Balatong aso is an erect, somewhat
branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.8 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and about 20 centimeters long. Rachis has a large gland
at the base. Leaflets are rank-smelling, occurring in 5 pairs, oblong-lanceolate,
4 to 9 centimeters long, and somewhat pointed at the base and tapering gradually
to a fine, pointed tip. Flowers are yellow, 2 centimeters long, and borne on axillary and terminal
racemes. Calyx tube is short, sepals imbricate; petals are 5, subequal. Stamens
are 10, rarely all perfect, 3 to 5 being reduced to staminodes or sometimes
absent; anthers mostly basifixed opening by terminal pores or with the
slit more or less continued downward. Ovary is sessile or stalked. Fruits are pods, about 10 centimeters long, 9 millimeters wide, thickened and
containing about 40 seeds.
- Throughout the Philippines at low and medium
altitudes as a weed in waste places in and about towns.
- Native of tropical America.
- Now pantropic.
• Seeds yield fatty matter (olein and margarine), 4.9; tannic acid, 0.8; sugar, 2.1; gun, 28.8; starch, 2.0; cellulose, 34.0; water, 7.0; calcium sulphate and phosphate; chrysophanic acid, 0.9; malic acid, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, iron, and silica, together, 5.4; and achrosine (coloring matter), 13.58 parts in 100.
• Stem yields considerable alkaloid.
• Leaves yield cathartin, a coloring matter.
• Roots yield a resin - a bitter, non-alkaloidal principle.
• Oxymethylanthraquinone is isolated from the plant; traces of it from the leaf; 0.25% from the fruit; and 0.3% from the root.
• Toxic components are anthraquinones, emodin glycosides, toxalbumins
• Phytochemical screening yielded anthraquinones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavanoids, saponins, phytosterols, gums and mucilages.
• Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins (leaf, seed), alkaloids (S), saponins (LS), carbohydrates (LS), glycosides (S), phytosterols (LS), oils and fats (LS), phenols (LS), protein and amino acid (LS) and flavonoids (S). (see study below) (30)
• Leaf extract yielded tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, and flavonoids. (see study below) (42)
• Proximate analysis of seeds yielded high dry matter (92.50%), crude protein (29.54%) and crude fiber (10.18%), but with low ether extract, nitrogen free extract, ash, and calorific values. Vitamin analysis showed the seeds to be rich in vitamin B3 (1.85 mg/100 g), but low in vitamins B2, B1, C, and A. Mineral analysis showed (per 100 g) calcium 960 mg, potassium 1,200 mg, phosphorus 810 mg, sodium 600 mg, magnesium 640 mg, iron 234.60 mg, zinc 53.12 mg, and copper 10.48mg. Amino acid profile (per 100 g protein) showed a high concentration of leucine 7.60 g, histidine 2.11 g, proline 2.33 g, and glycine 4.11 g. (45)
• Preliminary phytochemical screening on various extracts (hexane, ethylacetate, methanol) of leaves yielded the presence of saponins (M, ), tannins (M), alkaloids (M, EA, H), phenols (M), anthraquinones (M, EA), reducing sugar (H), glucosides (H), and resins (M, EA). (see study below) (50)
• Study of aqueous (A) and ethyl acetate (EA) leaf extracts yielded tannins, anthraquinones (A only),
flavonoids, cardiac glycosides (EA), saponins (A_, alkaloids *EA), phenols (A),, phlobatannins (EA). (see study below) (63)
• Aqueous leaf extract yielded carbohydrate, tannins, triterpenoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, diterpenoids, and cardiac glycosides, with absence of alkaloids and anthraquinones. (see study below) (78)
• Roots are very bitter.
• Considered anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic, antiparasitic,
antispasmodic, vasoconstrictor, antioxidant, laxative, insecticidal
• As domestic medicine, considered tonic, diuretic, stomachic, febrifuge.
• Seeds considered antiperiodic, analogous to quinine.
ª Studies have suggested hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, wound healing, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic, larvicidal, antitrypanosomal, antihypertensive, anthelmintic, antitussive, antioxidant properties.
Entire plant– roots,
leaves and seeds.
- Seeds can be roasted and
sometimes substituted for coffee.
- Seeds used as coffee adulterant.
Apparently, there is no caffeine in mogdad coffee. (83)
- In Senegal and the Antilles, seeds used as a substitute for coffee.
- Leaves and flowers, cooked, are edible.
