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Family Typhaceae
Typha domingensis Pers.
Chang bao xiang pu

Scientific names Common names
Typha abyssinica Rchb.f. ex Rohrb. Balangot (Tag., S.L.Bis., P.Bis.)
Typha aequalis Schnizl. Homai-homai (Bisaya)
Typha aethiopica Kronf. Kaid-ked (Pangasinan)
Typha americana Rich. ex Rohrb. Cumbungi (Engl.)
Typha angustata Bory & Chaub. Lesser bulrush (Engl.)
Typha angustata var. abyssinica (Rchb.f. & Rohrb.) Graebn. Narrowleaf cumbungi (Engl.)
Typha angustata subsp. aethiopica (Rohrb.) Kronf. Southern cattail (Engl.)
Typha angustata var. aethiopica Rohrb. Tall cattail (Engl.)
Typha angustata var. gracilis Nyman  
Typha angustata var. leptocarpa Rohrb.  
Typha angustifolia var. angustata (Bory & Chaub.) Jord.  
Typha angustifolia subsp. angustata (Bory & Chaub.) Briq.  
Typha angustifolia subsp. australis (Schumach.) Kronf.  
Typha angustifolia proles australis (Schumach.) Rouy  
Typha angustifolia var. australis (Schumach.) Rohrb.  
Typha angustifolia var. brownii (Kunth) Kronf.  
Typha angustifolia subsp. domingensis (Pers.) Rohrb.  
Typha angustifolia var. domingensis (Pers.) Griseb.  
Typha angustifolia subsp. javanica (Schnizl. & Rohrb.) Graebn.  
Typha angustifolia var. saulseana Legrand  
Typha angustifolia var. tenuispicata Debeaux  
Typha angustifolia var. virginica Tidestr.  
Typha australis Schumach.  
Typha basedowii Graebn.  
Typha bracteata Greene  
Typha brownii Kunth  
Typha damiattica Ehrenb. ex Rohrb.  
Typha domingensis Pers.  
Typha domingensis var. angustata (Bory & Chaub.) Geze  
Typha domingensis var. australis (Schumach.) Geze  
Typha domingensis subsp. australis (Schumach.) Vazquez  
Typha domingensis var. eudomingensis Geze  
Typha domingensis var. javanica (Schnizl. ex Rohrb.) Geze  
Typha domingensis var. sachetiae Fosberg  
Typha domingensis f. strimonii Cheshm. & Delip.  
Typha ehrenbergii Schur ex Rohrb.  
Typha essequeboensis G.Mey ex Rohrb.  
Typha gigantea Schur ex Kunth  
Typha gracilis Schur  
Typha javanica Schnizl. ex Rohrb.  
Typha latifolia subsp. domingensis Pers.  
Typha macranthelia Webb. & Berthel.  
Typha maxima Schur ex Rohrb.  
Typha media Bory & Chaub.  
Typha salgirica Krasnova  
Typha spiralis Raf.  
Typha tenuiflolia Kunth  
Typha truxillensis Kunth  
Typha domingensis Pers. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Balangot is a local common name shared by Typha domingensis and T. capensis (Lampakanay).
Note: The pages on Typha domingensis (Balangot) and T. capensis (Lampakanag) are merged. (Stuart)

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Capim-de espeira, Espadana, Landim, Paineira-do-brejo, Painha de flexa, Partarana, Taboa.
CHINA: Chang bao xiang pu.
FIJI: Deniruve, Denisoqe, Denisiga.
FRANCE : Massette, Quenouiilles, Roseau de la passion, Jonc, Queue de chat.
GERMANY: Suedlicher Rohrkolben.
INDONESIA: Lembang, Embet, Ampet.
THAILAND: Kok chaang, Thuup ruesee, Yaa salaap luang.
VIETNAM: C[or] n[ees]n, H[uw][ow]ng b[oof].

