Ayapana is a smooth, perennial herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in
height, half woody at the base, creeping and rooting at the lower part.
Young shoots have a somewhat mealy appearance due to the presence of small particles of a white balsamic exudation. Leaves are smooth, opposite,
narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, triplinerved, pointed
at both ends, distantly toothed or nearly entire margins. Flowering
heads are numerous, 6 to 13 millimeters long, bearing about 20 pink flowers, 6 to 7 millimeters long. Fruit are achenes, narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus is about 3 millimeters long.
- Planted occasionally for medicinal purposes, but nowhere spontaneous.
- Occasional garden cultivation.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Now pantropic.
- A rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil, ayapana oil, 1.14%.
- Plant yields cineol, alpha-phellandrene,
alpha-terneol, ayapanin, ayapin, borneol, coumarin, sabinene, umbelliferone
among many others.
- Hemarin, one of the coumarins is used as an anti-tumor remedy in herbal
- Phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract yielded
hexadecanoic acid (14.65%), 2,6,10-trimethyl,14-ethylene-14-pentadecne (9.84%), Bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane, 7-butyl- (2.38%), Decanoic acid, 8-methyl-, methyl ester (3.86%), 1-undecanol (7.82%), 1-hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane (2.09%), 1,14-tetradecanediol (6.78%), Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl ester (19.18%) and 2-hydroxy-3-[(9E) -9-octadecenoyloxy] propyl(9E)-9-octadecenoate (8.79%). (11)
- Essential oil yielded 39 constituents representing 97.1-98.0% of the oils. Study yielded secondary metabolites viz., A. triplinervis: ayapanin (1), ayapin (2), daphnetin (3), daphnetin dimethyl ether (4), daphnetin- 7-methyl ether (5), hydrangetin (6), umbelliferone (7), stigmasterol (8), thymol methyl ether (9), thymoquinol dimethyl ether (10), and thymoquinone (11). (see study below) (3)
- Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of all plant parts yielded saponins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, among others. (see study below) (16)
- GC-MS analysis of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 30 compounds representing 98.24% of the oil. Major compounds were 2-tertbutyl–1,4-methoxybenzene (74.3 %) and ß–Selinene (8.6 %). (see study below) (19)
- Similar to chamomile in effects; stimulant and tonic in small doses,
laxative in quantities.
- Leaves are sudorific, tonic, febrifuge, alterative, stomachic and antiscorbutic.
- Antitussive, astringent, anticoagulant, depurative, cicatrizant, antitumorous and
Leaves, flowers, whole plant.
Leaves used for making tea or a diet drink with its
agreeable and spicy taste.
- In the Philippines,Bruised leaves used for cleaning surfaces of foul smelling ulcers.
- As infusion. used for dyspepsia, other bowel and lung problems.
- Hot infusion is emetic and diaphoretic.
- Bitter leaves used for fever, colds and diarrhea.
- Leaves applied to forehead for relieve headaches.
- Used for cuts, scrapes and wounds.
- Peruvian indians takes
the leaf and stem for colic, stomach pains, edema.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and hemorrhages.
- An infusion of the leaf and stem used as digestive stimulant.
- Believed to be antineoplastic and used for cancerous tumors.
- In South America, leaves used for infusions, decoctions, baths, and teas.
- In Argentina, used to
- Used for bleeding hemorrhoids, wounds, and poison bites.
- In Brazil, leaf juice
is swished around the mouth for gingivitis and mouth ulcers.
- In the Amazon, leaf juice is used for snake bites, as a sedative and
for wound ulcers.
- In French Guiana, used
for nausea and vomiting caused by malaria. Decoction of whole plant is used as antivomitive. Leaf infusion used as febrifuge, sudorific, digestive; for colds, grippe. Strong dose is vomitive; weak dose is laxative. (27)
- In Surinam, leaf infusion drunk to treat high blood pressure. Leaf decoction used to treat chronic diarrhea. Leaves used to treat oral sores. (27)
- In Trinidad, the plant
is used for chest colds, constipation, fevers, pneumonia and yellow fever.
- In Malaya, used for bronchitis
- In the Andes and inter-Andean
valleys, used as hepatic stimulant and diuretic; leaves used for asthma
and as expectorant.
- Used for skin treatment and whitening by the native people of East Kalimantan.
- In Trinidad and Tobago,
used as anthelmintic.
- In Madagascar, leaf infusion used for burning sensations in the stomach, indigestion, diarrhea, insomnia, nausea, ulcers and vomiting. Plant juice used as emollient and astringent. Whole plant used for influenza, fever, colds, pneumonia. Mixture of decoction of Ayapana triplinervis and leaf decoction of Ageratum conyzoides used for flatulence, itches, boils.
