was also observed in Melanoma tumor model. Antibacterial and antimutagenic activities were also observed. (74)
• Anthelmintic / Ascaris lumbricoides / Leaf Juice: Randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of atis (Annona squamosa) leaf juice as anthelmintic against Ascaris lumbricoides on 80 children. The ova count constantly decreased until the third day post treatment. However, after the third day three dosages of leaf juice administered in adjunct to Mebendazole showed no increase in anthelmintic activity. (75) Study evaluated the anthelmintic effect of A. squamosa leaf juice against Ascaris lumbricoides on 68 children aged 4-9 years old with initial ova count of 150 and above. In this study, the leaf juice did not exhibited anthelmintic activity against A. lumbricoides ova at one-week post treatment. Researchers suggest isolation of the active compound using different solvents like methanol and ethyl acetate, and that dosage be administered in varying amounts for several days. (86)
• Anti-Scabies / A. squamosa with Permetrin: Study showed A. squamosa leaf essential oil based ointment in combination with permetrin 5% could increase scabies treatment effectiveness. (76)
• Cytotoxicity / Bacterial Membrane Destabilization / Leaves: Study investigated methanol extract of leaves for cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains. Results showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis with MICs of 78. 78, and 39 µg/mL, respectively. The leaf extract also showed significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significant reduction of cell numbers and viability. In cytotoxicity study against tumor cell lines, results showed more activity against Jurkat and HL-60. Analysis identified alkaloids anonaine, asimilobine, corypalmine, liriodenine, nornuciferine and reticuline. Results suggest the antimicrobial mechanism may be related to bacterial membrane destabilization. (77)
• Nutritious Flour from Residue Custard Apple: Study reports on the production of custard apple bagasse flour and incorporation into cookie and evaluated the acceptability of formulations in various proportions (5-50%). Results showed the processed flour presents values and specifications suitable for food formulations. Mineral composition (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg) responds to more than 20% of daily intake of nutrients. Cookies from the CAB flour showed high acceptability and suggested potential for nutritional incorporation in food formulations. (78)
• Acaricidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the acaricidal activities of crude ethanolic extract of leaves against flat larvae and engorged female adults Hyalomma anatolicum using larval (LIT) and adult (AIT) immersion tests. Results showed the ethanolic extract of A. squamosa to be a promising botanical and growth inhibitor against H. anatolicum. (79)
• New Benzyl Isoquinoline Alkaloid / Anticancer: Study isolated two benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. 6, 7-dimethoxy-1-(α-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (isolated for the first time from natural sources) and coclaurine. The isolated alkaloids showed excellent activity against colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). (80)
• Comparative Antifungal Activity / Seed: Comparative study evaluated the antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of A. squamosa against fungi Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus niger, Culvularia lunata and Cladosporium cladosporioides. The ethanolic seed extract exhibited maximum inhibition against all the tested fungi. (81)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective of a leaf extract against paracetamol induced liver toxicity in rats. Results showed hepatoprotective activity as evidenced by reversal of biochemical parameters along with histopathological confirmation. (82)
• Wound Healing / Antioxidants / STZ-Induced Diabetes: Study evaluated the efficacy of Annona squamosa on levels of antioxidants during wound repair in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed A. squamosa promotes levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in wound tissues for better wound repair in normal and diabetic rats. Enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) were significantly increased (p<0.05). (83)
• Prevention of Foodborne Bacterial Disease / Leaves: Study evaluated A. squamosa leaves extract for potential use in modern food safety or medicine. MICs were 62.5 to 125 µg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and 250 µg/mL against Campylobacter jejuni. LC-MS analysis yielded reticuline and oxophoebine. Assessment of stability by MIC showed activity was heat-labile. Results suggest A. squamosa has broad spectrum but heat-labile activity against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and bactericidal activity against B. cereus and C. jejuni. While the bactericidal activity is not sufficiently rapid for use as food sanitizer, there is potential for the extract to be developed as an additive for refrigerated foods or as modern treatment for foodborne illness. (84)
• Cytotoxic Bistetrahydrofuran Acetogenins / Seeds: Study of EtOH extract of seeds isolated three new bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins (1-3) along with four known annonaceious acetogenins, uvarigrandin A (4), bullatacin (5), squamostatin-A (6) and squamostatin-D (7). All the compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumor cell lines. (85)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Polyherbal Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of polyherbal formulation of leaves of Annona squamosa and Azadiracta indica. The polyherbal formulation showed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema model, reducing inflammation by 53.0% and 47.0% on oral administration at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively. (87)
