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Family Phyllanthaceae
Bagnang-pula
Glochidion rubrum Blume
Tai min suan pan zi

Scientific names Common names
Bradleia rubrua (Blume) Steud. Bagnang-pula (Tag.)
Diasperus coronatus (Müller Arg.) Kuntze.  
Diasperus leiostylus (Kurz) Kuntze.  
Glodichon coronatum Hook.f.  
Glodichon diversifolius (Miq.) Merr.  
Glodichon foliosum S. Moore  
Glodichon graves S. Moore  
Glodichon insulare Hook.f.  
Glodichon leiostylum Kurz.  
Glodichon penangense S(Müll.Arg.) Airy Shaw  
Glochidion rubrum Blume  
Glochidion thorelii Beille  
Glodichon versicolor S. Moore  
Phyllanthus diversifolius Miq.  
Phyllanthus penengensis Müll.Arg.  
Glochidion rubrum Blume is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Dempul, Obah nasi.
CHINESE: Tai min suan pan zi.
INDONESI: Dempul, Ki timbul, Ketemung.
MALAYSIA: Gambiran, Senkam, Tetimah.
THAILAND: Chum set, Khat na.
VIETNAM: B[oj]t [ees]ch ven su[oos]c d[or], Bọt ếch ven suối; Sóc đỏ.

Botany
Bagnang-pula is a shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high. Branches are terete, gray, lenticellate. Branchlets are angular, glabrous or sparsely pubescent when young. Stipules are triangular, about 1 millimeters; petiole 1.5 to 4 millimeters. Leaf blade is ovate, elliptic, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 13 centimeters long and 2.4 to 5 centimeters wide, papery to submembranous, glabrous, base acute to obtuse, inequilateral, with 5 to 6 pairs of lateral veins. Flowers are greenish to yellowish whitish, axillary, sessile, with linear bracts at the base. Sepals are 6, free, glabrous on both surfaces. Fruits are lobed around seeds, circular, flattened, depressed above, Capsules are depressed globose, 3.5 to 4 by 6 to 10 millimeters, red, always hairy. Seeds are orange to red, 3.8 to 4 by 3.3 to 3.8 millimeters. (2) (3)

Distribution
- In the Philippines, found in creek banks, open grasslands, roadsides and scrublands.
- Planted as ornamental tree, hedge or living fence.

- Native to Southeast Asia. Found in Taiwan, [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.

Constituents
- Methanol extract of leaves yielded four new compounds i.e., (−)-isolariciresinol 2a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (7R,8S)- and (7R,8R)-4,7,9,9′-tetrahydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-8-O-4′-neolignan 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosides (2 and 3, respectively), and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate (4). (see studies below) (7)
- Study isolated aqueous acetone homogenate of dried leaves yielded three hydrolyzable tannins, glochiin M1. glochiin M2, and glochiin C1—the first two are gallates of phorogucinol glucoside, the third is a complextannin.

Properties
Studies have suggested antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stems.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used for skin complaints.
- In China, macerated leaves used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. (5)
- In Vietnam, used for hemorrhoid; effect attributed to tannins.
- In Borneo, fresh leaves with water boiled inside a bamboo tank, drunk to treat blood in feces. (6)
- In Fiji and Taiwan, used for stomach disorders. (9)
Other ands
• Wood: Use for firewood and charcoal.

Studies
Lignan and Neolignan Glucosides / Leaves:
A methanol extract of leaves yielded thirteen compounds, four of them new and elucidated as (−)-isolariciresinol 2a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (7R,8S)- and (7R,8R)-4,7,9,9′-tetrahydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-8-O-4′-neolignan 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosides (2 and 3, respectively), and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate (4). (7)
Antioxidant: / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of 15 medicinal plants. Glochidion rubrum exhibited the best antioxidant activity, with its higher content of polyphenols and flavonoids. In addition, G. rubrum demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect (93.7%) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cell. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated June 2017
January 2014


IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / File:Glochidion rubrum.jpg / Photograph by Shih-Shiuan Kao / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph /Leaves and Fruits of Glochidion rubrum / Kinmatsu's Realms / Non-Commercia / click on image to ho to source pagel / Kinmatsu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Glochidion rubrum Blume / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. 586. 1826. / FOC Vol. 11 Page 194, 197 / Flora of China
(3)
Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) / Botany and synonyms / Asian Plant
(4)
Glochidion rubrum / Vernacular names / GlobinMed
(5)
Glochidion rubrum / Medicinal Plants of China / Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. / 1985 / Useful Tropical Plants
(6)
Healing flora of the Brunei Dusun. (Research Notes) / Free Library by Farlex
(7)
Lignan and neolignan glucosides, and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate from the leaves of Glochidion rubrum / Wen-Hu Cai, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hideaki Otsuka, Takakazu Shinzato, Yoshio Takeda / Journal of Natural Medicines, October 2009, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 408-414
(8)
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity studies of common medicinal plants in Taiwan / Lin, Yun-Ting / China Medical University Repository, Taiwan, 2012-07-27
(9)
Tannins of Euphorbiaceious Plants. XIIII: New Hydrolyzable Tannins Having Phloroglucinol Residue from Glochidion rubrum Blume / Lin-Geeng Chen, Ling-Ling Yang et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 43(12) 2088-2090 (1995)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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