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Family Nymphaeaceae
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Lien Ou

Scientific names   Common names  
Nelumbium speciosum Willd.  Baino (Tag.)
Nelumbo caspica (Fisch.) Schipcz.  Liñgaling (Ibn.)
Nelumbo caspica Fisch.  Asian lotus (Engl.)
Nelumbo komarovii Grossh.  Lotus (Engl.)
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.  Saua (Mag.)
Nelumbo speciosa Willd.  Sukau (Ilk.)
Nymphaea nelumbo Linn.  Bean of India (Engl.)
  Chinese water lily (Engl.)
  Egyptian lotus (Engl.)
  East Indian lotus (Engl.)
  Indian lotus (Engl.)
  Oriental lotus (Engl.)
  Sacred lotus (Engl.)
  Sacred water lily (Engl.)
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. is an accepted name The Plant List
Nelumbo nucifera / Sacred Lotus - Synonyms EOL

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Nilufer, Uss-ul-nilufer.
BENGALI: Kombol, Komal, Pudmapudu, Padama. Padma, Phool, Salaphool.
BURMESE: Padung ma.
CHINESE: Lian, Lian hua, Fu qu, He hua, Fu rong, Lien ou.
FRENCH: Fève d'Egypte, Lotus des Indes, Lotus du Nil, Lotus indien, Lotus Magnolia, Lotus sacré, Lotus sacré de l'Inde.
GERMAN: Indischer Lotus, Indischer Lotusblume.
HINDI: Kamal, Kanwal.
ITALIAN: Fior di loto, Loto.
JAPANESE: Hasu, Renkon.
KOREAN: Yon puri (root).
MALAY: Bunga telpok, Seroja, Teratai.
NEPALESE: Kamal, Raato kamal, Raato thuulo kamal.
PERSIAN: Nilufer.
PORTUGUESE: Flor-de-lótus, Lótus-da-índia, Lótus-do-Egito, Lótus-egípcio, Lótus-sagrado.
PUNJABI: Kawal kakri.
SANSKRIT: Padma, Pankaj, Pankaja, Kamala, Kanval, Svetakamala.
SPANISH: Loto sagrado, Rosa del Nilo, Raiz de lotus (root).
TAMIL: Tamarai, Sivapputamarai.
TELUGU: Kalung, Tamara.
THAI: Bua luang.
URDU: Nilufer

Gen info
- The Lotus is revered as India's most sacred plant with special significance in the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism. Like the rose in the west, it is a symbol of love and compassion. As a medicinal herb, it has been used in the Orient for over 1,500 years.
- N. nucifera has been celebrated in the folk history of China, Egypt, and India.
- The lotus plant is the national flower of India and Vietnam (Red lotus).
- It symbolizes spirituality, prosperity, fruitfulness, comprehension, illumination, among others. Padma
- The lotus petals are seen in three major colors: white, red, and yellow; white and red seen only in Asian lotus, and yellow only in American lotus.

Lotus is a perennial, aquatic herb with creeping rootstock. Leaves are raised above the water, large, rounded, peltate, and 50 to 90 centimeters wide. Flowers are attractive, pink, red, or white, and 15 to 25 centimeters in diameter, standing out of the water. Flower has about 20 pink petals, 7 to 15 centimeters in length. Center of the flower is a large structure shaped like an inverted cone, on top of which are located ovules which later become seeds. Around the inverted cone are numerous yellow stamens. Mature fruit is formed by the enlargement of the spongy, cone-shaped structure in the center of the flower. Rich carpel (fruit and seed in one) is about 13 millimeters long, with a black, bony and smooth pericarp.

- Abundant in marshes and shallow lakes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Cultivated as pond ornamentals.
- Probably prehistoric introduction to the Philippines.
- Native of Asia.