• Anticancer / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of various solvent extracts of Annona squamosa for antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Leaves extracts yielded several bioactive compounds, the majority of which were sesquiterpenes (C15H24). The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity using free radical, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide scavenging assays and strong antibacterial potency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Extracts also showed remarkable antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antimigration, and apoptotic activities in colon cancer cells. Results suggest a potential alternative source of antibiotics and development of novel drugs for colon cancer therapy. (90)
• Anticancer / Seeds: Study evaluated petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts  of A. squamosa for ability to inhibit the growth of HEK 293, MCF7, and HepG2 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis showed all the extracts contained anti-cancer substances like anethole, cyclopentane, 1,1,3-trimethyl, and phosphonate oxide tributyl. The ethanol seed extract inhibited the growth of MCF7 cells. Compared to other extracts, the ethanol extract was more effective against HepG2 cancer cells. Results suggest the substances have potential use to both prevent and treat cancer diseases. (91)
• Wound Healing / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated solvent extracts of A. squamosa leaves for antibacterial activity using cup plate method. Petroleum ether, alcoholic, and chloroform water extract showed maximum zones of inhibition. The petroleum ether extract at dose of 300 mg/kbw showed significant results in measures of percentage wound contraction in excision wound model, wound breaking strength in incision wound model, and granuloma breaking strength in granuloma studies. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, and tannins in various extracts.    (92)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic crude leaf extracts of Annona squamosa using adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Albendazole was used as standard. Results showed dose dependent activity. The ethyl acetate extract at 200 mg/ml showed very significant action. (95)
• Anticancer / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects of A. squamosa leaves and seeds. Chemopreventive activity was evaluated by a two-stage protocol using a single topical application of a carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by promoter croton oil. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity were assessed by DPPH and disc diffusion methods respectively. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number or papillomas in mice treated with A. squamosa extracts. (96)
• Alternative Culture Medium for E. coli / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of A. squamosa leaves as a cost-effective alternative culture medium for Escherichia coli growth.  E. coli showed growth in both 72 melted nutrient agar plates incorporated with 100% A. squamosa leaf extract and 72 plates with MacConkey agar (positive control). The A. squamosa leaf extract was effective in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and promoting the growth of E. coli. Results suggest potential for A. squamosa leaf extract as an alternative culture medium for E. coli growth. (97)

- Wild-crafted.
- Small or large scale cultivation for fruit commerce.

Updated January 2024 / March 2020 / December 2017 / May 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Annona squamosa flower / J M Garg / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antitumor constituents from Annona squamosa fruit pericarp / Beena Joy and P. Remani / Medicinal Chemistry Research • Volume 17, Numbers 2-7 / June, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s00044-007-9070-3
Beneficial effects of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Kaleem M, Medha P, Ahmed Q U, Asif M, Bano B
Mono-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous Acetogenins from Annona squamosa as Cytotoxic Agents and Calcium Ion Chelators /Chih-Chuang Liaw, Yu-Liang Yang, Mei Chen, Fang-Rong Chang, Shu-Li Chen, Shih-Hsiung Wu and Yang-Chang Wu

Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona squamosa in streptozotocin–nicotinamide type 2 diabetic rats / Annie Shirwaikar et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 91, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 171-175 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.017
The hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic extract of Annona squamosa leaves on experimentally induced liver disease in swiss albino mice / D Sobiya Raj et al / International Journ of Integrative Biology • Vol 5, No 3, 182, 2009
Antibacterial Activity of Annona squamosa Linnaeus (Annonaceae) / Au T S et al / Investing in Innovation 2003
Annona squamosa seed extract in the regulation of hyperthyroidism and lipid-peroxidation in mice: possible involvement of quercetin / Panda, S.; Kar, A. / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology | December 01, 2007 | Panda, S.; Kar, A.
