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Family Amaryllidaceae
Bakong
Crinum asiaticum Linn.

SPIDER LILY
Wen zhu lan

Scientific names  Common names
Amaryllis carnosa Hook.f. Agabahan (Bis.) 
Bulbine asiatica (L.) Gaertn. Agakong (Bon..) 
Crinum anomalum Herb. Bakong (Tag., Bag., Ilk., Sbl.) 
Crinum asiaticum Linn. Biliba (Sub.)
Crinum bancanum Kurz Kabong (Bik.)
Crinum bracteatum Willd. Palagukon (Bis.)
Crinum carinifolium Stokes Saknib (Bon.)
Crinum cortifolium Hallier f. Salibangbang (Bis.)
Crinum declinatum Herb. Teba (Bon.)
Crinum hornemannianum M.Roem. Giant crinum lily (Engl.)
Crinum macrantherum Engl. Grand crinum (Engl.)
Crinum macrocarpum Carey ex Kunth Poison bulb (Engl.)
Crinum macrophyllum Hallier f. Spider lily (Engl.)
Crinum northianum Baker  
Crinum plicatum Livingstone ex Hook.  
Crinum procerum Herb. & Care.  
Crinum redouteanum M.Roem.  
Crinum rigidum Herb.  
Crinum rumphii Merr.  
Crinum sumatranum Roxb.  
Crinum toxicarium Roxb.  
Crinum umbellatum Carey ex Herb.  
Crinum woolliamsii L.S.Hannibal  
Crinum zanthophyllum Hannibal  
Lilium pendulum Noronha  
Bakong is a local name shared by (1) Crinum asiaticum (2) Crinum latifolium, lirio and (3) Hymenocallis littorale, spider lily.
Spider lily is a shared common name of (1) Hymenocallis littorale, bakong, lirio and (2) Crinum asiaticum
Crinum asiaticum L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Bara kanur.
CHINESE: Wen zhu lan.
DUTCH: Haaklelie.
HINDI: Cindar, Nagadamani.
INDONESIA: Bakung, Kajang-kajang, Fete-fete,
JAPANESE: Hama-Omoto.
MALAYSIA: Bakong, Bawang hutan.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Morabau, Didil, Pokaan.
SANSKRIT: Nagadamani.
THAI: Phlapphueng, Lilua.
VIETNAMESE:N[as]ng hoa tr[aws]ng, T[or]i voi, I[as] n[as]ng.

Botany
Bakong is an evergreen herb with large coated bulbs, 5 to 10 centimeters in diameters. Leaves are crowded at the apex, lanceolate, 90 to 150 centimeters long, 12 to 15 centimeters wide. Scape, arising from the axils of old leaves, is erect, stout, and solid, about 1 meter high or less. Spathe subtending the flowers is about 15 centimeters long. Flowers are fragrant, 20 to 40, each subtended by a thin, narrow bracteole. Perianth tube is greenish, about 1 centimeter long, the lobes spreading, white, linear, recurved or revolute, about 8 centimeters long and 8 centimeters wide. Filaments are very slender, free and purplish above. Fruits are subglobose, about 5 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines along sandy seashores; sometimes planted inland.
- Occasional ornamental cultivation
for its showy flowers.
- Widely distributed in China, India, South Korean, Myanmar, Japan and Sri Lanka.

Constituents
- Contains an emetic component, an alkaloid, lycorine (1 to 1.8 percent) allied to emetine.
- Bulb has yielded alkaloids lycorine and crinamine.
- The bulbs have been reported to contain baconine.
- Considered astringent due to the presence of considerable amounts of tannin.
- An ethanol extract study revealed a new phenolic compound from the bulbs of Crinum asiaticum L. var sinicum.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, coumarins, glycosides, triterpenes and flavonoids.

Properties
- Astringent, analgesic, emollient, emetic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, antinociceptive, sedative, antibacterial properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves and bulbs.