Gen info
- Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.
- Typha domingensis
is a perennial herbaceous plant of the genus Typha. It is found worldwide throughout temperate and tropical regions.
- T. domingensis is sometimes confused with other Typha species, especially T. angustifolia.
- Typhaceae in the Philippines: Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines lists two native Typha species: Typha domingensis and Typha orientalis. Possibly present and naturalized if indeed present are T. elephantina and T. latifolia. (31)

• Typha domingensis is a perennial wetland plant. Leaves are pale yellow-green in color, alternate, long, linear, flat and sheathing. 6-9 leaves per stem, up to 5/8 inch wide, flat on one side and convex on the other. Stems are pithy, simple, erect and 5-13 feet tall. Flowers are tiny, numerous, densely packed into a cylindrical spike at the end of the stem that can grow up to 8 feet; divided into an upper section of yellow, male flowers and lower cinnamon brown, sausage-shaped section of female flowers; gap between male and female flowers is about 2.5-5 centimeters. Seeds are tiny (about 1 mm) and hairy; dispersed by wind. (3)

• Stems 0.7-2.5 m tall, stout. Leaves 40-150 cm × 3-8 mm, abaxially convex, transverse section semicircular. Male part of spikes 7-30 cm, with 1 or 2 bracts; bracts to ca. 32 cm, deciduous; female part of spikes 5-23 cm, distinctly separated from male part, with 1 bract at base, with sparse and curved hairs on axis. Male flowers: stamens 3, rarely 2; anthers ca. 1.4 mm. Female flowers with bracteoles; ovary lanceolate; stalk 3-6 mm, slender; styles 0.5-1.5 mm; stigmas linear to lanceolate, 0.8-1.5 mm, broader than styles; hairs on stalk shorter than style. Fruit fusiform. (Flora of China)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre. (1)

- Qualitative phytochemical screening of methanol extract and n-hexane fraction revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, terpenes, steroids, resins, tannins, and phenols while amino acid, saponin, resins, and alkaloids were absent. (4)
- Study showed a methanolic extract has more total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (95.72 mg GAE/g, 131.66 QW/g, respectively) as compared to n-hexane fraction. (see study below) 
- Qualitative screening of chloroform fraction and butanol fraction revealed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenes, resins, tannins, and phenols while amino acids and alkaloids were absent. (see study below) (6)
- Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract of rhizome showed presence of reducing sugars, steroids, cardiac glycosides and absence of saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. (8)
- Phytochemical screening of crude extract of leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, phenol, saponins, flavonoids in aqueous and methanolic extracts, whereas carbohydrates, tannins, oils and fats were present in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The chloroform extract also contain   contained flavonoids and phenols. (see study below) (20)
- Methanol extract of fruits yielded alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. (see study below) (26)
- GC-MS analysis of the qurraid aqueous extract showed the major components with their ratio were: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural with RT%  13.6196, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone 6.4285,. alpha.-L-lyxo-Hexopyranoside, methyl 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- 4.264, 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- 3.2078, and 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol 3.1257. (see study below)  (33)

- Considered the tallest of the cattails.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, AChE and BuChE inhibitory, thrombolytic, antiviral, hypolipidemic, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, antiatherosclerotic, hypotensive, antiobesity, phytoremediative, spasmolytic, vasorelaxant, bronchodilating, wound healing, antifungal properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, flowers, fruit.


- In the Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq, Khirret is a dessert made from the pollen of the plant. (2)

- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Turkish folk medicine, female inflorescences are used externally for burns and wound healing. (2) Pollens used for nosebleed, uterine bleeding, postpartum abdominal discomfort, and abscesses. Lower stem and leaves used as diuretic. (6)
- In Fiji, leaves used to treat stomach complaints.
- In India, roots used as folk medicine by tribes of Kinwat forest for treatment of dysuria: Two teaspoons of root extract mixed with half cup of curd is taken orally three times daily for three days. (30)

- Phytoremediation: See studies below.

- Fiber: Seeds and leaves yield biodegradable fiber with potential for textiles and composites. (see study below) (21) (22)