- Nelumbine is present in dried seeds, cotyledons and young leaves.
- Seed contains flavonoids and alkaloids.
- Dried seeds contain nelumbine, protein 15.9%, carbohydrates 70%, ash 3.9%, vitamin C2 and CuO 0.59%.
- Rhizomes contain starch 9.7%, ash 1.1%, vitamin C1, asparagin 2%, protein 1.7%, and fat 0.1%.
- Study of stamen extract isolated kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-D-glucopyranose, sitosterol 3-O-D-glucopyranoside and 2 flavanoids.
- Study of methanolic extract of leaves yielded 7 flavonoids, identified catechin (1), quercetin (2), quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (4), queretin-3-O-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferl-3-O-glucopyranoside (6) and myricetin3-O-glucpyranoside. (see study below) (
- A methanol extract of leaves yielded five norsesquiterpenes, four flavonoids, two triterpenes and one alkaloid: (E)-3-hydroxymegastigm-7-en-9-one, (3S,5R,6S,7E)- megastigma-7-ene-3,5,6,9-tetrol, dendranthemoside B, icariside B2, sedumoside F1, luteolin, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, alphitolic acid, maslinic acid, and N-methylasimilobine. (See study below) (26)
- Ethanol extract of aerial parts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, carbohydrates, protein and iron. (see study below) (41)
- Study lotus seed yielded ß-sitosterol, campesterol, and ß-amyrin as main phytosterols, and stigmasterol, isofucosterol, and dehydrolanosterol as trace phytosterols. Main fatty acids were linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid. (see study below) (45)
- GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of seeds yielded 38 phytoconstituents. Major constituents are
lupeol (22.95%), octadecatrienoic acid-2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1- [[(trimethylsilyl)oxy] methyl]ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z) (7.86%), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl--cis-13-docosenoate (5.35%), oleanolic acid(5.19%), tristrimethylsilyl ether derivative of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (3.36%) ,trimethylsilyl derivative of 2-monoolein (3.26%), lucenin 2 (3.02%), lupanol (2.95%), tetraneurin-a-diol (2.78%), carotene- 1,1',2,2'-tetrahydro-1,1'-dimethoxy (2.32%), 1-oxo-forskolin (1.99%), oleic acid-3-hydroxypropyl ester (1.78%), oleic acid trimethylsilyl ester (1.69%), betulin (1.61%), à-amyrin-trimethylsilyl ether (1.49%), stigmast-5-en-3- ol-(3á,24S)(1.43%), flavone-4'-OH,5-OH,7-di-O-glucoside (1.11%). (50)
- Fresh rhizomes yield 0.41% sucrose,83.8% water, 1.56% reducing sugar, 9.25% starch, 0.11% fat and 0.06% calcium. Seeds are rich in amino acids, minerals, proteins. (54)
- Nutrition analysis of edible rhizome, raw and boiled, yielded: water 81.2 and 81; energy Kcal 66 and 68. protein 2.1 and 1.8 g;f at 0; sugars 15.1 and 15.8 g; dietary fiber 0.6 and 0.6 g; calcium 18.0 and 17.0 mg; phosphorus 60mg and 55mg; iron 0.6 and 0.5 mg; sodium 28 and 19 mg; vitamin B1 0.09 and 0.07 mg; Vitamin B2 0.02 and 0.01 mg, niacin 0.2 and 0.2 mg; and vitamin C 55 and 37 mg, respectively.
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol and methanol extracts of rhizomes yielded carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids, with absence of steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids.
GC-MS analysis various extracts of whole plant yielded 25 peaks and identified ferulic acid (14.2 µ/g) and quercetin (5.4 µ/g) as active chemical compounds. HPTLC of hydroalcoholic extracts yielded chlorogenic acid (1), quercetin (2), benzoic acid (3), caffeic acid (4), ferulic aid (5), kaempferol (6), and gallic acid (7). (see study below) (58)
- MTT assay isolated 6 compounds, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7,8-isoquinolinediol (1), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-[{4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2--methyl-6,7-isoquinolinediol (2), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-7-Isoquinolinol (3), 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)- ethanone (4), 1-(2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyphenyl)-ethanone (5), 3-(prop-1-enyl)benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrol (6). (see study below) (

- Considered astringent, cardiotonic, febrifuge, hypotensive, resolvent, stomachic, styptics, tonic, and vasodilator.
- Used as astringent, cardiotonic, immunomodulator, antiviral, antitumor.
- Seeds are demulcent and nutritive.
- Filaments and flowers are cooling, sedative, astringent, bitter, refrigerant, and expectorant.
- Roots are mucilaginous, demulcent, and emmenagogue; considered by some as aphrodisiac.
- Leaves are antifebrile and antihemorrhagic.

- Studies have suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, nootropic, cytoprotective, antiangiogenic properties.

Parts utilized
Whole plant.