Protective role of Annona squamosa linn bark extracts in DMBA induced genotoxicity / K Suresh et al / Kathmandu University Medical Journal, Vol 6, No 3 (2008)
Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell. / Ahmed El Tahir et al / Journ of Ethnopharmacology • Vol 64, Issue 3, pp 227-233, March 1999 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00129-9
Molluscicidal Activity of the Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Alone and in Combination with Other Plant Derived Molluscicides / Amrita Singh et al / Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, May 2001; Volume 8, Issue 1: pp 23 - 29 / DOI: 10.1300/J044v08n01_04
Lipoxygenase inhibition by novel fatty acid ester from Annona squamosa seeds / Nighat Sultana / Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 23, Issue 6 December 2008 , pages 877 - 881 / DOI: 10.1080/14756360701747334
New Cyclic Peptides from the Seeds of Annona squamosa L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Activities / Yu-Liang Yang et al / J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 386–392
Hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa Linn. on experimental animal model / Mohamed Saleem TS, Christina AJM et al / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, Vol. 1(3), pp. 1-7, Sep/Oct 2008
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN IN ISONIAZID-RIFAMPICIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS / Mohamed Saleem Thattakudian Sheik Uduman, Ramkanth Sundarapandian et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.24, No.2, April 2011, pp.129-134
EFFECTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LEAVE EXTRACT ON GROSS CONGENITAL ANOMALIES IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS / Mah Jabeen Munira, Mohammad Tahir et al / Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journ, June 2010, No 2.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of Annona squamosa / L V.R.Kulkarni, C.Chandrashekar / JPBR Vol. 1, Issue 1, May 2011
Antimalarial alkaloids isolated from Annona squamosa / Tylor Johns, Arnold Windust et al / Phytopharmacology 2011, 1(3) 49-53
Biological Studies on Fruit Pulp and Seeds of Annona squamosa / K F Ahmad and N Sultana / Jour Chem Soc Pak, Vol 25, No 4, 2003
Annona squamosa L. / Wikipedia
Sorting Annona names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
In vitro antioxidant studies of Annona squamosa Linn. leaves. / Shirwaikar A, Rajendran K, Kumar CD. / Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Aug;42(8):803-7.
Inhibition Effect of Alkaloids Extract from Annona Squamosa Plant on the Corrosion of C38 Steel in Normal Hydrochloric Acid Medium / M. Lebrini, F. Robert2, C. Roos / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 5 (2010) 1698 - 1712
Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Annona squamosa (L.) in experimental animal / Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Achyut Narayan Kesari, Geeta Watal, P. S. Murthy, Ramesh Chandra, Kapil Maithal and Vibha Tandon* /
Six cytoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa seeds
/ CHEN Yong, CHEN Jianwei, WANG Yu, XU Shasha, LI Xiang /
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Fruit Peel Extracts of Annona Squamosa Linn. / Ashok Sharma, Ashish K. Sharma, Tara Chand, Manoj Khardiya, Suresh Agarwal / Current Pharma Research 4 (1), 2013, 1038–1043
Antidiabetic Activity Of Annona squamosa L. In Experimental Induced Diabetic Rats
/ Ranveer S. Tomar* and Siddharaj S. Sisodia / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(6):1492-1495
Biodiesel Production From Custard Apple Seed (Annona Squamosa) Oil And Its Characteristics Study / Yathish. K.V, Omkaresh. B. R, Dr. R. Suresh / International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, May 2013; Vol.2 - Issue 5
Atis (annona squamosa) leaves extract as Pediculicide
/ Jan Christian G. Montoya / DOST, Region III, Central Luzon
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Annona Squamosa Linn Seed in Alloxan – Induced Diabetic Rat
s / Ravinder Sangala*, DevenderRao Kodati , Shashidher Burra, Jayaprakashreddy Gopu, Ajay Dubasi / International Journal of Preclinical Research, Vol 2, Issue 2, Jul –Dec 2011, pp 100-106.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Annona squamosa Linn bark / Tej Pratap Singh*, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Paras Malik / Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2014; 3 (1): 60-64
Inhibition Effect of Alkaloids Extract from Annona Squamosa Plant on the Corrosion of C38 Steel in Normal Hydrochloric Acid Medium / M. Lebrini, F. Robert*, C. Roos / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 5 (2010) 1698 - 1712
Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: Role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione / B V V PARDHASARADHI, MADHURIMA REDDY, A MUBARAK ALI, A LEELA KUMARI and ASHOK KHAR* / J. Biosci. 30(2), March 2005, 237–244
Studies on Indigenous Insecticidal Plants: Part II-Annona squamosa / T. D. MUKERJEA & RAM GOVIND / J. set. INDUSTR. RES., VOL 17C, JANUARY 1958
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA: A REVIEW / S.Gajalakshmi, R.Divya, V.Divya Deepika, S.Mythili, A.Sathiavelu* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, September – October 2011; Article-004
Acute And Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluatiotoxicity n of Aqueous and Ethanol Fractions of Annona Squamosa Root A Traditional Medicinal Herb / C. Ronald Darwin, C. Vijaya, K. Sujith, Sadhavi, K. Sushma / Pharmacologyonline, 2011; 2: pp 36-43
Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Annona Squamosa Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / *Ashok Sharma, Tara Chand, Manoj Khardiya, Kailash Chand Yadav, Rajesh Mangal, Ashish K. Sharma / International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research 2013; 5(1):15-21
Anti-ulcer constituents of Annona squamosa Twigs
/ Dinesh K. Yadava,1, Neetu Singhb,1, Rolee Sharmac, Mahendra Sahaid, Gautam Palitb, Rakesh Mauryaa* / Fitoterapia (2011), 82(4), 666-675
Oxoaporphine alkaloids in Guatteria diospyroides Baill. and Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) / Pérez-Amador MC, A González-Esquinca, MC Morales, F Toriz / Phyton (B. Aires) v.73 Vicente López ene./dic. 2004
Annona squamosa / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Antifungal and antioxidant activities of organic and aqueous extracts of Annona squamosa Linn. leaves / Narasimharaju Kalidindi, Nagarasanakote Venkataswamy Thimmaiah, Nagepally Venkataramareddy Jagadeesh, Ramaiah Nandeep, Sathyanarayana Swetha, Bharat Kalidindi / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Dec 2015, Vol 23, Issue 4: pp 795-802 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2015.04.012
Neuroprotective effect of Annona squamosa & (-) Anonaine in decreased GABA receptor of epileptic rats / Mayur Porwal, Arvind Kumar / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, May 2015; Vol. 5 (Suppl 1): pp 018-023 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.54.S4
ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. LEAVES EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS IN ALBINO MICE / Pax J. Masimba*, Ester Innocent and Baraka Samwel / J Adv Sci Res, 2016, 7(1): 38-42
Efficacy of Annona squamosa L in the Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans and Collagen during Wound Repair in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Thangavel Ponrasu and Lonchin Suguna / BioMed Research International, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/124352
Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam / T.D. Thanga, D.N. Daib*, T.M. Hoib & I.A. Ogunwandec* / Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters, Volume 27, Issu e 13, 2013, pp 1232-1236 /
Wound Healing Property of Anona squamosa Leaf Extract / Sreekumar KS, Gokul V, Rathish RL and Usha Narayana Pillai / EC Veterinary Science, 2014; 1(1): pp 2-4.
ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA SEED EXTRACT IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS / Pankaj Kushwah*, Nandu Kayande / PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(6); 174-176
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA SEED EXTRACTS / Biba V. S; Lakshmi S ; Dhanya G.S and Remani P* / Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2013; 3(4):29-31
Beneficial effects of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
/ Kaleem M, Medha P, Ahmed Q U, Asif M, Bano B / SingaporeMedJ2008;49(10):800
Studies on the chemical constituents of Annona squamosa / X J Yang, L Z Xu, N J Sun, S C Wang, Zheng / Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 1992-01-01
Suppressive effect of ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa L. leaves on the expression of Id1 biomarker: Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant activity study / Natapong Kawjit , Thitiporn Charueksereesakul, Visa Thongrakard , Siriporn Sangsuthum and Tewin Tencomnao * / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(1):499-506
Antidiabetic Activity Of Annona squamosa L. In Experimental Induced Diabetic Rats / Ranveer S. Tomar* and Siddharaj S. Sisodia / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(6):1492-1495
The anti-ulcerative colitis effects of Annona squamosa Linn. leaf aqueous extract in experimental animal model / Rasha YM Ibrahim, Amal I Hassan, and Eithar K Al-Adham / Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(11): pp 21861–21870.