- The Shipibo-Conibo Indians of Peru use the leaves and stems for intestinal colic, stomach pains, edema and as depurative. In the Guyanas, used as laxative, alexiteric, febrifuge and sudorific. (15)
- In West Bengal, India, leaf extract used during menses to control excessive menstruation. (26)
- Perfumery: Yields a pale green oil used for perfumery. (17)
- Insecticidal: Methanol extract of plant used as insecticide against paddy brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens.) (17)
- Soil binder: Grown as soil binder for stabilization of slopes. (17)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Results
showed that crude leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve has antibacterial
and antifungal properties. (1)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Study of extracts of
leaves of Eupatorium ayapana showed the petroleum ether extract to have
higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than the methanolic extract. (2)
• Essential Oil / Thymohydroquinone: Study investigated the leaf oil composition. Three essential oil samples showed a high percentage of the aromatic compound thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether. (see constituents above) (3)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of E ayapana leaves in Wistar albino rats showed decrease of the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin, uric acid and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that MEEA possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. (5)
• Anthelmintic / Flowers / Essential Oil: Essential oil from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve has been shown to possess good efficacy against Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia solium (Garg, S.C., Nakhare, S., 1993. Studies on the essential oils from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve. Indian Perfumer 37, 318-323). (6)
• Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Eupatorium triplinerve exhibited a dose dependent anthelmintic activity against both Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli in vitro models. Alpinia galanga showed no activity against P. posthuma but exhibited potent dose dependent activity against A. galli. (7)
• Anti-Melanogenesis / 7- Methoxycoumarin / Skin Whitening: A methanol extract of leaves of E. triplinerve showed antimelamogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. 7-methoxycoumarin was isolated as an active compound. The results validated the traditional use of the plant by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. (8)
• Antinociceptive / Antioxidant / Neurobehavioral Effects: Study evaluated the putative effects of E. triplinerve on the central nervous system. Results showed mild sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressive effects on the CNS. Antinociceptive effects not related to the opioid system and antioxidant activity were also observed. (10)
• Antioxidant Mediated Antiulcer Effect / Induced Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of fractions of E. triplinerve on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male adult mice. Results showed an antiulcer effect against UC at colon specific area through its radical scavenging activity. (12)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of E. triplinerve for antimicrobial activity. Methanol extracts showed low MIC values of 62 and 75 µg/ml against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Non-polar fractions showed antimicrobial activity with MIC range from 16 to 125 µg/ml against gram-negative bacteria, mainly E. coli. (see constituents above) (16)
• 7-Methoxy Coumarin / Antinociceptive: Study isolated 7-methoxy coumarin from an ethyl acetate fraction of alcoholic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve. The compound showed dose-dependent antinociceptive action as evidenced by reduced abdominal constrictions in mice and decreased time spent in paw licking and biting response in formalin assay. (18)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: Study of essential oil from aerial parts showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity
against all test pathogens. The highest zone of inhibition was against Salmonella typhi at 21 mm followed by Shigella sonnei at 18 mm. (see constituents above) (19)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory
/ Leaves: Study evaluated a petroleum ether extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory and nociceptive activities in Swiss albino mice. The extract exhibited significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing, reduced paw-licking time response in formalin test and increased in withdrawal latency time in tail immersion test. There was significant reduction of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats. (20)
• Antibiofilm / Antioxidant /
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated various plant extracts of E. ayapana for antibiofilm, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. All extracts exhibited pronounced antibiofilm formation against Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. An EtOAc extract showed excellent activity against DPPH radicals. Ch2Cl2 and EtOAc extracts exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity against nitric oxide with IC50 of 65.7 and 66.9 µg/l, respectively. (21)
• Antiviral / Inhibition of Zika Virus / Essential Oil and THQ: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus causing infection associated with neonatal microcephaly and neurological disorders. Study evaluated the effect of essential oil (EO) from A. triplinervis, whose main component thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (THQ) has shown potential to prevent ZIKV infection in human cells. Study showed both EO and THQ inhibit ZIKV infection in human cells with IC50s of 38 and 45 µg/mL, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations, EO and THQ reduced virus progeny production by 3-log. Results suggest THQ is a new potent antiviral phytocompound against ZIKV. (22)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extracts of Ayapana triplinervis, The NPs showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. (23)
• Analgesic / Toxicity Study / Stems and Roots: Study evaluated stem and root extracts for analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing in Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity study showed no toxic effects up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kbw. The hydroalcoholic extract of stem and root showed analgesic activity with significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing. (24)
• Cytotoxic / Antioxidant / Thrombolytic / Membrane Stabilizing / Antimicrobial: Study of Eupatorium ayapana showed highest phenolic content in CCl4 soluble partitionate with 1,203 mg GAE/gr of extractives. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, a methanol extract showed highest activity with LC50 0.149 µg/mL. In thrombolytic testing, a petroleum ether soluble partitionate showed significant activity with 15.75% clot lysis. The petroleum ether soluble fraction showed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 1.67 µg/ml. In assay for membrane stabilizing activity, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction exhibited significant activity with 57.61% and 55.13% RBC hemolysis in hypotonic solution and heat-induced conditions. The CCl4 soluble extract showed good to excellent inhibition of antimicrobial growth. (25)
• Anticoagulant Effect: Ayapana leaves contain naturally
occurring coumarins with its blood thinning and anti-coagulant effect.
A patient on blood thinning medications should avoid the concomitant
use of ayapana and should consult a physician.
- Extracts and essential oil in the cybermarket.