Edibility / Nutrition
• Lotus is a food plant. Almost all parts of the plant contribute to a diversity of cuisine.
• The unripe seeds are eaten boiled, raw, or roasted; the ripe seeds, boiled or roasted. The rhizomes, sliced, are eaten raw or cooked. The petioles, without the rough outer layer, and the leaves are boiled and eaten.
• In Indo-China, pollen and stamens are used to perfume tea.
• Roasted seed used as coffee substitute.
- In China becoming popularly used as a weight-losing tea, believed to reduce the level of lipids.
• Roots, rhizomes, and flowers are used as astringent.
• The leaves and seeds are used in poultices.
• Flowers, filaments and juice of flower-stalks are used in diarrhea, cholera, liver complaints, and fevers.
• A syrup made from the flowers used in coughs, to check hemorrhages in bleeding piles, menorrhagia and dysentery.
• Stamens are used for bleeding piles and parturition.
• Nodes of the rhizome used to stop bleeding.
• Astringent petals used for syphilis.
• Seeds used in leprosy and skin diseases; for spermatorrhea and erotic dreams.
• Roots and young leaves used for piles.
• The milky juice of leaves and flower stalks used in diarrhea.
• Leaves used as deterrent for skin maladies.
• Decoction of seeds used in dysentery and as diuretic.
• Pounded leaves applied to the body for high fevers, mucous membranes and skin irritation, and over the forehead for headaches.
• Embryo used in China and Malay for fevers, cholera, hemoptysis, and spermatorrhea.
• Rhizome root used as rejuvenating tonic.
• Large leaves used as cool bed sheets for fever.
• Receptacle/flower stalk used in Chinese medicine to stop internal bleeding caused by gastric ulcers; menorrhagia or parturient hemorrhage.
• Joints of rootstock used as hemostatic for hemoptysis, postpartum hemorrhages, hematuria and bloody stools.
• Decoction of flowers used for premature ejaculation.
• Decoction of floral receptacle used for abdominal cramps, bloody discharges.
• Flower stalk used for bleeding gastric ulcers, excessive menses, post-partum hemorrhages.
• Paste of root starch used for ringworm and other skin ailments.
• There is folkloric use in the treatment of cancer.
• In Chhattisgarh, India, the oil prepared from the roots is applied to the genitals to increase reten
tion time.
• In India, used as antifertility agent by females of Rajasthan tribes of the Udaipur district. (13)
• The Malays use the astringent petals for syphilis.
• In Java petals used for diarrhea and vomiting.
• In Japan, the leaf of NN has been used for home remedy of the summer heat syndrome.
• In China, leaf used to treat obesity, also as vermifuge and antihemorrhagic; plant juice used in dysentery.
• In Siddha medicine, used as an aphrodisiac.