Antioxidant / Enzyme Inhibition / Thrombolytic:
Flavonoid and total phenolic content confirmed its maximum antioxidant potential (ABTS 114.31 ± 8.17, FRAP 116.84 ± 3.01, DPPH 283.54 ± 7.3 & CUPRAC 284.16 ± 6.5 mg TE/g). In the case of in vitro enzyme inhibition study and thrombolytic activity, better results were observed for methanolic extract. The ME also showed maximum tyrosinase inhibition activity (74.51%) compared to n-hexane fraction (65.32%); kojic acid % inhibition was 85.58%). ME also showed acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activities of 97.11 and 72.88%, respectively. The cholinesterase inhibition was directly related to flavonoid contents. On thrombolytic activity, the n-hexane fraction showed higher activity than the methanolic extract. (see constituents above) (4)
Antibacterial / Antviral Activity: Antibacterial activity was tested against eight bacterial strains i.e., Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Bordetella bronchi septica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Co-amoxiclav was used as standard. Both ME and n-hexane fraction revealed good concentration dependent antibacterial activity against activity. At higher concentrations (20 mg/mL) zone of inhibition was significant except for P. aeruginosa. Both ME and nH extracts showed strong antiviral activity against four viral strains, viz., influenza A virus (IAV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). (4)
Antioxidant / Iron-Chelating / Anti-Glucosidase Activities / Flowers and Fruit: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, iron-chelating, and antiglucosidase activities of T. domingensis. Phenolic contents  decreased in order of fruit > female flower > male flower. Superoxide scavenging showed EC50 of 3.5, 4.8 and 28.2 mg dry matter/ml for fruit, female flower, and male flower, respectively, while nitric oxide scavenging EC50s were 0.16, 0.65, and 0.95 mg DM/ml, respectively. Iron chelating EC50s were 4.86, 6.43, 10.88 mg DM/ml, for FF, MF, and fruit, respectively. Only fruit and female flower extracts exhibited antiglucosidase activity, with EC50s of 0.75 and 5.07 mg DM/mL, respectively. Results suggest fruit and female flower extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants, iron chelators, and glucosidase inhibitors. (5)
Biological Activities / Toxicity Testing: Polyphenolic quantification showed the n-butanol fraction of T. domingensis was comparatively rich in total phenolic and flavonoid contents (97.14 mg GAE/g and 362.5 mg QE/g, respectively). Both butanol (BF) and chloroform (CF) fractions showed antioxidant activity. Tyrosinase was the major enzyme inhibited by the BF and CF (78.67% and 68.09%, respectively). BF inhibition results of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were higher than CF. On oral toxicity testing, the CF and BF did not show sign or symptom of morbidity or mortality for a period of 24 hours at concentrations of 0.1-3.0 g/kbw. (see constituents above) (6)
Wound Healing / Flowers: Study evaluated ointment formulations of male and female flower inflorescences in 5% and 10% concentrations for wound healing potential in linear excision and circular excision wound models in rats and mice. Remarkable wound healing was observed only with female flowers inflorescence at 5% concentration in ointment base and its methanolic and aqueous extracts. Wound healing effect was comparable to reference ointment Madecassol®. (7)
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory / Antihyperglycemic Potential / Flowers: Study evaluated various fruit extracts for antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities. The acetone extract showed highest antiglucosidase (EC50 12.36 µg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 8.57 µg/mL) activities. A butanol fraction showed markedly stronger antiglucosidase activity (EC50 4.27 µg/mL) than quercetin (EC50 22.18 µg/mL). The BF also showed potent radical scavenging activity (EC507.20 µg/mL). BF was rich in TPro (proanthocyanidin) (735.65 mg/g) and was a competitive glucosidase inhibitor. TPro correlated with antiglucosidase (R2=0.709) and DPPH scavenging activities (R2=0.838). (10)
Antihyperlipidemic / Hypotensive / Antiatherosclerotic: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic potential of Typha domingensis in diet-induced hyperlipidemia and associated complications in Wistar rats fed a high fat diet. Treatment groups received 100 and 300 mg/kg of 70% methanolic extract of TD. Atorvastatin was used as control. Results showed significantly lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It produced anti-obesity effects as suggested by reduction in body weight. Histological studies revealed an anti-atherosclerotic effect. A decreasing mean arterial blood pressure showed hypotensive effects. (11)
Pollen as Human Food: Only a few plants, mostly from the genus Typha, provide pollen as a source of human food. One of the most unusual is the pollen of "totora" (Typha domingensis). Paper reports on the gathering of T. domingensis pollen and modes of preparation, chemical composition, and consumption of edible products by seven ethnic groups of the Gran Chaco (Chulupi, Lengua, Maka, Mataco, Pilaga, Toba, and Toba-Pilaga) in Argentina and Paraguay. These ethnic groups do not eat any other kind of pollen other than that of T. domingensis. (12)
