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Family Coriariaceae
Coriaria intermedia Matsum.

Tai wan ma sang

Scientific names Common names
Coriaria intermedia Matsum. Buakat (Ig.)
Coriaria japonica subsp. intermedia (Matsum) T. C. Huang Baket (Ig.)
Coriaria summicola Hayata Bikit (Ig.)
  Japanese false blueberry (Ig.)
  Ma sang ye (Chin.)
Coriaria intermedia Matsum. is a synonym of Coriaria japonica subsp. intermedia (Matsum.) The Plant List
Coriaria japonica subsp. intermedia (Matsum.) T.C.Huang is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Tai wan ma sang

Gen info
- Closely allied to Coriaria japonica.
- Coriaria is the only genus under the family Coriariaceae.

Baket is a shrub that grows from 1 to 3 meters high. Young branches are four-angled, reddish or pinkish. Leaves are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4 to 8.5 centimeters in length, 2 to 4 centimeters in width, blunt or rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are small, about 2 millimeters long, greenish to reddish, borne on simple racemes 6 to 15 centimeters long. Fruit is composed of five very small cocci surrounded by fleshy, persistent petals and sepals of a bluish-black color, giving it a berrylike appearance.

- Found in ravines, at an altitude of 1,400 to 2000 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto and Benguet in the Mountain Province.
- Also reported in Taiwan.

- Poisonous glucoside isolated from the leaves and fruit.
- Study yields coriamyrtin 0.176 % in the fruit, 0.009% in the leaves and 0.041 % in the stems.
- Coriamyrtin is the same toxin found in high concentration in the berries of Coriaria myrtifolia, recognized as one of the most neurotoxic plants in the western Mediterranean area
- Study yielded phytosterols, ellagic acid 3,3'-dimethyl ether, coriamyrtin, b-tutin, naringenin, ursolic acid and a new triterpenoic acid, 20-epibryonolic acid. (4)
- Seeds of C. japonica yielded coriarin, a sesquiterpene lactone, together with tutin, dihydrotutin, and coriarin. (7)
- Study of leaves and roots yielded seven components viz., phytosterol, ellagic acid 3,3’-dimethyl ether, coriamyrtin. β-tutin, narigenin, ursolic acid and 20-epibryonolic acid. (8)
- Study of roots and fruits yielded corianin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, ursolic acid, coriamyrtin, angustifolin, tutin, quercetin and kaempferol. (8)
- Study evaluated twelve species of Coriaria, the sole genus of Coriaceae, for flavonoid constituents. Major compounds identified were 3-O-monoglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol comprising glucosides, galactosides, arabinosides, xylosides, and rhamnosides. Diglycosdies isolated were the 3-O-rutinosides of both flavonols plus small amounts of 3-O-xylosylglucosides. Naringenin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside was the major constituent of most taxa. The distribution of these compounds was very homogenous among the species tested. (11)

- Plant known to be toxic and poisonous.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Igorots reported to be acquainted with the toxicity of the plant.
- In Taiwan, used as folk medicine for gastrointestinal, rheumatism, and uterine cancer.

- Decoction of leaves and fruits known to be deadly poisonous.
- Common in pasture in the Mountain Province, has caused the death of cattle.

- In China, a mixture of crystalline sesquiterpenes, including coriamyrtin and tutin, has been used as muscle injection for the treatment of catatonia; also applied as shock therapy for schizophrenia. (9)

- Coriamytrin: Coriamyrtin which is present in the fruits of C. intermedia (up to almost 0.2%) is a bulbar and medullar stimulant. Symptoms of intoxication include epileptiform convulsions, myosis and dyspnea; a coma might follow, as well as death by respiratory or cardiac arrest. (9) Coriamyrtin is the same toxin found in high concentration in the berries Coriaria myrtifolia, recognized as one of the most neurotoxic plants in the western Mediterranean area - a few berries may induce digestive and neurologic manifestations including seizures, coma and apnea.
- Coriatin:
Coriatin, isolated from the fruit juice is considered to be an analog of coriamyrtin.
- Tutin:
Several studies have reported tutin as a major neurotoxin in the New Zealand shrubs of the genus Coriaria. Tutin has been isolated from the acetone extracts of achenes from the Coriaria japonica berries.