Antioxidant / Seeds: Study of Nelumbo nucifera seeds yielded alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and carbohydrates with significant antioxidant activity. (4)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed the antioxidant capacity of lotus leaves is partially attributed to its flavonoids.
Memory / Learning: Study in Wistar rats showed N. nucifera rhizome extract may improve learning and memory with enhancing neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (
Diabetes / Aldose Reductase Inhibition: Aldose reductase is the principal enzyme in the polyol pathway critical in the pathogenesis of diabetes. A methanol extract study showed an aldose reductase inhibitory activity. (
Antipyretic: Ethanol extract study of NN showed dose-dependent antipyretic effect comparable to that of paracetamol, a standard antipyretic agent. (
Antipyretic / Seeds: Study revealed seeds of red and white type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is effective in reducing body temperature in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. (
Diuretic: A methanol extract study on the rhizomes of NN exhibited dose-dependent diuresis, with significant increase in natriuretic and chloruretic activity. (
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: A methanol extract study evaluated the flavonoids from NN and showed significant reduction of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels with an increase in HDL cholesterol suggesting future studies on its use for diabetes mellitus. (
Antiobesity / Leaves: Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract study in mice was shown to impair digestion, inhibit absorption of lipids and carbohydrate4s, accelerate lipid metabolism and upregulate energy expenditure–all beneficial for the suppression of obesity. (
10) Study of N nucifera petal extract showed antilipase activity, lipolytic, and antiadipogenesis effect in adipocytes in vitro. N. nucifera extract showed agonist and antagonistic effect towards central receptors involved in food intake. Results suggest further investigation on phytoconstituents for potential pharmacologic use in metabolic disorders, in particular obesity. (36)
Anti-Inflammatory: Supplementation with Lotus Plumule significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-a and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. (
11) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats using carrageenin-induced paw edema model in albino rats. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced inflammation as well as COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. (43)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic: Oral administration of ethanolic extract of rhizomes of NN markedly reduced the blood sugar of normal, glucose-fed hyperglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract exhibited 73% and 67% activity of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. (
Anti-Estrogenic: Nelumbo nucifera has anti-estrogenic effects without altering the general physiology of female rats. (
13) Study showed that administration of N. nucifera to female rats caused estrogen inhibition due to its antiestrogenic nature. (Mutreju et al., 2008) (42)
Psychopharmacologic Effects: Methanolic extract of NN was found to cause reduction in spontaneous activity, decreased exploratory behavior, reduction in muscle relaxant activity and potentiation of pentobarbitone induced sleeping time. (
Cytoprotective / Antioxidant: Study confirms the cytoprotective and antioxidant activity of N nucifera and Aegle marmelos by stabilization of plasma membrane and modulation of antioxidant systems against stress induced by heavy metals in Cyprinus carpio. (
Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: Study of Nelumbo nucifera pollen essential oil show inhibitory effect on growth of food borne pathogenic bacteria in low concentration suggesting the possibility for use as food preservation additive. (
Antioxidant / Flavonoids / Leave: Study of methanolic extract of leaves isolated 7 flavonoids. Quercetin and its glycosides (compounds 2-5) exhibited potent inhibition of LDL oxidation, while myricetin-3-O-glycopyranosides (7) showed stronger DPPH scavenging activity. (see constituents above) (
Antioxidative / Anti-Tyrosinase Activity: Study isolated kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-D-glucopyranose, sitosterol 3-O-D-glucopyranoside and 2 flavanoids. A stamen extract showed antioxidative activity twice that of green tea and anti-tyrosinase activity at the same level as that of a mulberry extract. (
Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study: The oral lethal dose of N. nucifera stamens extract in male and female rats is in excess of 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of the extract is considered to be 200 mg/kg/day. (
Antidiabetic / Flowers: Study evaluated the powdered sun-dried flowers and its aqueous and alcoholic extracts for use in the treatment of diabetes. Results showed significant hypoglycemia in fasting albino rabbits, in an effect comparable to tolbutamide. (
Detoxifying Effect for Heavy Metals: Study evaluated the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sublethal concentrations of combined heavy metals under laboratory conditions. Results showed N. nucifera and A. marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. (
Analgesic / Seeds: Study assessed the analgesic effect of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats using the tail flick method. Both seed extracts exhibited considerable analgesic effect in the acute pain model, less than the effect of Diclofenac group. (
Phytochemical Analysis / Cytotoxicity against Human Cancer Cell Lines: A methanol extract of leaves yielded five norsesquiterpenes, four flavonoids, two triterpenes and one alkaloid. Compounds 6 and 10-12 exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines in vitro using a SRB bioassay. (
Phytoremediation: Lotus was evaluated for remediation of trace elements focusing on manganese (Mn, organic compounds and filtering aquaculture waste water. Results showed lotus to be an effective phyto-remediator of nutrient run-off and suspended solids from waste water from intense aquaculture systems. (
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of N. nucifera on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Results showed a significant reduction in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides. (
Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study of extract of white flower of N. nucifera exhibited strong antibacterial and potent antioxidant activity when compared to the pink flowers. The activity was attributed to the presence of rich phytochemical constituents. (
Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant effect of flowers in isolated oxidatively stressed rat kidney. Results showed N. nucifera flowers exhibited decreased oxidative stress with increase in antioxidants and maintenance of marker enzymes in normal levels. (
Atopic Dermatitis / Inhibitory Effect: Study evaluated the effect of N. nucifera leaf on the AD (atopic dermatitis) -like skin lesion induced by repeated DNCB epicutaneous skin application. Results showed suppression of clinical severity score, scratching behavior, and blood IgE levels, together with histopathologic reduction of epidermal thickening and mast cell degranulation. (