Phytoremediation / Antibacterial: Study showed Typha domingensis can be used in reducing bacterial contamination of water for agricultural use. The plant was presented in places where water flows. The roots are always flooded, absorbing nutrients from the soil and releasing compounds that help reduce the impact of pathogens. The plant helps reduce, up to 98 percent, pollution by enterobacteria usually found in the intestine of mammals, which is involved in the development of disease. Study suggests that rather than removing T. domingensis as pests from drains, its proper management can help the ecosystem. (13)
Effect of Plant Antigen on Asthma: Study evaluated the effect of plant antigen TYPHA on patients with allergic asthma and bronchitis by measuring the levels of immunological parameters IgE, CD23, CD300. Study showed an increase in the differential protein CD300 concentration 4 (IU/cm3) by 32% (p<0.05).  Results suggest exposure to Typha sp. plant antigen affects the immune system of asthmatics and increase the incidence of asthma. (14)
Silver Nanoparticles: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Typha domingensis as reducing agent. Results suggest typha is capable of synthesizing spherical shaped AgNPs with biological activity. (15)
Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals: Study evaluated the ability of two emergent macrophytes, Typha domingensis and T. elephantina for accumulation of six heavy metals (PH, EC, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in an arid habitat in Saudi Arabia.   PH, EC, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were significantly higher on T. elephantina sites, while Fe and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in T. domingensis. Typha domingensis allocated approximately  61.3% of its total biomass to leaves, 8.6% to flowers, 11.3% to peduncles, 9.8% to rhizomes, and 9.0% to roots. All investigated species showed bioaccumulation factor > 1.0 for all heavy metals. Results suggest both plants can be regarded as good candidates as phytoremediator for mitigating heavy metals pollution. (16)
Anticancer / Human Breast Cancer Cells / Pollen: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of aqueous-ethanol extract of Typha domingensis pollen. Cytotoxic effect was tested against two breast cancer cell lines,, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in vitro. MTT was used to test the effect of pollen extract on cells proliferation. Results showed MCF7 cells estrogen receptor + (ER+) were sensitive (GI50 254 µg/ml) to pollen extract. The MDA-MB231 (ER-) cells were resistant to the same extract. Results suggest the TD aqueous ethanolic extract has potential as therapeutic candidate against ER+ breast cancer cells. (17) Study evaluated the cytotoxic effect of aqueous extract of pollen part of T. domingensis in vitro on two adenocarcinoma breast cancer lines viz. MCF7 and MDA-MB231. Exposure for 24 hours showed both cell lines did not achieve 50% reduction in viability even at dose of 1000 µg/ml. However, the MCF7 (estrogen receptor + [ER+]) cells showed a trend of sensitivity, and confirmed with morphological change, which was more obvious than MDA-MB231. Results suggest ER+ breast carcinoma cells may benefit from aqueous extract of T. domingensis. (34)
Phytoremediation of Mine Tailings / Manganese: Study showed T. domingensis is highly efficient in phytoremediation, especially a capacity to scavenge manganese, a potentially toxic micronutrient that can constitute a major ecological hazard. The amount of manganese correspond to 6,858 mg/kg in the plant shoots, compared to an average of 200 mg/kg for other species. Study showed TD has potential use in sustainable rehabilitation of areas affected by iron mine tailings. (18)
Potential as Function Ingredient in Cake Making: Study evaluated the chemical compounds and potential of including pollen (Typha domingensis) in cake formulations. Active compounds in three polllen extracts i.e., aqueous, ethanol and hexane were determined by GC-MS study. The pollen contains many active compounds such as gamma-sitosterol, catechol, propionic acid, phenols, and palmitoleic acid. The pollen extracts showed good ability to inhibit free radical DPPH. The pollen contained good content of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc (19.794, 23.620, 4.578 and 0.08 g/L, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed excellent potential of pollen as a function ingredient in cake making. (19)
Phytoremediation / Industrial Wastewater / Roots: Phytoremediation is a cost effective method that uses plants to remediate contaminants from wastewater, soil, and sediments.  Study evaluated the ability of T. domingensis to uptake heavy metals and its potential application for phytoremediation, focusing on its capacity to absorb and accumulate aluminum, iron, zinc and lead. Results showed T. domingensis was capable of accumulating the heavy metal ions preferentially from wastewater than from sediments. The accumulation attained highest values in roots, rhizomes, and old leaves. Rhizofiltration was found to be the best mechanism to explain Typha domingensis phytoremediation capability. (20)