Uses
Folkloric
- Bulbs prepared as an ointment and leaves used as an emollient.
- In India, the leaves and roots are emetic and diaphoretic, used as a substitute for ipecacuanha.
- Warmed succulent leaves smeared with castor oil or bruised leaves mixed with oil are used for whitlow and other inflammations at the ends of toes and fingers.
- Also used as fomentations on inflamed joints and sprains.
- Juice of leaves, with a little salt, used for earaches and other ear complaints.
- Poultice made from heated, pounded fresh bulb used for osteodynia and rheumatism.
- Juice of fresh bulb is emetic. Also, instilled in the ear to treat otitis.
- Poultice of heated, pounded fresh leaves used for contusion, sprains, fractures, luxations.
- In Java, roots regarded as good emetic.
- Roots used for fevers lumbago, headaches and swellings.
- In Malaysia, used as rheumatic remedy and for local pain relief.
- In Australia, aborigines use warm infusions of C asiaticum bulb to disinfect wounds.
- In the Congo, used for leprosy.
- In Bangladesh, the tribes of Chittagong Hilly areas use the plant for pain, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, earaches, arthritis, leprosy, cold and cough disorders, vomiting, worm infestations. colic, flatulence and fever. Warmed leaves smeared with castor oil applied to end of toes and fingers for repelling inflammations and swelling.
- Bruised leaves used as insect repellent.
- Juice of fresh bulb used as emetic for children.
- Decoction of dried leaves use as hemorrhoidal wash.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory: The plant extract of Crinum asiaticum showed anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice. A chloroform fraction of the methanol extract (CFME) on studied on its effect on BK- and histamine-induced contractions in slated rat uterus and guinea-pig ileum preparations. Results showed dose-dependent reduction (p<0.05; n=6) of contractile response induced by BK. Study suggests the CFME may contain compound/s with anti-histaminic properties. (1)
Prostatic Hypertrophy: Model proved the leaf extract of Crinum asiaticum to be effective against hypertrophy of prostate in rats. (3)
Mast Cell Effect: Lycoriside, an acylglucosyloxy-alkaloid from Crinum asiaticum on albino rats was studied for the mechanism of a dual response it elicited in view of a concentration-dependent anti- or prelease-effect on mast cell mediators.
(4)
Crinumin / Chymotrypsin-Like Activity: Study purified crinumin, a glycosylated serine protease with chymotrypsin-like activity from the latex of C asiaticum. Its varied activities make it applicable for the pharmaceutical and food industries. (5)
Central Inhibitory Activity / Sedative: Study of aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum in mice showed it contained biologically active principles with sedative activity. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Lymphocytic / Analgesic: Study of extract of C giganteum showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of pain and a significant effect on leucocyte count. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of tannins. Results showed CG bulb contains biologically active principles with potentials for treatment of inflammatory processes. (7)
Palmilycorine and Lycoriside / Alkaloids: Study isolated two new types of alkaloidal conjugates: palmilycorine and lycoriside from the fruits of Crinum asiaticum. The were also detected fro the fleshy scale leaves and roots. (8)
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: The aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Crinum asiaticum were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The ethanolic extract showed more inhibitory activity than the aqueous extract. Phytochemical analysis yielded n-Hexadecanoic acid (22.44%), 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid (15.42%), 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (14.78%), 9, 10–Anthracenedione 2-amino (7.65%) and phytol (7.43%) as major present components. Results showed it to be a natural source of new antibacterial compounds. (9)
Antinociceptive / Phytochemicals: Study yielded alkaloids, coumarins, glycosides, triterpenes, and flavonoids. Results in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model showed antinociceptive activity using indomethacin as control. (11)
Norgalanthamine / Hair Growth: Study in rats treated with an ethanol extract showed an increase expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the bulb region. Study yielded norgalanthamine, a principal of C. asiaticum, that exhibited a potential to promote hair growth via the proliferation of dermal papilla. (12)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Bulbs: Study of a methanol extract of Crinum asiaticum bulb for antinociceptive activity on pain induced by acetic acid and formalin in Swiss albino mice showed potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. (16)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of leaves by incorporating an extract in simple ointment base of 2% and 4% formulations. Wound healing was studied in excision, incision and burn wound models. The 4% alcoholic extract showed significant (p<0.001) wound contracting ability and period of epithelization, with significant tensile strength in both formulations. (17)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of an ethanolic leaf extract showed analgesic effects in acetic acid induced writhing model (p<0.001) and formalin induced licking model (p<0.01) in swiss albino mice and anti-inflammatory effect (p<0.01) in carrageenan-induced paw edema model of albino rat. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study. (18)
Antioxidant / Attenuation of Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress / Hepatocyte Protective: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Crinum asiaticum leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in blood sugar level, decrease in TC, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides and an increase in HDL. Results showed the hepatocyte protective nature of CA by attenuating markers of hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress. (19)
Anticandidal / Leaves: Study evaluated various organic and aqueous extracts of C. asiaticum leaves for anticandidal activity against five human pathogenic Candida spp. A dichlormethane solvent showed the best activity against all tested Candida spp. with zone of inhibition between 12.3 mm and 20.6 mm, with Candida albicans showing greatest sensitivity at 20.6mm. (20)

Availability
Cultivated.