- Despite reports of being poisonous, leaves have been used in the diet of Maldives for centuries. (83)
· Seeds used as emeto-cathartic. Also, employed as febrifuge, usually as an infusion in coffee.
· Used for chronic gastroenteritis, constipation, indigestion, gastric
pains, asthma and fever, poisonous snake
and insect bites.
· Pounded fresh material applied as poultice for snakebites.
· Plant used for dropsy, rheumatism, fevers and venereal diseases.
· Ointment used for ringworm, eczema and variety of skin diseases.
· Roots used for gonorrhea, black-water fever, malaria, and dysentery.
· In Peru, decoction of roots used
for fevers; seeds brewed for asthma.
· In Brazil, roots are used as tonic,
febrifuge, diuretic and anthelmintic; also used for fevers, menstrual problems, tuberculosis.
· Infusion of roots and bark used for malaria and hematuria.
· Infusion of bark used for diabetes.
· Leaves used as purgative and antiherpetic.
· Poultice of leaves used for skin irritation and eczema.
· In Lagos, leaf infusion used as specific for black-water fever.
· In Lagos and Liberia, infusion of leaves used as purgative.
· In Dahomey, decoction of leaves used as febrifuge.
· In the Dutch Indies, poultice of leaves used for toothache.
· In the French colonies of western Africa, infusion of leaves used for yellow fever.
· In Malaya, poultice of leaves used for headache.
· In the West Indies, root used as diuretic.
· In Panama, leaf decoction used
for stomach colic; poultice of crushed leaves as anti-inflammatory; and
fresh crushed leaves to expel intestinal worms.
· Used as abortifacient.
· In Jamaican folk medicine, used for diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, fever, cancer, eczema, and venereal diseases.
· In India, used for fever, menstrual problems, tuberculosis, anemia, sore eyes, rheumatism, hematuria. Bark infusion used in diabetes.
· In Northern Nigeria, leaves used as a cure for hepatitis. (47)
· In African pharmacopoeia, fresh leaves used for constipation and malaria; also use as enema for its abortive properties. (58)
· In Nigeria, used for treatment of malaria. (63) Leaves used for the treatment of measles: Dried root and leaves are milled and mixed with black soap and used to bathe twice daily. (70)
· In Zambia, traditional healers used the roots for treatment of gonorrhea: Roots are boiled and drunk as tea. (71)
· In African traditional medicine, used for treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. (74)
· In Andhra Pradesh, India, the leaf and stem used for treating fractures and bone diseases. (85)
· Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride:
Study evaluating the effects of Cassia occidentalis
on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats concludes that the antioxidant content of Cassia occidentalis
might play a major role in hepatoprotection and controlling tissue damage
caused by reactive oxygen species. (1)
• Protective effect on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice / Antimutagenic:
Cassia occidentalis possesses antimutagenic activity against cyclophosphamide-induced
mutagenicity in mice. The study suggests that through the modulation
of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, C. occidentalis may be influencing
the hematotoxic and immunotoxic responses of cyclophosphamide. (2)
Antimicrobial screening of Cassia occidentalis L. in vivo and in vitro:
Ethanol extracts of C. occidentalis and metabolite-rich fractions (anthraquinones,
sennosides and flavonoids) of leaves, pods and flowers were tested against
human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The anthraquinones were found to
be more active against E. coli and S. aureus.
• Antimicrobial: In a study of various extracts, methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against seven human bacterial pathogens and two fungal strains. The most susceptible organism was P. aeruginosa followed by P. mirabilis and C. albicans.
• Antihepatotoxic Activity of Cassia occidentalis:
An ethanol extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis was evaluated
for antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide
• Antimutagenic: Study of the
aqueous extract of CO on its mutagenic potential against chromosomal
aberrations showed antimutagenic activity by modulating the xenobiotic
activation and detoxification mechanisms. (5)
• Antimalarial: (1) The antimalarial activity of C occidentalis has been confirmed. The plant showed more than 60% inhibition of parasite growth in vitro. (2) In a study of the extracts of 3 medicinal plants for antimalarial activity, M morindoides and P niruri showed 74 and 72% suppression, while C occidentalis was slightly less active at 60% chemosuppression of Plasmodium berghei in mice.