Fiber Source / Industrial Potential / Leaves and Seeds: Typha domingensis is a naturally growing plant under wetland conditions characterized by its high-quality leaf and seed fibers. Study extracted and characterize d fibers from leaves and seeds by water retting. Scanning electron microscopy showed typha fiber surface is smooth, fine, and circular in cross-section. Crystalline and chemical properties were very close to that of cellulosic fibers. Results suggest potential of biodegradable TD leaf and seed fibers in the manufacture of technical textiles and composites. (21)
Fiber Source / Industrial Potential / Leaves and Seeds: Typha domingensis can be considered a source of long leaf fibers. Study reports on the extraction and its characteristics.  Properties are dependent on extraction methods. While water-extracted leaf fibers show poor interlocking with polymer matrix, alkali treatment of fibers could improved composite properties. Good properties, high thermal stability, and low thermal conductivities suggest potential for Typha fibers as suitable alternative to expensive natural fibers and synthetic fibers in various polymer composites. (22)
Spasmolytic / Bronchodilator / Vasodilating: Study evaluated the pharmacologic effects of Typha domingensis crude 70% aqueous-ethanol extract in gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular disease in a rabbit model. Td cause complete relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum. Td exhibited relaxant effect on Carbachol (Cch)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations. Td also cause relaxation of phenylephrine (1µM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta preparations. Effects were similar to verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker.  A possible calcium channel blocking activity could explain the spasmolytic, bronchdilator, and vasodilator activities of the extract. (23)
Biorefinery Potential / Biomass: Study evaluated the biorefinery potential of fast-growing perennial grass T. domingensis. Kinetics and thermodynamic features of pyrolysis were computed. GC-MS study confirmed the presence of alkanes, alcohols, organic acids, esters, ketones, aldehydes, amides, and amines. Data indicated T. domingensis has substantial potential to become a feedstock of a sustainable biorefinery to produce bioenergy and biochemicals. (24)
Antimicrobial Cattail Fibers: Study reports on the utilization of T. domingensis fiber for physicochemical impregnation of silver nanoparticles and benzalkonium chloride, in the development of a material with antimicrobial activity. Morphology analysis showed silver nanoparticles on the surface of bleached fibers. Results suggest the modified cattail fibers have potential for use as functional filler or coating in the development of antimicrobial composites. (25)
Antidiabetic / Hepatoprotective / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic extract of fruit of T. domingensis on biochemical parameters in adult male rabbits. Results showed significantly decreased (p<0.05) serum levels of glucose, AST, ALT, and ALP, with not significant difference (p>0.05) in levels of cholesterol and total proteins. Activities were attributed to alkaloids and flavonoids. Results suggest potential as an antidiabetic and hepatoprotective agent. (26)
Nutritional Potential as Forage Option: Study evaluated the chemical-bromatological and digestibility in vitro of fiber of Taboa (T. domingensis) plants using palmetto, leaf, and inflorescence. Leaves showed high mineral matter (8.2%), crude protein (11.5%) and in vitro digestibility of fiber (83.1%), while inflorescence showed higher dry matter (22.6%), ether extract (2.1%), and lignin (26.9%). The plant leaves have potential as forage option due to nutritional value and cultivation of the plants at different heights in relation to sea level does not affect chemical-bromatological properties and digestibility of its fiber. (27)
Antifungal / Rhizomes: Study evaluated potential antifungal activity in vitro of purified fractions from rhizome of Typha domingensis in cultures of Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Results showed antifungal activity of the semi-purified fraction (FrAcE) of ethyl acetate for the four species of Candida tested, with MFC vales of 10 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of FrAcE revealed the presence of flavonoids with previously described antifungal activity. Results support further studies for antifungal therapy based on the antifungal properties of T. domingensis rhizomes. (28)
Umbelliferone / Anti-Asthma: Study evaluated the therapeutic effects of umbelliferone (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg), a coumarin isolated from T. domingensis in a mouse model of bronchial asthma. BALB/c mice were immunized and challenged by nasal administration of ovalbumin.  Umbelliferone treatment (60 and 90 mg/kg) caused marked reduction of cellularity and eosinoph9il numbers in bronchoalveoolar lavage fluids from asthmatic mice, along with decrease in mucus production and lung inflammation. Reduction of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were found in the BAL fluids of treated mice, similar to that found with dexamethasone. Results suggest umbelliferone attenuates the alteration characteristics of allergic airway inflammation. Study on mechanisms of action may contribute to the development of new drugs for treatment of asthma. (29)
