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Family Convolvulacea
Aurorang-gubat
Ipomoea cheirophylla O'Donnell.
WILD YAM ROOT

Qian jin teng

Scientific names Common names
Ipomoea cheirophylla O'Donnell. Aurorang gubat (Tag.)
Ipomoea digitata Linn. Bulakan (Tag.)
  Kamkamote (Ilk.)
  Malakamote (Tag.)
  Finger-leaf morning glory (Engl.)
  Palm-leaf morning glory (Engl.)
  Wild yam root (Engl.)
Ipomoea digitata L. is a synonym of Ipomoea cheirophylla O'Donell The Plant List
Ipomoea cheirophylla O'Donell is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Balaikand, Bhuikumra, Bhumikumra.
CHINESE: Qian jin tent.
MARATHI: Bhuikohala, Bhumikohola, Vidarikand.
SANSKRIT: Vrikshavalli, Vrishyavardhini, VIidari.

Botany
Aurorang-gubat is a large, smooth, perennial climber rising from stout, somewhat fleshy roots. Leaves are on long petioles, rounded in outline, and heart-shaped at the base. Lobes are 5 to 7, usually lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, often reaching nearly to the base. Flowers are 3 to 5, on a stalk in the leaf axil. Sepals are ovate, concave, and 1 centimeter long. Corolla is pink, purple, broadly bell-shaped, smooth and about 6 centimeters long. Capsules are ovoid, 1 centimeter long or less.

Note: The species is similar to the common "aurora" (Ipomoea cairica), differing only in its much larger leaves and flowers.

Distribution
- In La Union, Bulacan, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Culion, Coron, and Mindanao, In thickets along the seashore and along streams at low altitudes.
- Sometimes cultivated for its flowers and its shade.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
- The fresh tuber, collected when the vine has died, contains resins with properties similar to Jalap resins as regards color reactions, etc.
- Resin yields a sugar and starch.

- Phytochemical study showed the presence of fixed oil, carbohydrate, tannins, phenolic compound, alkaloids, saponins, sterols, flavonoids in an acetone alcohol and aqueous extract.
- Study identified beta-sitosterol and taraxerol.
- Study of leaves and stems yielded six organic acids, isobutyric, (5)-2-methylbutyric, tiglic, n-decanoic, n-dodedcanoic, and cinnamic acids, and two glycosidic acids, quamoclinic acid A and operculinic acid. A new resin glycoside, digitatajalapin 1 was isolated from the jalapin fraction, with three known resin glycosides.
- Study of tuberous roots isolated β-sitosterol,
t-cinnamic acid [undecyl(E)-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate], an unknown coumarin and a lignan type resin glycoside. ( see study below) (15)
- Ethanolic extract of roots yielded two compounds: Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin) and β-sitosterol glucoside. (16)

Properties
- Considered purgative, aphrodisiac. galactagogue, mucilaginous, tonic.
- In traditional Indian medicine, considered nervine, diuretic, tonic, spermatogenic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, lactagogue.

Parts used
Roots.

Uses

Edibility
- In India, tubers are eaten raw.
Folkloric
- In India, the bitter, tuberous roots are used as tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac and demulcent.
- In the Konkan region of India, root is peeled, cut in small pieces, and dried for use as aphrodisiac.
- Used for uterine pain, sexual debility, infertility, lactation, infertility, hepatosplenomegaly, gastric ulcer, ulcerative colitis.
- As galactagogue, powdered root-stock, given with wine.
- Roots used for snake bites.
- Powdered roots used as a cholagogue for splenic and liver enlargement.
- Powdered tuber with honey used for high blood pressure and heart disease.
- Powdered sun-dried root, boiled in sugar and butter, promotes weight gain and moderates menstrual discharge.
- In West Bengal, India, raw tubers are eaten as astringent and to treat blood dysentery. Juice of tubers given with one glass of cow milk for seven days to increase lactation. Sun-dried root powder, boiled in sugar and butter is used to promote weight gain and to moderate menstrual discharge. Tubers are used for general debility, spermatorrhea, fever, bronchitis, scorpion stings and menorrhagia.
- Confection made of powdered root, equal parts of wheat flour and barley, milk, ghee, sugar and honey is used as a restorative for emaciated and debilitated children.
- As an aphrodisiac, powdered root is macerated in its own juice and administered with honey and clarified butter.
Others
- Herbal combo to prevent premature ejaculation: One of 8 ingredients in a herbal preparation for premature ejaculation, low sperm count, erectile dysfunction. (8)