• Antibacterial: In an Argentinian
study of 132 water extracts from 54 plant families, C occidentalis was
one of those that showed greater antibacterial activity against Salmonella
• Antidiabetic: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with improvement in parameters of body weight, lipid profiles and histopathologic changes showing regeneration of pancreatic B-cells. (7) A methanolic extract of leaves tested against alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction of blood glucose in diabetic mice. (35) Study evaluated a methanol fraction of C. occidentalis leaves against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant and dose-dependent effect on biochemical parameters and hepatic marker enzymes (p<0.05) with histopathologic pancreatic protective effect. (44)
• Antimicrobial / Phytochemicals: Preliminary screening showed anthraquinones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, sterols, flavanoids, saponins, phytosterols, gums and mucilages. Of the extracts studied, the methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested organisms, esp: P aeruginosa, P mirabilis and Candida albicans. (8)
• Toxicological Reproductive Study: In the rain forests and other tropical regions of South America, CO is considered a potent abortifacient. Results of this study showed no statistically significant difference between the control and treated groups in many of the observed parameters. However, there was the presence of dead fetuses registered in both doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of CO. Further studies are needed and its use is not recommended in pregnancy. (9)
• Poisoning / Hepatomyoencephalopathy: Recurrent outbreaks of an acute encepalopathy illness to in India, earlier attributed to a viral encephalitis, were probably caused by the consumption of C. occidentalis beans with its phytotoxins. causing a multisystem disease - a hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks. (10)
• Wound healing: Study showed the topical application of a methanol extract of C. occidentalis and a pure compound Chrysophanol, an anthraquinone derivative, promoted wound healing activity in excision, incision and dead space models in rats. (11)
• Anti-Allergy / Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Lipid Peroxidation : Study showed CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing antioxidant activity. (12)
• Cytotoxicity / Antibacterial: Study showed dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer lines and antibacterial potential activity against B subtilis. (15)
• Relaxant Effect / Antihypertensive: Study of the relaxant effects in rat aortic rings of an aqueous extract of the leaf of C occidentalis showed dose-dependent inhibition of contraction elicited by noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Results suggest the effect may be due to a direct relaxant effect and may justify its extensive use in folk medicine as an antihypertensive agent. (16)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic: Ethanol and water extracts of Cassia occidentalis showed significant dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties. Results provide a rationale for the use of the plant in pain and inflammatory disorders. (17)
• Seed Gum / Carboxymethylation / Mucilage: The seeds are a rich source of galactomannan gum and the gums derived from the seed endosperm can be used in industries to replace conventional gums. Study showed the carboxymethyl gum exhibited relatively high viscosity and stability. (19)
• Potential Typhoid Fever Treatment: Study suggests the aqueous extract of Senna occidentalis has a potential for typhoid fever treatment. However, AST, ALT, urea and creatinine levels suggest a side effect on the liver and kidney which warrant further investigation. (23)
• Diuretic Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract on wistar strain albino rats for acute toxicity and diuretic activity. Results showed diuretic activity with increased urinary electrolyte concentration, a significant increase in urinary output, and an increase in potassium ion excretion greater than sodium ion. (24) Study evaluated the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of C. occidentalis aqueous extract of leaves. Results showed increased urinary excretion of 107.58% at higher dose tested. Reference drugs furosemide and HCTZ induced increases of 84.27% and 48.05%, respectively. Acutely, the extract induced Na+ and Cl- elimination, and sub-chronically, an increase in K+ elimination was observed. Extract also improved kidney function indexes and oxidative stress markers. Effects were dose dependent. (80)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study showed leaves of C. occidentalis stimulated healing of wounds induced by the dermal venom of Bothrops mooheni in mice, and can be considered an alternative treatment for snakebite wounds. (25 )
• Antifungal: Crude extracts of various parts (leaf, seed, and pod) were examined for fungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus clavatus and A. niger. Results showed as good or better activity than standard drugs Nystatin and Griseofulvin, except for the activity of leaf extracts against Aspergilli. Seeds exhibited the highest antifungal activity. (26)
• Larvicidal / Mosquitocidal against Malarial Vector: Study of methanolic extract of C. occidentalis leaf showed larvicidal activity. (27)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna occidentalis for anti-trypanosomal activity in mice infected with T. brucei. Results showed the extracts possess trypanocidal properties and a potential source of a new trypanocidal agent. (28) Study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of an ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaves. Treatment of infected animals with extract significantly (p<0.05) prevented the trypanosome-induced increase in biochemical indices, and significant (p<0.05) ameliorated associated hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. (48)