Anti-Inflammatory / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory / Analgesic / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the phytochemical profile by HPLC techniques and invivo and invitro biological activities of methanol extract from entire plant. HPLC quantification  yielded polyphenols: p-coumaric acid 207.47; gallic acid 96.25, and kaempferol 95.78 µg/g extract. Enzyme inhibition assays revealed IC50 of 44.75, 52.71, and 67.19 µg/mL, significant when compared to standards (indomethacin 18.03; quercetin 4.11, thiourea 8.97) for lipoxygenase, α-glucosidase, and urease, respectively. The TDME demonstrated significant (p<0.05) potential in analgesic activity by hot plate and tail immersion tests and anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. In-silico molecular docking revealed 1,3,4,5-tetracaffeoyl-quinic acid and formononetin 7-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonate, which probably contribute to enzyme inhibitory activities due to higher binging affinities. Results suggest potential nutraceutical applications and novel molecules for anti-inflammatory and analgesic use. (32)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Pollen Grain: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using pollen of T. domingensis. The synthesized AgNPs was evaluated for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method against four bacterial species i.e. Gram-negative E. coli A1, E. coli A2, Alcaligenes faecalis AL1, and Gram-positive Bacillus zanthoxyli B1.  Results showed antibacterial activity that increased with increasing AgNPs concentrations. The most sensitive of the species was Alcaligenes faecalis. (see constituents above) (33)
Functional Ingredient in Cake Making / Pollen: GC-MS study evaluated the active compounds in three pollen extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and hexane) and the possibility of including pollen in the development of suitable cake formulation. The pollen contains many active compounds viz., gamma sitosterol, catechol, propionic acid, phenols, and palmitoleic acid. Highest total flavonoids was 75 mg/ml. The pollen extract showed good ability to inhibit free radical DPPH. The pollen contained good content of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc at 19.794. 23.62, 4.578 and 0.08 g/L, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed excellent potential for use as functional ingredient in cake making. (35)
Low Nutritional Value for Alternative Livestock Fodder: Typha domingensis is an invasive aquatic weed species dominating floodplains/wetlands, grazing, and farmlands in the savannah zones of Nigeria. Study evaluated the nutritional value of the aquatic weed and its use as alternative livestock fodder. Proximate composition revealed moisture 80.01%, ash content 11.68%, crude protein 2.90%,crude lipid 2.90%,crude fiber 6.90%. Macronutrients included Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, S and Cl at 0.93, 0.36, 0.12, 0.02, 0.11, 0.01, and 0.04 respectively. Proximate composition was relatively low, crude protein, crude fiber, and nearly all macronutrients were in low concentration. Results suggest a poor alternative as forage/fodder. (36)
Phytoremediation of Mercury Contaminated Water: Study showed great potential of aquatic macrophyte Typha domingensis in a constructed wetland for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury. (37)
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles / Anthelmintic / Flowers: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using T. domingensis flower extract. The ZnONPs showed potent protoscolicidal effects at all concentrations, with highest scolicidal activity at 40 µg/ml resulting in 100% mortality rate after 30 min of exposure. The ZnONPs appeared hemocompatible, with lox toxicity towards erythrocytes. (38)
Use of Tule to Obtain Cellulose Pulp in Biorefinery Framework: Tule provided a suitable lignocellulosic biomass for biorefining via an autohydrolysis stage and alkaliine delignification stage to provide for cellulose pulp and paper sheets with similar properties to paper sheets from other raw materials. The physical properties from autohydrolzed material were acceptable, although somewhat poorer than those from other lignocellulosic biomasses e.g., eucalyptus wood. But such properties can be improved by mechanical refining of the pulp. Results suggest tule is amenable to industrial processing for production of quality cellulose derivatives. Optimum autohydrolysis conditions for tule were 141°C and a pretreatment time of 45 min, which ensured a high cellulose (glucan) content in solid phase and presence of valorizable hemicellulosic derivatives in the liquor. (39)
Allergenic Potential / Allergic Rhinits Model / Pollen: Airborne pollen grains common in the air can cause hay fever or pollinosis. Typha sp. pollen grain has been frequently reported in various aerobiological surveys from Pakistan. Study investigated the allergenic potential of T. domingensis using an animal model for Invivo testing of pollen allergy. Mice exposed to dried pollen powder experienced allergy symptoms including itching and rubbing of eyes, feet, and tail, along with frequent episodes of sneezing. There was a 4-fold increase in eosinophil count. SDS-AGE analysis of extracted proteins showed the proteins resolved into six bands of molecular weight ranging from 20 KDa - 55 KDa. Results suggest T. domingensis could be source of allergenic particle. Further studies were recommended to identify the responsible allergenic proteins. (40)