Studies
Paniculatin / Glycoside / Various pharmacologic Effect:
Study isolated a glycoside, paniculatin, from the tubers of Ipomoea digitata. Pharmacologic effects included elevation of blood pressure, stimulant effect on the myocardium and respiration, a vasoconstrictor and bronchoconstrictor effect, and a spasmogenic effect on the gut, and an oxytoxic activity. (2)
Phytochemicals / Secondary Products / Antibacterial: Study isolated B-sitosterol, t-cinnamic acid, an unknown coumarin, a lignan-type resin glycoside from the tuberous roots of Ipomoea digitata. One of the compounds showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E coli. (3)
Tablet Formulation / Anti-Diabetic: Study of antidiabetic activity of tablet formulation of root extract showed statistically significant anti-diabetic activity and suggests promise for future research. (4)
Antihypertensive / Cardiovascular Benefits / Hypolipidemic: Tuber powder was evaluated for antihypertensive potential and lipid effect in a single blinded, placebo controlled study. Results showed decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, increased fibrinolytic activity and total antioxidant status with a significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL and atherogenic index. (7)
Resin Glycosides: A jalapin fraction yielded a new resin glycoside, digitatajalapin 1, with three known resin glycosides. (9)
Antioxidant / Roots: Study of a methanol extract of root of I. digitata showed good antioxidant activity using DPPH, superoxide anion scavenging and iron chelating assays. (12)
Antidiabetic / Tubers: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of Ipomoea digitata tuber extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed considerable hypoglycemic activity, which may be due to the presence of active principles flavonoids and ß-sitosterol. (14)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study of tuberous roots yielded β-sitosterol,t-cinnamic acid [undecyl(E) -3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate], an unknown coumarin and a lignan type resin glycoside from the tuberous roots of Ipomoea digitata. One of the compounds exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. (15)
Pharmaceutical Gum / Seeds: Study showed Ipomoea digitata seed gum and its graft copolymer with polyacrylamide has the potential to be used as a pharmaceutical gum. The seed gum has structure and properties similar to guargum and locust bean gums -- gums of pharmaceutical importance. (17)
Enhancement of Spermatogenesis / Roots: Study evaluated the potential of ID on reproductive status of neem oil-induced infertility in male albino rats. Results showed significant increase in sperm density and sperm motility (p,0.01) along with increase in testis and epididymis weight. The presence of ß-sitosterol in the root of ID possibly enhances the process of spermatogenesis as evidenced by histo- morphological studies. Results suggest a potential candidate for the management of male infertility. (18)
Cardiovascular benefits Hypolipidemic / Antihypertensive / Antioxidant / Tubers: Single blinded, placebo controlled study evaluated Ipomoea digitata tuber powder for antiphypertensive potential and effects on lipid profile, fibrinolytic activity and total antixoxidant status in patients with stage 1 hypertension. Results showed significant (p,0.001) decrease in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, increased fibrinolytic activity and antioxidant status with a significant reduction (p,0.05) in total and LDL cholesterol and atherogenic index. (20)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update May 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / File:Ipomoea digitata / Modified / © Sri Dhahalakshmi Industries / click on image to go to source page

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ipomoea digitata / Vidari / Wild Yam Root
(2)
Pharmacological effects of paniculatin—a glycoside isolated from ipomoea digitata linn / M A Matin, J P Tewari et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, / Volume 58, Issue 6, pages 757–759, June 1969 / DOI: 10.1002/jps.2600580625 / Publ OnLine 7 Sept 2006
(3)
Isolation of secondary products from Ipomoea digitata a medicinally important plant / D Madhavi, B Rama Rao et al / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy
(4)
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL TABLETS CONTAINING IPOMOEA DIGITATA LINN. EXTRACT / Margret Chandira, B Jayak / Volume 3, Issue 1, July – August 2010; Article 022
(6)
Ipomoea mauritiana / Catalogue of Life, China 2010
(7)
Therapeutic validation of Ipomoea digitata tuber (Ksheervidari) for its effect on cardio-vascular risk parameters / Jain Vartika, Verma SK & Katewa SS / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.10 (4), October 2011, pp. 617-623
(8)
Herbal combo boosts sperm count, prevents premature ejaculation / Guardian. Lagos. Nigeria. 13.10.13
(9)
Resin glycosides from the leaves and stems of Ipomoea digitata / Masateru Ono, Hitoshi Fukuda, Hiroko Murata and Kazumoto Miyahara / JOURNAL OF NATURAL MEDICINES, Volume 63, Number 2, 176-180, DOI: 10.1007/s11418-008-0309-1
(10)
Ipomoea digitata / Common names / Biodiversity of India
(11)
Ipomoea Digitata for Lowering Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, and Immune Enhancement
/ Article by Dr. Paul Haider / OMTimes
(12)
In-vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of tuberous root of Ipomoea digitata (Linn.)
/ Vasagam, G. Alagumani; Muthu, A. Kottai; kumar, D. Satheesh; Manavalan, R. / Journal of Pharmacy Research; Mar2010, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p 639
(13)
Ipomoea cheirophylla / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
Preclinical evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of Ipomoea digitata tuber in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. / Pandey AK, Gupta PP, Lal VK. / J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;24(1):35-9. / doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2012-0042.
(15)
Isolation of secondary products from Ipomoea digitata a medicinally important plant / D. Madhavi, B. Rama Rao, Peddolla Sreenivas, G.L. David Krupadanam, P.Maheswari Rao, K. Janardhan Reddy and P.B. Kavi Kishor* / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy
(16)
Scopoletin and β-sitosterol glucoside from roots of Ipomoea digitata / N.M. Mofiz Uddin Khan, Md. Sagar Hossain / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 4(2): 05-07
(17)
Ipomoea digitata Seed Gum and the Gum-g-polyacrylamide: Potential Pharmaceutical Gums / Vandana Singh, Vasundhara Srivastava & Rupali Sethi / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 42, Issue 3, 2004, pages 230-233 /vDOI:10.1080/13880200490514104
(18)
Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn. / Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram Mahajan, Arun Y Mahajan / J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 4(2): 125-128
(19)
Do herbal medicines have potential for managing snake bite envenomation? / YK Gupta, SS Peshin / Toxicology International, 2012, Vol 19, Issue 2, pp 88-89
(20)
Therapeutic validation of Ipomoea digitata tuber (Ksheervidari) for its effect on cardio-vascular risk parameters / Jain Vartika, Verma* SK & Katewa SS / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.10 (4), October 2011, pp. 617-623

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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