Whitening Agent / Anti-Wrinkle: Study evaluated a water extract for cosmetic use potential. Whitening effect was measured by tyrosinase inhibition assay and DOPA-oxidase inhibition assay, and the anti-wrinkle effect by elastase inhibition assay. Results showed Nelumbo nucifera leaf, flower, and seed extracts possess strong possibility for whitening and anti-wrinkle cosmetic applications. (
Antioxidant / Flowers: Study showed a dose dependent antioxidant effect of N. nucifera flowers in isolated oxidatively stressed rat kidney. (
Antidiabetic / Rhizomes and Flowers: Study of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome and flower extracts in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed promising antidiabetic effect, better than the hypoglycemic properties of standard drug Glimepiride. (
Hepatoprotective / Flowers: Study of a 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of flowers of Nelumbo nucifera showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. (
Renoprotective / Petals:
Study showed N. nucifera petal extract possess potent protective effect against renal enzymuria and albuminura. Results showed near normalization of tubular marker enzymes as well as albumin. Activity was attributed to its high antioxidant property. (38)
Antiangionic Effect / Leaves:
Study evaluated the ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models. Leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. The extracts also significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming possible anti-angiogenic mechanism. (39)
• 2H1M / Constituent of JZN: Study sought to identify the major active ingredient of the Chinese traditional medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN). JZN contains fours Chinese medicinal herbs: Polygonum multiflorum, Fructus crataegi, Nelumbo nucifera, and Semen cassiae. Study isolated 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M), an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, and identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. Major metabolites of 2H1M were identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine- 2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. (40)
• Haematopoietic Activity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated ethanolic extract of aerial parts on haematologic parameters in anemia in rats induced by cyclophosphamide and haloperidol. Results showed the plant extract diminished the activity of cyclophosphamide and haloperidol at 200 mg/kg dose. (41)
• Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus / Seeds: A study reported anti-viral activity of lotus seed ethyl alcohol extract on herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) with marked inhibition of HSV-1 replication at dose of 100 µg/ml with IC50 of 50.0 µg/ml. Of various subfractions of butanol seed extracts (NN-B-1 to NN-B-9), NN-B-5 showed the highest anti-HSV-1 activity. Further testing showed NN-B-5 to inhibit acyclovir resistant HSV-1 replication. (Y C Kuo, et al., 2005) (42)
• Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Fruits: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Nelumbo nucifera fruit in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Results showed remarkable cholesterol lowering effects of the fruit extract at various doses, but particularly dominant at 200 mg//kg, with reduction of TC, TG, and LDL, with significant increase in HDL-C. (44)
• Effects of Phytosterols and Fatty Acids on Differentiation of Human Preadipocytes into Adipocytes / Seeds: Study investigated the effect of phytosterols and fatty acids isolated from lotus seeds on differentiation of human preadipocytes into adipocytes. Lipid droplets produced during adipogenesis were significantly decreased by treatment with phytosterols and fatty acids. Results suggest they could be used as effective ingredients in controlling obesity. (see constituents above) (45)
• Hypocholesterolemic Effects / N. nucifera and C. longa: Study evaluated the effects of different extracts of Nelumbo nucifera leaf and Curcuma longa on hypercholesterolemia in in vitro and in vivo models. A mixture of N. nucifera 20% ethanol leaf extract (NL20E) with CLW (NC:e mixed equal ratio) showed remarkable combined hypocholesterolemic effect that block lipid accumulation. (46)
• Anticancer / Human Colon Cancer Cell Line / Stamen: Study investigated the anticancer activities of N. nucifera stamen ethanol crude extract in huuman colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Results showed cytotoxicity of the extract in HCT-116 cells through induced cellular apoptosis and suggest a potential powerful agent against colon cancer cells. (47)
• Inhibition of Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction / Leaves: Study evaluated lotus leaf alkaloids for smooth muscle relaxation. Aqueous extract of lotus leaves inhibited the high K+ or Ach-induced precontraction of mouse tracheal rings. The AELL-induced smooth muscle relaxation was partially mediated by blocking voltage-dependent Ca++ channels and non-selective cation channels. Results suggest AELL plays a relaxant role in ASM, with a potential as complementary treatment to treat abnormal contractions of the trachea and asthma. (48)
• Hematologic Effects in Diabetes / Flowers: Study evaluated the effect of N. nucifera flower extract on hematological values and blood cell characteristics in diabetic rats. Results showed no effect on hematological values and blood cell character, but recovered WBC counts, lymphocytes and neutrophils close to normal control. The significant increase in WBC counts is possible due to the immuno- modulatory effects of flower extracts. (49)
• Phytoconstituents / Seeds:
GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of seeds yielded 38 phytoconstituents. The most dominant component is lupeol (22.95%), a triterpene, known to possess biologic activities, i.e., anticancer, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and chemopreventive. Lucenin-2 possess antibacterial activity. Stimast-5-en-3-ol, a phytosterol, has antidiabetic property. (see constituents above) (50)
• Inhibition of Neointimal Hyperplasia / Antiatherosclerosis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract on intimal thickening of rat carotid artery. NL reduced intimal thickening by suppressing VSMC's (vascular smooth muscle cells) induced by tumor-necrosis-a. Results suggest NL has potential therapeutic value in the prevention of atherosclerosis or "accelerated atherosclerosis" in the restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. (51)
• Aphrodisiac Effect / Flowers: Study evaluated the aphrodisiac effect of N. nucifera in adult Wistar albino rats. Results showed effects on sexual arousal and performance with significant increase in testosterone levels. The aphrodisiac effect may be through mechanisms of vasodilation, generation of nitric oxide, elevation of androgens and gonadotropins. (52)
• Modulation of Memory Impairment and Brain Damage / Flowers: Study evaluated the effect of Nelumbo nucifera flowers on spatial memory and hippocampal damage in stressed rats. Results showed N. nucifera extract decreased memory deficit and brain damage, serum corticosterone, oxidative stress status, AChE, and MAO-A and MAO-B activities. Results suggest potential neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects. (53)