Revised and merged May 2024
March 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Typha domingensis / Stan Shebs / CC by SA 3.0 Unported / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Typha domingensis / Oliveira Adriano / CC by SA / click on image to go to source page / PlantNet
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Typha domingensis / © Wiktrop / Non-commercial use / click on image to go to source page / Wiktrop
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Southern cattail (Typha domingensis) / © Mick–photo / CC BY-NC / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalist

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Typha domingensis / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Typha domingensis / Wikipedia
Southern cattail (Typha domingensis) / MISIN: Midwest Invasive Species Information Network
Phytochemical profiling, in vitro biological activities, and in-silico molecular docking studies of Typha domingensis / Rizwana Dilshad, Kashif-ur-Rehman Khan, Saeed Ahmad, Hanan Y Aati et al / Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2022; 15(10):104133 / DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2022.104133
Antioxidant, Iron-chelating and Anti-glucosidase Activities of Typha domingensis Pers (Typhaceae) / T Chai, M Mohan, H Ong, F Wong / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 13(1) /
DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v13i1.10
Chemical Composition and Biological Evaluation of Typha domingensis Pers. to Ameliorate Health Pathologies: In Vitro and In Silico Approaches / Rizwana Dilshad, Kashif-ur-Rehman Khan et al / BioMed Research International, 2022; Article ID 8010395 / DOI: 10.1155/2022/8010395
The potential role of female flowers inflorescence of Typha domingensis Pers. in wound management / Esra Küpeli Akkol, Ipek Süntar, Hikmet Keles, Erdem Yesilada / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2011; 133(3): pp 1027-1032 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.036
Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Typha domingensis Rhizoome Aqueous Extracts
/ Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao, Y Saranya, D Divya / Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res., 2016; 37(1): pp 30-32 / ISSN: 0976-044X
Suggested Reading: In silico analysis of Typha domingensis Pers. phytocompounds against wound healing biomarkers and ascertaining through in vitro cell migration assay / Shraddha Saha et al / 
3 Biotevch, 2022; 12: Article No 166 / DOI: 10.1007/s13205-022-03229-9
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Solvent Extracts and Fractions of Typha domingensis (Typhaceae) Fruit / Tsun-Thai Chai. Mei-Jee Chiam, Chi-Hou Lau, Nor Ismaliza Mohd Ismail et al /  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 14(11) / DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v14i11.5
Pharmacological evaluation of Typha domingensis for its potentials against diet-induced hyperlipidemia and associated complications / Akram, Qaiser Jabeen / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2022; 21(3): pp 563-569 / DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v21i3.26 / pISSN: 1596-5996 // eISSN: 1596-9827
The Consumption of Typha domingensis Pers. (Typhaceae) Pollen among the Ethnic Groups of the Gran Chaco, South America  / Pastor Arenas and Gustavo F. Scarpa / Economic Botany, Summer 2003; 57(2): pp 181-188
Science News Common weed revealed to diminish water pollution / Investigacion y Desarrollo
Effect Of Typha Domingensis Plant Antigen On Ige, Cd3, Cd300 Parameter Of Allergic Asthmatic And Bronchial Patients In Basra, Iraq /  Huda Tawfeg Jeoe, Shayma'a Jabbar Raisan / NVEO: Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils Journal / 8(6)
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Typha domingensis and study of their biological activity / Masara Al-Abdul-Aziz and Zainab TY Al-Abdullah / International Journal of Current Research / ISSN: 0975-833X
Heavy metals accumulation and translocation by Typha elephantina roxb. and Typha domingensis pers. in an arid habitat: perspectives for phytoremediation / Saleh Muneera A, Al-Sodany Yassin M, Abdel Khalik Kadry N, Eid Ebrahim M / World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2019; 4(1): pp 44-53 /
DOI: 10.30574/wjarr.2019.4.1.0088
Cytotoxic Effect of Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Typha Domingensis Pers. (Pollen) against Human Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro / Majed H. Karbon, Ali H. Alhammer / Sys Rev Pharm, 2020; 11(10): pp 1158-1161
News Release: Study shows potential of Southern cattail for phytoremediation of areas contaminated by mine tailings / EurekAlert : Sept 2022
Analytical Study of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Pollen (Typha domingensis pers.) Extracted from the Papyrus Plant and its Use in Cake Enrichment / Nareman Adeem Shnaa Aljazy, Alaa R Abdulstar, Jinan Mohammed Fayyad Alrakabi /  Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 2021; 11(2): pp 126-136 / DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132392.1017
