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Family Moraceae
Artocarpus gomezianus
Wall. ex Trecul

Scientific names Common names
Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trecul          Bagli (Sulu)
Artocarpus masticatus Gagnep.           Sampang (Tag.)
Artocarpus petiolaris Miq.           Mon-jack (Engl.)
Artocarpus pomoformis Teijsm. & Binn.           Paper mulberry (Engl.)
Artocarpus rigidus Wall.            
Saccus gomezianus (Wall. ex Trecul) Kuntze           
Saccus petiolaris (Miq.) Kuntze           
Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trecul is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
INDIA: Kharika-dewa, Khorika-dewa (Assamese), Dhaun (Hindi), Esuluhulii (Kannada), Chimpa (Malayalam), Amlaka (Sanskrit), Irapala (Tamil).
INDONESIA: Gajaman, Sampang, Penangkaan.
MALAYSIA: Tampang hitam, Tampang besi, Medang sampang.
THAILAND: Ta pang, Tam-pang, Hat nun.
VIETNAM: Mit chay.

Gen info
- Etymology: The genus name Artocarpus is derived from Greek words artos meaning "bread" and karpos meaning "fruit".

Artocarpus gomezianus is a tall tree. Bark covered with gray papery soft cork which splits into parallel vertical fissures, inside light-red with streaks, milky later copious, young shoots puberulous. Leaves oblong or ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 10-21 x 3-8 cm long, margin entire, acute or acuminate, cuspidate, coriaceous, shining, glabrous, smooth above, sometimes sub-pruinose beneath, lateral veins 7-12 on either side of the midvein, stout and prominent below, base attenuate, obtuse or rounded, petiole 0.5-1 cm long. Flowers intermixed with numerous pedicellate peltate scales, calyx lobes 2, ovate, pubescent, stamen 1, filaments dilated at the apex, anthers exserted, cells transversely dehiscent, divergent. Female receptacle globose or ovoid, 1.5-3 cm across. Anthocarp completely united, few bearing seeds. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is, Assam, Cambodia, India, Jawa, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Study of ethanol extract of leaves yielded a long chain hydrocarbon, 1-dotriacontanol; a steroid, ß-sitosterol; two triterpenoids, lupeol-3-acetate and simiarenol; and a phenolic glycoside, arbutin. (4)
- Study of heartwood isolated a new compound, artogomezianone (1), along with known compounds cycloartocarpin (2), isocyclomorusin (3), artocarpin   (4), norcycloartocarpin (5), norartocarpetin (6), and oxyresveratrol (7).  (see study below) (7)
- Qualitative phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites from different fruit samples yielded alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. Quantitative analysis showed alkaloids were dominant in all samples, followed by lignin, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and steroids. (9)
- Study of root bark of A. gomezianus isolated two new 2-arylbenzofurans, namely 13-O-methyl- lakoochin B (1) and artogomezianin (2), along with six known compounds (3-8). (see study below) (10)
- Study of roots isolated eight compounds: Phenyl-β-naphthylamine (1), isocyclomorusin (2), cycloartocarpin (3), artocarpin (4), norartocarpetin (5), cudraflavone C (6), albanin A (7), and resveratrol (8). (see study below) (13
- Study isolated a new prenylated stilbene, artoindonesianin N (1) and a new prenylated arylbenzofuran, artoindonesianin O (2), along with a phenolic compound, oxyresveratrol (3). (14)

- Studies have suggest anti-tyrosinase, antiherpetic, antioxidant, photocatalytic, anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, α-glucosidase inhibitory properties.

Parts used
Bark, roots, fruits.


-Fruit is edible, used for making jams and jellies; too sour for eating raw.
- Unripe fruits pickled, eaten with rice.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Bark used for treatment of burns.
- Used for toothaches and treatment of worms.
- Masticatory: Roots chewed with betel.

Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity / Roots:
Study of roots isolated a new dimeric stilbene, artogomezianol (1) and a known compound analasin A (2). Both compounds showed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC50s of 68 and 39 µM, respectively. (5) Study of roots isolated eight compounds: Phenyl-β-naphthylamine (1), isocyclomorusin (2), cycloartocarpin (3), artocarpin (4), norartocarpetin (5), cudraflavone C (6), albanin A (7), and resveratrol (8). Compounds 5 and 8 exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity. (13
ZnO Nanoparticles / Photocatalytic /Antioxidant / Fruits: Study reports on the simple, green, eco-friendly synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using A. gomezianus extract as fuel by solution combustion synthesis. The NPs exhibited potential photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye upon exposure to sunlight and UV light. The ZnONPs showed considerable activity against DPPH free radicals. (6)
Antiherpetic / Flavones / Heartwood: Study of heartwood isolated a new compound, artogomezianone (1), along with known compounds cycloartocarpin (2), isocyclomorusin (3), artocarpin (4), norcycloartocarpin (5), norartocarpetin (6), and oxyresveratrol (7). The isolates were evaluated for inhibitory effects against herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2. Compounds 2, 3, 6 and 7 showed moderate activities against both types, while 1,4, and 5 were basically inactive. (7)
ZnO Nanoparticles / Anticancer / Antibacterial / Fruits: Study reports on the eco-friendly, green combustion method for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using A. gomezianus fruit extract as fuel. MTT assay showed the good anticancer activity of ZnO NPs against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The NPs also showed significant antibacterial activity by zone inhibition method against Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. (8)
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Arylbenzofurans/ Antidiabetic / Root Bark: Study of root bark of A. gomezianus isolated two new 2-arylbenzofurans, namely 13-O-methyllakoochin B (1) and artogomezianin (2), along with six known compounds (3-8). Artogomezianin (2) and lakoochin A (3) exhibited strong α-glucosidase activity with IC50s of 18.25 and 26.19 µM, respectively, as compared to positive control acarbose. (10)
Antioxidant Activity: Study hydroalcoholic extracts of fruits, aerial parts, and roots for antioxidant activities by nitric oxide scavenging assay, ferric ion reducing activity, ABTS free radical scavenging, and total antioxidant assays. NO radical scavenging was higher in fruit followed by aerial and root parts. ABTS was 5 mg/ml compared to ascorbic acid with 4 mg/ml. Total antioxidant activity was significantly higher for fruits than aerial or root extracts. (11)
Antidiabetic / α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity / Unripe Fruits: Study evaluated the in vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of unripe fruits of A. gomezianus. A methanolic extract of A. gomezianus exhibited dose-dependent increase in percentage inhibitory activity of α-amylse (IC50 68.75) and α-glucosidase (IC50 70.29). Acarbose was standard drug. (12)


June 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trecul / © ePHARMACOGNOSY / Non-commercial use / click on image or link to go to source page / ePHARMACOGNOSY
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Artocarpus gomezianus fruits and leaves / © earth.com / Non-commercial use / click on image or link to go to source page / earth.com

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Artocarpus gomezianus / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Artocarpus gomezianus (PROSEA) / MSM Sossef / Pl@ntUse
Artocarpus gomezianus / India Biodiversity Portal
Constituents of Artocarpus gomezianus Leaves / Benjaporn Kingroungpet, Thatree Phadungcharoen, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi, Toshikazu Sekine /  Thai J Pharm Sci., 1996; 20(1): pp 59-62
A new dimeric stilbene with tyrosinase inhibitiory activity from Artocarpus gomezianus. / Likhitwitayawuid K, Sritularak B / Journal of Natural Products, 2001; 64(11): pp 1457-1459 /  DOI: 10.1021/np0101806   / PMID: 11720533
Artocarpus gomezianus aided green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: Luminescence, photocatalytic and antioxidant properties / D Suresh, R M Shobharani, P C Nethravathi, M A Pavan Kumar, H Nagabhushana, S C Sharma / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2015; 141: pp 128-134 / DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.01.048
Antiherpetic Flavones from the Heartwood of Artocarpus gomezianus
/ Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Saowalak Chaiwiriya, Boonchoo Sritularak, Vimolmas Lipipun / Chemistry & Biodiversity, 2006; 3(10): pp 1138-1143 / DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.200690115
Cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activities of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the Artocarpus gomezianus fruit mediated facile green combustion method / R Anitha, K V Ramesh, T N Ravishankar, K H Sudheer Kumar, T Ramakrishnappa et al / Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 2018; 3(4): pp 440-451 / DOI: 10.1016/ j.jsamd.2018.11.001
Phytochemical studies of Artocarpus gomezianus Wall.ex Trecul.var.lakoocha Roxb.fruits collected from various altitudes of Central Western Ghats / S R Krishnamurthy, P Sarala / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2013; 4(4): pp 398-411
New 2-arylbenzofurans from the root bark of Artocarpus gomezianus and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity / Poomraphie Nuntawong, Virunh Kongkatitham, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Wanwimon Mekboonsonglarp, Suchada Sukrong,, Somboon Tanasupawat et al / Natural Product Research, 2019; 33(10): pp 1436-1441 / DOI:  10.1080/14786419.2017.1419238
In vitro antioxidant activity studies of Artocarpus gomezianus / S J Prashanth, D Suresh, V H Potty, P Sadananda Maiya / Asian Journal of Bio Science, 2014; 9(2): pp 273-283 / eISSN: 0976-8343 /
DOI: 10.15740/HAS/AJBS/9.2/273-283
In vitro antihyperglycemic activity of unripe fruits extracts of Artocarpus gomezianus. / Jennifer Fernandex, Ronald Fernandes, V M Kumar, K Rajisha, R V Lobo /  Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2019; 12(7): pp 3265-3267 /  DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00551.1 / ISSN: 0974-3618
Tyrosinase Inhibitors from Artocarpus gomezianus / Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Booncho Sritularak, Wanchai De-Eknamkul /  Plant Med., 2000; 66(3): pp pp 275-277
Artoindonesianins N and O, new prenylated stilbene and prenylated arylbenzofuran derivatives from Artocarpus gomezianus /  Euis Holisotan Hakim, Unsiyah Zulfa Ulinnuha, Yana Maolana Syah, Emilio L Ghisalberti / Fitoterapia, 2002; 73(7-8): pp 597-603 / DOI: 10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00210-1


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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