• Fruit Longevity:
The notable longevity of the fruit may be contributed to by several factors: the chemical composition with its high content of polysaccharides (galactose, mannose) and tannins which may mitigate negative environmental effects, (2) polyphenol in the seed pericarp which increase with ripening, along with its antioxidant activity may be helpful, (3) thermo-proteins, i.e. Cuzn-SODm 1-CysPRX, dehydrin, Cpn20 HSP80, EF-1a, Enolase 1, vicilin Met-Synthase and PIMT, which provide with high stability under high temperature, and (5) recent study that showed small NA might be involved in the regulation of lotus seed longevity. (54)
• Hydrophobicity of Lotus Leaves: Leaves exhibit ultra-hydrophobicity, also known as the "lotus effect" which ensures that the leaf upper epidermis is not covered by water, thus maintaining the normal function of its stomata--a characteristic that gives advantage to the evolution o the lotus. Furthermore, the easy rolling of water droplets help remove dirt particles from adhering on the leaf surface, providing a self-cleaning mechanism. (54)
• Antidiarrheal / Rhizome: Study of a methanolic extract of N. nucifera rhizomes against experimental models of diarrhea. showed significant inhibitory effects against castor oil-induced diarrhea and PGE-2-induced enteropooling. The propulsive movements of a charcoal meal were also reduced significantly. (55)
• Antimicrobial / Pink and White Flowers: Study evaluated the hydroethanolic extracts of white and pink flowers of N. nucifera against five important bacterial strains and two fungal strains. The while and pink flower extract exhibited similar antimicrobial activities comparable to selected antibiotics. (57)
• Thrombolytic Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of Nelumbo nucifera for thrombolytic, anti-platelet-aggregation activity and bleeding time. The hydroalcoholic extract showed highest activity of thrombolytic assay, platelet aggregation assay, and bleeding time. Results suggest flavonoids present in the hydroalcoholic extract has potential as a drug for clinical application for the treatment of thrombosis. (see constituents above) (58)
• Anti-Fibrotic / Induced Renal Fibrosis / Seed: Study evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of ethanolic extract of N. nucifera seed against doxorubicin and unilateral ureter obstruction induced renal fibrosis in mice. Results showed the anti-fibrotic activity at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kbw was comparable with standard treatment of 200 mg/kbw of pirfenidone, an anti-fibrotic drug. The treatment reversed all the manifestations of renal fibrosis. (59)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Anti-Corrosion Activity / Leaf, Flower and Stem: Study reports on the simple, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf, stem, and flower extracts. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity and can be used in the prevention of corrosion formation in water distribution systems. Anticorrosive activity can also prevent photocatalytic dye degradation activity against methylene blue dye and can be used in water purification systems and dye production industries. (
• Anti-Platelet Activity / Flowers:
The hydroethanolic extracts of both pink and white flowers possess antiplatelet activity limited to primary hemostasis in human blood. The activity is attributed to the flavonoids in the extract that could prevent adhesion and aggregation of platelets besides the release of cytoplasmic calcium that stimulates release of ADP. (
• Anti-Fertility Activity / Seed: A petroleum ether extract of seed was reported to possess anti-fertility activity in female albino mice by blocking the oestrus cycle at the metoestrus stage. The extract significantly reduced uterine weight an affected the oestrus cycle by blocking the biogenesis of ovarian steroids at an intermediate stage. (
• Neuroprotective Compounds from Seed Embryo: A previous study showed the cognitive effect of embryo of N. nucifera on scopolamine-induced memory impairment . This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of compounds isolated from seed embryo on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cell. MTT assay isolated 6 compounds, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7,8-isoquinolinediol (1), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-[{4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2--methyl-6,7-isoquinolinediol (2), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-7-Isoquinolinol (3), 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)- ethanone (4), 1-(2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyphenyl)-ethanone (5), 3-(prop-1-enyl)benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrol (6). Compounds 1 and 3 significantly decreased glutamate-induced cell death in the HT22 cell. The neuroprotective effect may be related to their antioxidative effect. (

