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Family Pinaceae
Baguio pine
Pinus insularis Endl.

Simao song

Scientific names Common names
Pinus insularis Endl. Saleng (Ilokano)
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui Baguio pine (Engl.)
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Silba Benguet pine (Engl.)
Pinus kesiya subsp. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Silba Khasi pine (Engl.)
Pinus kesiya subsp. szemacensis Silba Khasia pine (Engl.)
Pinus langbianensis A.Chev. Luzon pine (Engl.)
Pinus taeda Blanco [Illegitimate] Szemao pine (China)
Pinus timoriensis Loudon Three-needled pine (Engl.)
Two species of the family Pinaceae common in the Mountain Province: (1) Benguet Pine, native to the Philippines, also known as Baguio pine, Pinus kesiya, Pinus insularis and (2) Cuban pine, Pinus carbaea, recenty introduced.
Pinus insularis Endl. is a synonym of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui. The Plant List
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui is an accepted name. The Plant List
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui is listed as infraspecific taxa of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Simao song.
INDIA: Khasi.
LAOTIAN: Kseh.
THAI: Son sam bai.
VIETNAMESE: Thong ba la.

Botany
Baguio pine is a tall trees growing to 30 to 40 meters with a diameter of 140 centimeters. Bark is dark brown, irregularly flaking, deeply fissured. Wood with numerous resin canals. Branches are spreading, longest at the base and shorter upwards. Crown is narrow, with weakly developed lateral branches. Needles are in fascicles of three, sometimes two, with a persistent sheath, dark green, and up to 22 centimeters long. Cones are ovoid, up to centimeters cm long, 3-5 centimeters diameter, solitary or in pairs, brown in color.\

Distribution
- Found in the elevated areas of Baguio City and the mountain province. Its prevalence in Baguio has has earned the name "The City of Pines."
- Occasionally seen in the Metro Manila and other lowland areas, albeit, growing poorly.

- One of the most widely distributed pines in Asia.
- Also found in the Khasi Hill in India, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, China, and Vietnam.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, latex.

Constituents
• Oil contains d-a-pinene (nitrosochloride, nitrobenzyl-amine) and B-pinene (m.0. of nopinic acid).

• Terpenes - abietic acid (abietane diterpenoid) - widespread in the Pinacea family. (2)
• Turpentine oil consists principally of pinene
.
• Study on oleoresin yielded 21% of turpentine oil containing α-pinene (59.36%), β -pinene (31.20%) and longifolcne (0.78%). (3)

Properties
• Monoterpene, alpha-pinene reported to have anti-acne, anti-pneumonic, expectorant, insecticide and tranquilizer properties.
• Turpentine produced from P. insularis has the appearance and consistency like that of crystallized honey and possess a pleasant odor.

• Wood is moderately hard, resembling yellow pine in the United States.

Uses
Folkloric
- Limited folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In the Mountain Province, latex rubbed over arthritic pains.
- Historically, oil used to treat lung infections and added to baths to revitalize from mental or emotional fatigue.
Other
Turpentine: A source of Philippine turpentine oil.
Used in Spanish times as a commercial source of turpentine.
• Wood: The soft and light timber finds a wide range of applications: boxes, roundwood poles, construction timber, plywood, furniture, floorboards. (7)
• Paper: As pulpwood in the paper industry.
• Repellent: Native Americans used to stuff mattresses with pine needles to repel lice and fleas.

Studies
• Phytochemical: Phytochemical study yielded alpha-pinene, a monoterpene, with ant-bacterial, expectorant, insecticidal and tranquilizing properties.
• Synergism of Melphalan and Pinus kesiya Royle on Apoptosis Induction in Human Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the synergistic effects of the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan and phytoconstituents extracted from Pinus kesiya ex Gorddon in human cancer cells. Melphalan and P. kesiya extract had a similar effect on apoptosis induction both singly and in combination. P. Kesiya extract synergized the antiproliferation and apoptosis induction effects of melphalan. Combining P. kesiya extract with melphalan reduced toxicity while retaining the therapeutic efficacy of melphalan. (6)


Availability
- Wildcrafted.
- Pine needle essential oil in cybermarket.

Last Updated January 2017

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Plant sources and properties of some important phytochemicals

(2)
Philippine resins , gums, seed oils, and essential oils / By Augustus P. West, Ph. D., William H, Brown, Ph, D. / Defyartment of Agriculture and Natural Resourct Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin No, 20, 1920
(3)
Studies on Oleoresins of Pinus merkusii and Pinus insularis from Arunachal Pradesh / Rameshwar Dayal / The Indian Forester, Volume 112, Issue 8, August 1986
(4)
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui / Synonyms / The Plant List
(5)
ESR Study in Reactive Oxygen Species Free Radical Production of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis Heartwood Treated with Laccase / Y. J. CaoX. F. DuanY. L. CaoJ. X. LüJ. Q. ZhuG. W. Zhou / Applied Magnetic Resonance, November 2008, 35:205
(6)
Synergistic effects of melphalan and Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon (Simaosong) extracts on apoptosis induction in human cancer cells / Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Sasipawan Machana, and Sahapat Barusrux / / Chin Med. 2016; 11: 29. / doi: 10.1186/s13020-016-0103-z
(7)
Pinus kesiya / Wikipedia
(8)
Pinus kesiya / IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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