Phytoremediation of industrial wastewater potentiality by Typha domingensis / A K Hegazy, N T Abdel-Ghani, G A El-Chaghaby / Int J Environ Sci Tech., Summer 2011; 8(3): pp 639-648 / ISSN: 1735-1472
Fiber Extraction and Characterization from Typha Domingensis / Ritu Pandey, Seiko Jose, Mukesh Kumar Sinha /  Journal of Natural Fibers / DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2020.1821285
Typha Leaves Fiber and Its Composites: A Review / Meghdad Kamali Moghaddam /
DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2020.1870643
Pharmacological studies pertaining to spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasodilating effect of Typha domingensis: An evidence-based approach / Mouqadus Un-Nisa, Imran Imran / Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020, Suppl: pp 827-834 / DOI: 10.36721/PJPS.2020.33.2.SUP.827-834.1 /
ISSN: 1011-601X
Biorefinery potential of Typha domingensis biomass to produce bioenergy and biochemicals assessed through pyrolysis, thermogravimetry, and TG-FTIR-GCMS-based study / Tahira Yasmin, Azeem Asghar, Muhammad Nawaz et al / Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 2021 / DOI: 10.1007/s13399-021-01892-1
Antimicrobial activity of bleached cattail fibers (Typha domingensis) impregnated with silver nanoparticles and benzalkonium chloride / Marivane Turim Koschevic, Renata Pires de Araujo, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia et al / Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2021; 138(35) / DOI: 10.1002/app.50885
Nutritional potential of plants of Typha domingensis Pers. as forage option / Nascimento J M L do, M A A Queiroz, C A Gomide, J L Ferrari et al / Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Agrarias, 2014; 9(2): pp 290-294 / ISSN: 1981-0997 / Record No: 20143245131
Evaluation of antifungal activity in vitro of semi-purified fractions obtained from rhizome Typha domingensis pers (Typhaceae) / Marco Antonio Lobo, Walber Toma, Luciana Lopes Guimaraes et al /  Unisanta BioScience, 2013; 2(1)
Effects of umbelliferone in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation / Juliana F Vasconceloos, Mauro M Teixeira, Jose M Barbosa-Filho, Milena B P Soares et al / European Journal of Pharmacology, 2009; 609(1-3): pp 126-131 /  DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.03.027
Folk medicine used by the tribes of Kinwat forest of Nanded district, Maharashtra, India 
/ Dnyaneshwar P Ghorband, Sharad D Biradar / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Research, 2012; 3(1): pp 118-122
Typhaceae / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Phytochemical characterization of Typha domingensis and the assessment of therapeutic potential using in vitro and in vivo biological activities and in silico studies / Rizwana Dilshad, Kashif-ur-Rehman Khan, Saeed Ahmad, Asif Ansari Shaik Mohammad, M Yasmin Begum et al / Front. Chem., 2023; Sec. Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol 11 / DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2023.1273191
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Typha domingensis Pers. Pollen (qurraid) and Evaluate its Antibacterial Activity / Sli Aboud Shareef, Fadhil Jabbar Farhan, Fulla A Alsatter Alriyahee / Baghdad Science Journal, 2023 / DOI: 10.21123/bsj.2023.7624 / pISSN: 2078=8665 /
eISSN: 2411-7986
Analytical Study of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Pollen (Typha domingensis pers.) Extracted from the Papyrus Plant and its Use in Cake Enrichment / Nareman Adeem Shnaa Aljazy, Alaa R Abdulstar, Jinan Mohammed Fayyad Alrakabi / Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 2021 /
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132392.1017
Nutritional evaluation of Typha domingensis L. as an alternative livestock fodder / AA Mukhtar, IL Abdullahii / Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2022; 13(1): Special Conference /
eISSN: 2006-6996 / pISSN: 2006-6996
Phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury using Typha domingensis in constructed wetland /  Marcos Vinicius Teles Gomes, Roberto Rodrigues de Souza, VZinicius Silva Teles, Erica Araujo Mendres / Chemosphere, 2014; Vol 103: pp 228-233
Anthelmintic activity of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using Typha domingensis pers. against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces / Bushra H Shnawa, Parwin J Jalil, Mukhtar H Ahmed et al / Toxicology and Environmental Sciences, 2023; Volume 15: pp 411-423 /
DOI: 10.1007/s13530-023-00192-7
Characterization and Usage of Tule (Typha domingensis Pers) to Obtain Cellulose Pulp in a Biorefinery Framework / Javier M Loaiza, Minerva A Zamudio, Lozano Susana, Ascencion Alfaro, Maria T Carci, Juan C Garcia, Francisco Lopez / Bioresources, 2021; 16(2): pp 3328-3347
THE EFFECT OF TYPHA DOMINGENSIS PERS. POLLEN ON BALB/C MICE MIMICKING LOCAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS LIKE SYMPTOMS / Muneeba Khan, Anjum Perveen, Shazia Mansuri et al / Pak. J. Bot., 2018; 50(2): pp 769-774

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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