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Family Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea triloba L.
Shan lie ye shu

Scientific names Common names
Amphione lobata Raf. Aurora (Tag.)
Convolvulus heterophyllus Sesse & Moc. Baging-baging (Tag.)
Convolvulus ipomoea Vell. Bang-ba-ngao (Ilk.)
Convolvulus mariannensis (Choisy) Gaudich. ex Saff. Kamkamote (La Union)
Convolvulus sloanei Spreng. Karakamote (Tag.)
Convolvulus subquinquelobus Wood Muti-muti (C.Bis.)
Convolvulus trilobus (L.) Desr. Aiea morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea eustachiana Andersson Little bell (Engl.)
Ipomoea galapagensis Andersson Little bell morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea hirta M.Martens & Galleotti Morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea krugii Urb. Pink convolvulus (Engl.)
Ipomoea laxiflora H.J.Chowdhery & Debta Three-lobed morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea mariannensis Choisy Trilobed morning glory (Engl.)
Ipomoea parviflora Vahl Wild potato (Engl.)
Ipomoea triloba L. Wild slip (Engl.)
Ipomoea triloba var. eustachiana (Jacq.) Griseb.  
Ipomoea triloba var. genuina Meisn.  
Ipomoea triloba var. glaberrima Meisn.  
Ipomoea triloba var. quinqueloba Kuntze  
Ipomoea webbii Cout.  
Quamoclit eustachiana (Jacq.) G.Don  
Quamoclit triloba (L.) G.Don  
Ipomoea triloba is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHAMORRO: Fofegau, Fofgu, Fofgu-sabana, Nedgut, Netkort.
CHINA: Shan lie ye shu.
CUBA: Boniato marrullero.
FRANCE:  Ipomee fleur rose.
GERMANY: Dreilappige, Trichterwinde.
HEBREW: Lefufit meshulleshet.
HINDI: Shakkaria, Ratalu.
JAPAN: Hoshiasagao.
MALAYSIA: Gegasing, Kangkong bulu.
PALAUAN: Torech.
SPAIN: Batatilla, Campanilla, Campanilla morada, Campanilla rosado, Churristate, Puyui.
THAILAND: Yaa dok khon.
VIETNAM: B[if]m ba th[uf]y.
YAPESE: Galli ngo boca roro.

Gen info
- Convolvulacea is derived from Latin Convolvere, meaning "to wind". It is known as the "morning glory family".
- Ipomoea  is one of the dominant genera in the family Convolvulacea, comprising about 650 species of twining climbing plants, herbs, lianas, shrubs and small trees, occurring throughout tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, mainly America and Africa.

- Flowers are smaller than typical morning glory flowers.  Like most morning glory flowers,  it unfurls into full bloom in the morning, and close before noon.
- Morning glory  is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae. Morning glory species belong to many genera, some of which are: Argyreia, Astripomoea, Calystegia, Convolvulus, Ipomoea (the largest), Lepistemon, Merremia, Operculina, Rivea, Stictocardia.

Herbs annual. Stems twining or prostrate, glabrous or nodes sparsely pubescent. Petiole 2.5-6 cm, glabrous, sometimes tuberculate; leaf blade broadly ovate to circular in outline, 2.5-7 X 2-6 cm, glabrous or sparsely pilose, base cordate, margin entire or coarsely dentate to deeply 3-lobed. Inflorescences dense umbellate cymes, 1- to several flowered; peduncle 2.5-5.5 cm, glabrous, angular, verruculose distally; bracts lanceolate-oblong, minute. Pedicel 5-7 mm, ± angular, glabrous, verruculose. Sepals slightly unequal, 5-8 mm, glabrous or sparsely pilose abaxially, margin fimbriate, apex obtuse or acute, mucronulate; outer 2 oblong, slightly shorter; inner 3 elliptic-oblong. Corolla pink or pale purple, funnelform, 1.5-2 cm, glabrous; limb obtusely 5-lobed. Stamens included. Pistil included; ovary pubescent. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule ± globular, 5-6 mm, bristly pubescent, apiculate, 2-loculed, 4-valved. Seeds dark brown, ca. 3.5 mm, glabrous. (Flora of China)

- Introduced to the Philippines.
- Naturalized in South East Asia.
- Invasive. Considered a serious weed in Australia and the Philippines.
- Grasslands, thickets, along trails and waste places; sea level to 300 m elevation.
- Native range is Mexico to Brazil, Caribbean.

- Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extracts yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, de-oxy sugars, steroids, and terpenes, with absence of alkaloids and glycosides. (4)
- Composition per 100 g
of edible portion:  water 84.7 g, energy 57 kcal and 238 kJ, protein 4 g, total fat 0.4 g, total carbohydrate 9.4 g, available carbohydrate 3.3 g, total ash 1.6 g. (5)
- Phytochemical screening of stems yielded saponins +++, flavonoids +++, phlobatanins +++. tannins +++, with absence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, and terpenes. (6)
- Proximate composition of stem yielded 12.1% moisture, 2.6% total ash, 8.3% crude fiber, 4.20% crude protein, 7.48% lipid, 77.42% carbohydrate, 393.l8 Kcal energy. (6)
- Study for anti-nutrients in mg/100 g revealed hydrogen cyanide (HNC) 0.038, total oxalate 114.40, soluble oxalate 70.40, phytate 0.02, and tannins 1.72. (6)
- Qualitative phytochemical screening of leaf, stem and root yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, with absence of phenols, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids. (7)
- Quantitative constituent screening of stems (%) yielded alkaloids 19.90, tannins 14.00, flavonoids 0.93, saponins 23.01, phenols 0, cardiac glycosides 5.21, terpenoids 0.02, steroids 1.31. (7)
- Quantitative phytochemical  analysis of leaves by % yielded alkaloids 20.61, tannins 20.01, flavonoids 23.02, saponins 20.05, phenols 1.24, cardiac glycosides 0.26, terpenoids 0.80, steroids 1.53. (7)

- Plants yield a milky sap which is toxic.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antidiarrheal properties.

Parts used


- Leaves are edible.

- In Peninsular Malaysia, poultice of plant used for headache.
- Decoction of leaves use for treatment of stomach aches.

Antibacterial / Enteric Diarrheagenic Bacteria :
Study evaluated the antibacterial properties of ethanol / aqueous extracts and fractions of I. triloba on diarrheagenic bacteria isolated from 20 composite diarrheal stool samples. A total of 74 isolates were identified from six genera viz. Escherichia coli 26 (35.1%), Staphylococcus aureus 4 (5.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9 (12.2%), Shigella dysenteriae 18 (24.3%), Salmonella typhi 8 (10.8%), and Vibrio cholera 9 (12.2%). Ethanol extracts (≥30mm) showed more potent broad-spectrum antibacterial activity than aqueous extract (≥18mm). MICs and MBCs ranged from 250 to 500 mg/mL and 500 to 1000 mg/mL respectively. Dichloromethane fractions showed best antibacterial activity. (4)


April 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ipomoea triloba / Vengolis / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ipomoea triloba / J M Garg / Creative Commons / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ipomoea triloba / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Ipomoea triloba / Flora of China
Morning glory / Wikipedia
Evaluation of the antibacterial properties of the extracts and fractions of Ipomoea triloba l. (Convolvulaceae) on selected enteric diarrheagenic bacteria  / Alozie Mfonobong Favour, Ekong Ubong Samuel, Effiong Daniel Ekpa, Udofa Edidiong Jumbo,  Akinjogunla Olajide Joseph / Journal of Biological Research & Biotechnology, 2022; 20(1): pp 1398-1408 / pISSN: 1596-7409 / eISSN: 2705-3822

Karakamote (Ipomoea triloba) / iveg.pcaarrd.dost.gov
Comparative Phytochemical, Nutrient and Anti-Nutrient of Stems of Ipomoea Involucrata Beauv, Ipomoea. Triloba Land Ipomoea Batatas Lam / U. A. Essiett, U. J. Ukpong / American Journal of Food Nutrition, 2014; 2(4): pp 71-76 / DOI: 10.1269/ajfn-2-4-5
Comparative phytochemical study of the parts of Ipomoea species Uka Chiedozie Joel, Okeke Clement Uwabunkeonye /  Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2020; 8(4): pp 257-261 / eISSN: 2320-3862 / pISSN: 2394-0530
Morning glory / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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