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Annona Squamosa Linn. / K. Hemlatha and D. Satyanarayana / Biomed. Pharmacol. J., 2009; 2(1)
Characterization of the Leaf Essential Oil Composition of Annona squamosa L. from Foothills of North India  / Ram Swaroop Verma, Neeta Joshi, Rajendra Chandra Padalia, Ved Ram Singh, Prakash Goswami and Amit Chauhan / Med Aromat Plants (Los Angel) 5:270. / doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000270
Insecticidal Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Annona squamosa
/ J.Ashok kumar*, T.Rekha, S. Shyamala Devi, M. Kannan, A. Jaswanth, V. Gopal / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2010, 2(5): 177-180
Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of Annona squamosa (L) leaf extracts / Neethu Simon K, Santhoshkumar R and Neethu S Kumar / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2016; 5(4): pp 128-131
Fabrication of nanoparticles using Annona squamosa leaf and assessment of its effect on liver (Hep G2) cancer cell line / V. Vanitha et al / 2017 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 191 012010
DPPH Free radical scavenging activity of Annona squamosa Linn leaf extracts / Grandhi Surendra** , Anjana Male, Ravi Naik. Ratala / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Sept-Oct 2016; Vol 11, Issue 5, Ver IV; pp 04-06
Active anti-head lice component from custard apple seed / W Gritsanapan, J Intaranongpai, W Chavasiri / Planta Med 2006; 72 - S_006 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-949739
Studies on chemical constituents and anti-hepatoma effects of essential oil from Annona squamosa L. pericarps / Ya-Yun Chen, Chen-Xiao Peng, Yan Hu, Chen Bu, Shu-Chen Guo, Xiang Li, Yong Chen & Jian-Wei Chen / Natural Product Researc, Vol 31, 2017, Issue 11 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1233411
Biodiesel Production Process Optimization from Sugar Apple Seed Oil (Annona squamosa) and Its Characterization / Siddalingappa R. Hotti and Omprakash D. Hebbal / Journal of Renewable Energy
Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/148587
Efficacy of atis (Annona squamosa)as a pediculicide: An in vitro study / Yagumyum PQ, Tarun MJG, Sonido JJG, Sanos AP, Pua LGP, Provido RC, Figueras KBB / 2004 / Philippine Herbs and Supplements Research Database
Study of Diethanolamide from Custard AppleSeed Oil (Annona Squamosa L) / Lokhande A. R.*, Patil V. S., Wani K. S. / International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol 2, Issue 9, September 2013
Larvicidal efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) over the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Culicidae) / Amitabh Shad and J Andrew / Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2017; 5(1): pp 373-377
The phytochemical and nutritional analysis and biological activity of Annona squamosa Linn. / Anant Babu Marahatta, Aashish Aryal and Ram Chandra Basnyat / International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2019; 7(4): pp 19-28
Anti-Infective and Anti-Cancer Properties of the Annona Species: Their Ethnomedicinal Uses, Alkaloid Diversity, and Pharmacological Activities / Ari Satia Nugraha, Yuvita Dian Damayanti, Phurpa Wangchuk and Paul A. Keller / Molecules, 2019 / doi:10.3390/molecules24234419
ANTI-DIABETIC AND ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. ETHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT. / Farah - Saeed, Mansoor Ahmad / International Journal of Phytomedicine, 2017; 9(4) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5138/09750185.2182
Bioactivity of Flavonoid in Ethanol Extract of  Annona squamosa L. Fruit as Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor /  and 
Chemopreventive potential of Annona squamosa leaves extract in Swiss albino mice / Agrawal, R. C, Singh, Snehal and Maheshwari, S. K. / IJMBR: International Journal of Modern Biological Research, 2018; 6: pp 1-8
Anti-helminthic property of Atis ( Annona squamosa Linn.) leaf juice in children with Ascaris lumbricoidesinfection in Barangay Punta Princesa, Labangon, Cebu City. / Aryl Sose Mae Bate, Elaiza Mae Bihag, Aldrin Gabunada et al / Thesis-Dissertation, Nov 2015 / Cebu Doctors University
Effect of Annona squamosa extract combined with permetrin 5% on scabies lesion / Renni Yuniati, Prasetyowati Subchan, Irnawanti Irnawanti, Falah Faniyah / Frontiers / International Conference on Drug Discovery and Translational Medicine 2018 /  doi: 10.3389/conf.fphar.2018.63.00105
Cytotoxicity and bacterial membrane destabilization induced by Annona squamosa L. extracts / NÍCOLAS C.C. PINTO, JUCÉLIA B. SILVA, LAURA M. MENEGATI, MARIA CLARA M.R. GUEDES, LUCAS B. MARQUES, THIAGO P. DA SILVA, ROSSANA C.N. DE MELO, ELAINE M. DE SOUZA-FAGUNDES, MARCOS J. SALVADOR, ELITA SCIO and RODRIGO L. FABRI / Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences), 2017; 89(3 Suppl.): pp 2053-2073