Last Update June 2016

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE:Crinum asiaticum / File:Crinum asiaticum Bot. Mag. .jpg / W. Herbert / Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Volume 48: 2231, as Crinum procerum / 1821 / Public domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Crinum Lily (Crinum asiaticum) / File:Crinum Lily.JPG / Cody Hough / College student and photographer in the Michgian area / Feb 9, 2008 / GNU Free Documentaion License / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Anti-inflammatory activity of Crinum asiaticum plant and its effect on bradykinin-induced contractions on isolated uterus / Awatef M Samud et al / Immunopharmacology / Vol 43, Issues 2-3, September 1999, Pages 311-316 / doi:10.1016/S0162-3109(99)00132-0
(2)
A new phenolic compound from Crinum asiaticum L. / Chinese Chemical Letters Vol19, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 447-449 / doi:10.1016/j.cclet.2008.01.022
(3)
Experimental induction of Prostatic Hypertrophy in rats for study of leaf extract of Crinum asiaticum L. / Do Trung Dam, Nguyen Ba Hoat, Le Minh Phuong, Nguyen Kim Phuong, Do Thi Phuong
(4)
Effect of lycoriside, an acylglucosyloxy alkaloid, on mast cells / Shibnath Ghosal, Amirthalingam Shanthy et al / Pharmaceutical Research / Vol 3, Number 4 / August, 1986
DOI 10.1023/A:1016346931894

(5)
Crinumin, a chymotrypsin-like but glycosylated serine protease from Crinum asiaticum: Purification and physicochemical characterisation / Kunwar Awaneesh Singh et al / Food Chemistry • Volume 119, Issue 4, 15 April 2010, Pages 1352-1358 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.012
(6)
Central inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum / S Amos, L Binda et al / Fitoterapia
Volume 74, Issues 1-2, February 2003, Pages 23-28 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00287-3
(7)
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lymphocytic activities of the aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum / S D Kapu, Y B Ngwai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 78, Issue 1, November 2001, Pages 7-13/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00308-7
(8)
Palmilycorine and lycoriside: acyloxy and acylglucosyloxy alkaloids from crinum asiaticum / Shibnath Ghosal, Amirthalingam Shanthy et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 24, Issue 11, 29 October 1985, Pages 2703-2706 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)80698-6
(9)
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF
Crinum asiaticum
/ Ilavenil S, B Kaleeswaran and Ravikumar S / International Journal of Current Research
Vol. 1, pp. 035-040, January, 2010
(10)
Crinum asiaticum L. / Plants For A Future
(11)
In vivo Antinociceptive Activity of Leaf Extract of Crinum asiaticum and Phytochemical Analysis of the Bioactive Fractions / M Z Asmawi, O M Arafat, S Amirin and I M eldeen / International Journ of Pharmacology, 7 (1): 125-129, 2011.
(12)
Promotion effect of norgalanthamine, a component of Crinum asiaticum, on hair growth
/ Sang-Cheol Kim, Jun-Il Kang et al / European journal of dermatology : EJD. 10/2009; DOI: 10.1684/ejd.2010.0807
(13)
Crinum asiaticum (Giant Crinum Lily) / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(14)
Crinum asiaticum / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(15)
Crinum asiaticum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(16)
ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CRINUM ASIATICUM BULB EXTRACT / MD. ATIAR RAHMAN*, RUMANA SHARMIN, MD. NAZIM UDDIN, MAHBUB­UZ­ZAMAN, SOHEL RANA NAZIM UDDIN AHMED / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol. 4, Issue 3, 2011
(17)
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CRINUM ASIATICUM / K.K. Senthil Kumar / Inter. J. of Phytotherapy, Vol 1, Issue 1, 2011, pp 16-20.
(18)
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf alcoholic extract in animal models / Md. Atiar Rahman, SM Azad Hossain, Nazim Uddin Ahmed, Md. Shahidul Islam / African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 12, No 2 (2013)
(19)
Ethanolic extract of Crinum asiaticum attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and protects hepatocytes in alloxan induced experimental diabetic rats / S. Indradevi, S. Ilavenil, B. Kaleeswaran, S. Srigopalram, S. Ravikumar / Journal of King Saud University - Science, Vol 24, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 171–177 / doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2010.12.007
(20)
Anticandidal potential of Crinum asiaticum leaves extract against selected oral and vaginal Candida pathogens / Parveen Surain*, Kamal Rai Aneja / Journal of Innovative Biology March 2014 Vol. 1, Issue 1, P. 027-030

 

 


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