- Wildcrafted.
- Cultivated.

- Extracts, capsules in the cybermarket.

Updated January 2020 / July 2017 / April 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Close up of flower / Flower of Nelumbo nucifera, bean of India/ File:Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg / T.Voekler / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Nelumbo nucifera Blanco1.158-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Nelumbo nucifera - Gaertn. / Sacred Water Lotus / PlantsForAFuture
DK: Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. Penelope Ody
Research Note - Pankaj Oudhia / Botanical.com
Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds / Sujay Rai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / Vol 104, Issue 3, 6 April 2006, Pages 322-327 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.025
Novel effects of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on memory and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus / Neuroscience Letters / Vol 443, Issue 2, 3 October 2008, Pages 104-107 / doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.020
Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory constituents of Nelumbo nucifera stamens / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 2006, vol. 20, no10, pp. 825-830 /
Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Nelumbo nucifera stalk extract. / Sinha S; Mukherjee P K; Mukherjee K; Pal M; Mandal S C; Saha B P/ Phytotherapy research : PTR 2000;14(4):272-4
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoids from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) leaf in diabetic mice /Taoying Zhou, Denghong Luo et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 290-293, April, 2009
Diuretic activity of extract of the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae) / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 1996, vol. 10, no5, pp. 424-425
Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats./ Journal of Ethnopharmacology / 2006; 106(2)
Suppressive Effects of Lotus Plumule (Nelumbo nucifera Geartn.) Supplementation on LPS-Induced Systemic Inflammation in a BALB/c Mouse Model / JIN-YUARN LIN, ANN-RU WU et al / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2006, Pages 273-278

Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats / Pulok K Mukherjee et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 58, Issue 3, November 1997, Pages 207-213 / 016/S0378-8741(97)00107-4
Effect of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the reproductive organs of female rats / Anju Mutreja et al / Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Winter 2008; Vol 6, No 1: pp 7-11
Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. rhizome extract / Pulok K Mukherjee et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 54, Issues 2-3, November 1996, Pages 63-67 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(96)01455-9
Cytoprotective effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to heavy metals / R Vinodhini and M Narayanan / Intl Journ of Integrative Biology • Vol 7, No 2, 124, 2009.
Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Pollen / Sittiwet, C / Int. J. Pharmacol., 5: 98-100. / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2009.98.100
Antipyretic activity of seeds from Red and White type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) in Albino rat
/ P K Deepa et al / Veterinary World, Vol.2(6): 213-214
Antioxidative Effect and Active Components from Leaves of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) / Hong-Yu Lin et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009; 57(15), pp 6623–6629 / DOI: 10.1021/jf900950z
Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies of Nelumbo nucifera stamens extract in rats / Kunanusorn P, Panthong A et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12;134(3):789-95. Epub 2011 Feb 1
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Nelumbo names
/ Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Anti-diabetic effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn): Part I preliminary studies in rabbits / J. C. Huralikuppi†, A. B. Christopher, P. M. Stephen / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 5, No 2, pp 54–58, April 1991/ DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650050203
Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) / Rajamanickam Vinodhini / Interdiscip. Toxicol. 2010; Vol. 3(4): 127–131. doi: 10.2478/v10102-010-0052-9
Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera) in Albino Rats / Vikrama Chakravarthi.P. and Gopakumar.N* / Veterinary World, Vol.2(9):355-357 RESEARCH
Phytochemical Constituents of Nelumbo nucifera / Ki Hyun Kim, Sang Wook Chang, Shi Yong Ryu, Sang Un Choi, and Kang Ro Lee / Natural Product Sciences 15(2) : 90-95 (2009)
Evaluation of Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) as an Alternative Crop for Phyto-remediation / Warner Steve Orozco Obando / Dissertation / May 2012
Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Nelumbo nucifera(G) on STZ induced Diabetic Rats / P.Manimekalai*, V.Krishnaraju, C.Davidraj, B.Ssudhakar, R.Dhanalakshmi, K.Kalpana / IJPWR VOL1 ISSUE 3 (Jun-Sep) – 2010
Antibacterial and Antioxidant potential of White and Pink Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Flowers
/ Brindha Venkatesh and Arthi Dorai / 2011 International Conference on Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics / IPCBEE vol.5 (2011)
Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn) flowers in isolated perfused rat kidney / Gayathri Krishnamoorthy; David Raj Chellappan; Jipnomon Joseph; Dhevi Ravindhran; Mohamed M. Shabi; Subashini Uthrapathy; Victor G. Rajamanickam*; Govinda P. Dubey / Rev. bras. farmacogn. Vol19, No 1b João Pessoa Jan/Mar 2009 / http://dx.doi.org/10.159
Inhibitory Effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice / Rajendra Karki, Myung-A Jung, Keuk-Jun Kim, and Dong-Wook Kim / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 / doi:10.1155/2012/153568
Nelumbo nucifera / Synonyms / The Plant List
Nelumbo nucifera extracts as whitening and anti-wrinkle cosmetic agent / Tagon Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Sung Ki Cho, Donguk Kim / KOREAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 28(2):424-427 · FEBRUARY 2011 / DOI: 10.1007/s11814-010-0357-6
Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn) flowers in isolated perfused rat kidney / Gayathri Krishnamoorthy; David Raj Chellappan; Jipnomon Joseph; Dhevi Ravindhran; Mohamed M. Shabi; Subashini Uthrapathy; Victor G. Rajamanickam*; Govinda P. Dubey / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.19 no.1b João Pessoa Jan./Mar. 2009 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2009000200008
Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Petal Extracts on Lipase, Adipogenesis, Adipolysis, and Central Receptors of Obesity / Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami, Amit Agarwal, and Vijayalakshmi Mookambeswaran / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/145925
Hepatoprotective activity of Nelumbo nucifera Geartn. Flower: An ethnopharmacological study / G.M.M. Rao, P. Pushpangadan, Annie Shirwaikar / ACTA PHARMACEUTICA TURCICA, 2005;47(1): pp 79-88
Study of Renal enzymuria and albuminuria activity in the Petals of Pink Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. / R. V. Saraswathi, F. Gricilda Shoba / J App Pharm Sci. 2015; 5(12): 142-146 / doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.501225
Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Leaf Extracts in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells with Antioxidant Potential / Jong Suk Lee , Shruti Shukla , Jung-Ae Kim, Myunghee Kim / PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118552./ doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118552
The Active Ingredients of Jiang-Zhi-Ning: Study of the Nelumbo nucifera Alkaloids and Their Main Bioactive Metabolites / Jianxin Chen, Xueling Ma, Kuo Gao, Yong Wang, Huihui Zhao, Hao Wu, Juan Wang, Hua Xie, Yulin OuYang, Liangtao Luo, Shuzhen Guo, Jing Han, Bing Liu and Wei Wang * / Molecules 2012, 17, 9855-9867 / doi:10.3390/molecules17089855
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations on Aerial Parts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. for Hematopoietic Activity / K K Patel, Fedelic A Toppo, P K Singour, P K Chaurasiya, H Rajak, and Rajesh Singh Pawar / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Vol 3(4), Dec 2012, Pp 512-517
Review Article: Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera / Keshar Raj Paudel and Nisha Panth / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2015 (2015) / DOI:
Anti-inflammatory activity of Red and White Lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera) in Albino Rats / Vikrama Chakravarthi P* and Gopakumar N / Veterinary World, Vol.3(4): 157-159
Evaluation of the Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Nelumbo nucifera Fruit in Rabbits Fed with High Cholesterol Diet / Muhammad Ali Raiput, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Tahira Assad /Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 8, 205-213. / doi: 10.4236/pp.2017.86014.
Effects of phytosterols and fatty acids from lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) seed on differentiation of human preadipocytes into adipocytes / Sung Hoon Kim, Xu Zhao, Jian Shen, and Kyung Ja Chang / The FASEB Journal, April 2013, Vol 27, No 1, Supplement 1079.30
Hypocholesterolemic effects of Curcuma longa L. with Nelumbo nucifera leaf in an in vitro model and a high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mouse model / Myung A Jung, Sun Young Lee, Seul Hee Han, Jiae Hong, Ju-Ryun Na, Joon Yeol Lee, Yongjae Kim & Sunoh Kum / Animal Cells and Systems Volume 19, Issue 2, 2015
Anticancer activity of Nelumbo nucifera stamen extract in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro / Xin Zhao, Xia Feng, Cun Wang, Deguang Peng, Kai Zhu, Jia‑Le Song /  Oncology Letters / https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.5547
Nelumbo nucifera leaves extracts inhibit mouse airway smooth muscle contraction / Xiao YangLu Xue, Qingyang ZhaoCongli CaiQing-Hua Liu and Jinhua Shen / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine BMC series, 2017, 17:159 / DOI10.1186/s12906-017-1674-7
Effect of Flower Extract from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) on Haematological Values and Blood Cell Characteristics in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats / Supasorn Sakuljaitrong, Sanong Chomko and Chusri Talubmook, Nopparat Buddhakala / ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, VOL. 2, NO. 11, Dec 2012
GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds from Russia / Moustafa Salaheldin Abdelhamid*, Elena Igorevna Kondratenko, Natalya Arkadievna Lomteva / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 5 (04), pp. 115-118, April, 2015 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50419
Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through modulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration / Rajendra Karki Ph.D., Eun-Raye Jeon, Dong-Wook Kim Ph.D.* / Nutrition 29 (2013) 268–275
Positive Modulation of Pink Nelumbo nucifera Flowers on Memory Impairment, Brain Damage, and Biochemical Profiles in Restraint Rats. / Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5789857
The Latest Studies on Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)-an Emerging Horticultural Model Plant / Zhongyuan Lin, Cheng Zhang, Pingfang Yang et al / International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ethno-medicinal and pharmacological activities of lotus rhizome / Tabasum Fatima, Farheena Iftikhar and Syed Zameer Hussain / The Pharma Innovation Journal, 2018; 7(4): pp 238-241
Phytochemical Screening of Rhizome-Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.; (Family- Nymphaeaceae) / Dr. M. Arul Sheeba Rani, Vyshakhi. V / International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), March 2019; 7(3)
Antimicrobial Activity of White and Pink Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn Flowers / D Brindha, D Arthi / Asiasn Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care, 2010; 2(2)
Role of Whole Plant Extract of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn in the Treatment of Thrombolysis. / Sharma C, Chauhan S, Gupta S / Prime PubMed ID 31622211
Evaluation of anti-fibrotic activity of ethanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera gaertn. Seed against doxorubicin and unilateral ureter obstruction-induced renal fibrosis/ R Rushendran, Dr V Jayasankar Reddy, T Bharath Kumar, T Mamatha, J Roja, T Roopavani / J Pre Clin Clin Res., 2017; 11(1): pp :66–75 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.26444/jpccr/75319
Nelumbo nucifera extracts mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the potential applications in medicine and environmental remediation / N Supraja, B Avinash, and T N V K V Prasad / Advances in Nano Research, 2017; Vol 5, No 4: pp 373-392 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/anr.2017.5.4.373
THE POTENTIAL EMPHASIS OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA GAERTN IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. / Vinod Doharey, Manish Kumar / Medico Research Chronicles 2019; 6(5): pp 264-274
Neuroprotective compounds from embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seed / Jin Bae Weon, Eun Sil Kim, Youn Sik Jung, Kyoung-Hee Oh and Choong Je Ma / 4th International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing / DOI: 10.4172/2161-0444.C1.016

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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