Production of Nutritious Flour from Residue Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) for the Development of New Products / Felipe Thiago Caldeira Souza et al / Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2018, Article ID 5281035 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5281035
Acaricidal Activity of Crude Extract of Annona Squamosa against Hyalomma Anatolicum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)  / Ilham MO, Razzig AAA, Elhaj MT and Mohammed YO / Alternative & Integrative Medicine, 3:173. / doi:10.4172/2327-5162.1000173
Anti-cancer activity of new benzyl isoquinoline alkaloid from Saudi plant Annona squamosa / Adel M. Al-Qhazzawi / BMC Chemistry, 2019; 13, Art No: 13 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-019-0536-4
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHENOLIC LEAF AND SEED EXTRACTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. / Sanjay Prasad Gupta, Manager Singh, Neeta Nigam, Iliyas Ahmed, D N Sharma / International Journal of Advanced Research / DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/8467 
Role of Annona squamosa on antioxidants during wound healing in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats / Thangavel Ponrasu, Muthaiya Kannappan Subamekala, Moorthy Ganeshkuma, Lonchin Suguna / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(4)
Potential Applications for Annona squamosa Leaf Extract in the Treatment and Prevention of Foodborne Bacterial Disease / Achara Dholvitayakhun, Nathanon Trachoo, Uthai Sakee et al / Natural Products Communications, 2013 / https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1300800327
Cytotoxic Bistetrahydrofuran Annonaceous Acetogenins from the Seeds of Annona squamosa/ Yong Chen, Jian-Wei Chen, Xiang Li / J. Nat. Prod. 2011, 74(11): pp 2477-2481 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np200708q
The anti-helminthic effect of Annona squamosa (atis) leaf juice on Ascaris lumbricoidec Ova among selected children of Sitio Lower Malibu, Barangay Subangdaku, Mandaue City. / Pardeep Singh V Basi, Mary Antoniette G Biro, Joanne Carol K Chan, Merza D Diaz et al / Thesis:Dissertation, April 2015 / Cebu Doctors University
Custard apple / Wikipedia
Annona squamosa / Wikipedia
GC-MS profiling and assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer properties of extracts of Annona squamosa L. leaves / Rawan Al-Nemari, Abdul Rahman Al-Senaidy, Abir Ben Bacha et al /  BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2020; 20: Art 296 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-03029-9
The inhibitory and anticancer properties of Annona squamosa L. seed extracts /  N K Alaqeel, W H Almalki, N Binothman, M Alhjadani, D M Alammari, M Tarique et al / Brazilian Journal of Biology, 2022; Volume 82: e268250 / DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.268250
Antibacterial and Wound Healing Activity of the Leaves of Annona squamosa Linn. (Annonaceae) / Chitra Shenol, M B Patil, Ravi Kumar / Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2009; 1(1) / eISSN: 0975-4385 / pISSN: 0975-2331 / DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385
Annona squamosa / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Analytical and Phytochemical Exploration of the Seeds of Annona Squamosa
/ Saptarshi Das, Anshuman Bhattacharya, Biswanath Ghosh, Himangshu Shekar Maji / Journal of Analytical & Pharmaceutical Research,  2016; 3(4): 00065 / DOI: 10.15406/japlr.2016.03.00065
Anthelmintic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. leaf extracts / T Satyanarayana, B Gangarao, G Surendra, K Rajesh, M Raghupathi / International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical, and Biological Sciences, 2013; 3(2): pp 458-460 / ISSN: 2249-9504
Chemopreventive effect of Annona squamosa extract / Singh, Snehal, RC Agrawal / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2021; 11(2) / ISSN: 2250-3153
Atis (Annona squamosa) leaf extract as an alternative selective media for Escherichia coli growth. / Janrey M Cebrecus, Desiree Luthrez C. Gomez, A M R Larrazabal, Mary Lois B Manuel, Gia P F Molina, Charmaine Rose Ngujo, John P Oracion, Raquel Reyes, Wendell J P Romanos, Deanna Niña Yuson, Aldrin Jeff B Autencio /  Thesis/Dissertations 2017 / HERDIN: College of Allied Medical Sciences, Cebu Doctors' University

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you know of a plant to suggest for inclusion, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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