(1) Study yielded phytosterols, ellagic acid 3,3'-dimethyl ether, coriamyrtin, b-tutin, naringenin, ursolic acid and a new triterpenoic acid, 20-epibryonolic acid. (2) Further studies of roots and fruits yielded corianin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, ursolic acid, coriamyrtin, tutin, angustiloin, quercetin and kaempferol.
Toxic Principle / Coriatin: Coriatin, isolated from the fruit juice, was considered to be an analog of coriamyrtin. The relationship between coriatin and coriamyrtin is considered to be analogous to that between picrotin and picrotoxinin.
Sesquiterpene Lactone / Coriarin: A sesquiterpene lactone, coriarin, was isolated from the achenes (seeds) of Coriaria japonica, along with known constituents tutin, dihydrotutin, and coriarin . (7)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: In a study of selected plants for antimicrobial activity, against five bacteria viz. Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the leaf extract of C. intermedia was active against all the strains, comparable to the results of four antibiotics (chloramphenicol, vancomycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). (10)
• 20-Epi-Bryonolic Acid / Antineoplastic / Roots: Study isolated 20-epi-bryonolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid of D.c-friedooleanane-type triterpenoids, from the roots of Coriaria intermedia and stems of Lagenaria siceraria. The compound was found to exhibit antineoplastic activity. (12)
Bryonolic Acid / Anticancer: Study evaluated the anticancer properties of Bryonilic acid (BrA). a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants used in African traditional medicine. Study reports BrA inhibits acyl-coA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner, blocking the biosynthesis of the cholesterol fatty acid ester tumor promoter. It also demonstrated BrA inhibits ACAT in intact cancer cells with an IC50 of 12.6 ± 2.4 µM. BrA inhibited both clonogenicity and invasiveness of several cancer cell lines. BrA appears more potent than other pentacyclic triterpenes, betulinic acid and ursolic acid. Reversal of inhibitory effect by cholesterol oleate shows that ACAT inhibition is responsible for the anticancer effect of BrA. (13)


                      Abuse and Plagiarism of the Compilation on Philippine Medicinal Plants Under the Guise of Fair Use

Updated October 2020 / September 2013

                                                      PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: /Coriariaceae: Coriaria intermedia / Infructescence / Copyright © 2016 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL113333] / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Coriaria japonica.JPG / 2008.05.24 / Qwert1234 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Coriaria intermedia Matsum. Suggested Readings
Coriaria intermedia Matsum. / Synonyms /
The Plant List
Coriaria intermedia Matsum. (accepted name)
/ Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
Poisoning by Coriaria myrtifolia Linnaeus: a new case report and review of the literature / Luc de Haro, Philip Pommier et al /
Toxicon, Volume 46, Issue 6, November 2005, Pages 600-603 / doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.06.026
20-Epibryonolic acid, phytosterols and ellagic acid from Coriaria intermedia / Yuan-Shiun Chang, Ming-Shiung Lin et al / Phytochemistry, May 1996; Volume 42, Issue 2: pp 559-560 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00935-3
Studies on the Components of Coriaria japonica A. GRAY. XIV. Two New Compounds isolated from Old Stem and Seed / Okuda Takuo / Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 9(3), 178-181, 1961-03-25
Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae) / Saeldeh Momtzaz, Namrita Lall et al / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2010, Vol 6, No 21, Page : 34-41
The isolation and structure elucidation of a new sesquiterpene lactone from the poisonous plant Coriaria japonica (Coriariaceae). / Takeshi Kinoshita, Nao Itaki, Maho Hikita, Yutaka Aoyagi, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Koichi Takeya / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 09/2005; 53(8):1040-2. / DOI:10.1248/cpb.53.1040
Ruey-Ling Jiang, Yuan-Shiun Chang and Li-Kang Ho / nricm.edu
Coriaria intermedia / R.H.M.J. Lemmens / Pl@nyUse
Phytochemical and antibacterial study of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. and its ethnomedicinal importance to indigenous communities of Benguet Province, Philippines / Teodora Balangcod, Kryssa Balangcod / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Jan 2014; 13(1): pp 56-62
Leaf Flavonoids and Ordinal Affinities of Coriaceae / Bruce A Bohm and Bobert Ornduff / Systematic Botany, Jan-Mar 1981; 6(1): pp 15-26 / DOI: 10.2307/2418631 
20-Epi-Bryonolic Acid / PubChem CID: 159970
Bryonolic Acid Blocks Cancer Cell Clonogenicity and Invasiveness through the Inhibition of Fatty Acid: Cholesteryl Ester Formation / Farid Khallouki, Robert Wyn Owen, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, and Marc Poirot / Biomedicines, 6(1) / 10.3390/biomedicines6010021

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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