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Family Pinaceae
Baguio pine
Pinus insularis Endl.

Scientific names Common names
Pinus kesiya Royle ex Grodon Baguio pine (Engl.)
  Benguet pine (Engl.)
Two species of the family Pinaceae common in the Mountain Province: (1) Benguet Pine, native to the Philippines, also known as Baguio pine, Pinus kesiya, Pinus insularis and (2) Cuban pine, Pinus carbaea, recenty introduced.

Baguio pine is a tall trees growing to 30 to 40 meters with a diameter of 140 centimeters. Bark is dark brown, irregularly flaking, deeply fissured. Wood with numerous resin canals. Branches are spreading, longest at the base and shorter upwards. Crown is narrow, with weakly developed lateral branches. Needles are in fascicles of three, sometimes two, with a persistent sheath, dark green, and up to 22 centimeters long. Cones are ovoid, up to centimeters cm long, 3-5 centimeters diameter, solitary or in pairs, brown in color.

- Found in the elevated areas of Baguio City and the mountain province.
- Occasionally seen in the Metro Manila and other lowland areas, albeit, growing poorly.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, latex.

• Oil contains d-a-pinene (nitrosochloride, nitrobenzyl-amine) and B-pinene (m.0. of nopinic acid).

• Terpenes - abietic acid (abietane diterpenoid) - widespread in the Pinacea family.
• Turpentine oil consists principally of pinene
• Study on oleoresin yielded 21% of turpentine oil containing α-pinene (59.36%), β -pinene (31.20%) and longifolcne (0.78%).

• Monoterpene, alpha-pinene reported to have anti-acne, anti-pneumonic, expectorant, insecticide and tranquilizer properties.
• Turpentine produced from P. insularis has the appearance and consistency like that of crystallized honey and possess a pleasant odor.

• Wood is moderately hard, resembling yellow pine in the United States.

- Limited folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In the Mountain Province, latex rubbed over arthritic pains.
• A source of Philippine turpentine oil.

• Used in Spanish times as a commercial source of turpentine.

• Phytochemical study yielded alpha-pinene, a monoterpene, with ant-bacterial, expectorant, insecticidal and tranquilizing properties.


Last Updated July 2014

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Plant sources and properties of some important phytochemicals

Philippine resins , gums, seed oils, and essential oils / By Augustus P. West, Ph. D., William H, Brown, Ph, D. / Defyartment of Agriculture and Natural Resourct Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin No, 20, 1920
Studies on Oleoresins of Pinus merkusii and Pinus insularis from Arunachal Pradesh / Rameshwar Dayal / The Indian Forester, Volume 112, Issue 8, August 1986

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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