• Histological Female Reproductive Effects / Antifertility: Study evaluated the histological effects of an aqueous extract on female reproductive organ in wistar rats. Results suggest an antifertility effect on the ovary, with photomicrographs showing moderate vascular congestion, mild tissue separation and mild infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells. (29)
• Antimicrobial: An aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis showed maximum inhibition against E. coli, Pseudomonas spp, and Staphylococcus spp. C. occidentalis showed potential as an antimicrobial agent in the form of pellets of paste. (30)
• Larvicidal / Barcroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus: Study evaluated the larvicidal activity of C. occidentalis against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae transmit parasites and pathogens of deadly diseases like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya. In this study, C. occidentalis exhibited a realistic mortality for larvae of filarial vector, and suggests a natural weapon for mosquito control. (31)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Roots: Study evaluated roots of Cassia occidentalis for antimicrobial activity. Results showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. The activity showed more susceptibility to gram positive than gram negative bacteria in a concentration dependent manner. Extract was most effective against B. subtilis and least against Vibrio cholerae. (32)
· Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Aqueous extract of the leaves of Cassia occidentalis showed hepatoprotective activity on paracetamol-induced toxicity in adult Wistar rats. (33)
· Antianxiety / Antidepressant: Study of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves in rodents showed antianxiety (elevated plus maze model and actophotometer) and antidepressant (despair swim test and tail suspension test) activity. The ethanol extract showed more significant activity than the aqueous extract. (34)
· Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of extract of leaves showed analgesic activity in a radiant heat tail-flick method and anti-inflammatory activity in a rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan. (36)
· Nephroprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of evaluated the nephroprotective activity of a 70% hydroalcoholic extract against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed nephroprotective activity with reduction of gentamicin induced elevation of urinary sodium, potassium, urinary glucose, BUN and creatinine levels, with almost normal kidney architecture. (37)
· Anthelmintic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose dependent activity. Albendazole was used a reference. (38)
· Immunomodulatory / Anti-tumor: In a study on modulation of immune functions by medicinal plants, an aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis showed no mortality and apparent toxicity in treated animals. CO showed stimulatory effect on specific and non-specific immunity. CO showed antitumor activity against Ehrlich Ascites tumor cell line and antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. (39)
· Acute and Subacute Testing / Stem and Leaf: A preclinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of C. occidentalis stem and leaf in in male and female Wistar rats did not show acute and subacute toxicity. In acute toxicity testing, no hazardous symptoms or death were reported, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. In subacute treatment, there were no changes in body weight, hematologic or biochemical profiles, and no micro- or macroscopic organ changes. Results suggest safety for use by humans. (40)
· Biocidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of leaf extracts of C. occidentalis against 11 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial isolates. The n-hexane and dichlormethane fractions of the plant extract exhibited appreciable antibacterial action against nine of the 15 bacterial isolates, comparing favorably with the standard antibiotic, streptomycin. (see constituents above) (42)
· Myeloprotective in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bone Marrow Suppression / Leaves: Study of crude methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression showed myeloprotective properties, with significant increase (p<0.05) in Hb, Hct, and TWBC when compared to control. (43)
· Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of various leaf extracts (hexane, methanol, ethylacetate) showed effective antibacterial and antifungal activity, with the methanol extract showing highest activity with significant inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The plant also showed ability to scavenging for free radicals. (see constituents above) (50)
· Antipyretic / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia occidentalis in different in-vitro models strong antipyretic and antioxidant activity as evidenced by hypothermal activity against yeast-induced pyrexia in rats and free radical scavenging activity attributed to polyphenolic compounds. (51)
· Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the claimed antimalarial properties of 58 crude extracts from 15 plants used in traditional medicine against malaria and fever in the Southern African regions using air-dried extracts of powdered plant parts (roots, leaves, seeds, or bark) for schizontocidal activity against 3D7 Plasmodium falcifarum strain. An ethanol extract of C. occidentalis leaves showed high in-vitro antimalarial activity against P. falcifarum chloroquine-sensitive strain (IC50<3 µg/mL). An n-hexane extract showed an IC50 of 19.3 ± 2.0 µg/mL. (52)
· Antimalarial / Roots: Study evaluated the in-vivo and in-vitro antiplasmodial activities of various extracts of Senna occidentalis roots against P. falcifarum and P. berghei. The most effective chemotherapeutic agent was the methanolic extract. The extracts prolonged the mean survival time in all the experimental groups relative to the non-treatment group )p<0.0001). Results suggest SO roots possess bioactive anti-plasmodial compound. (56)
· Anthelmintic / Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of a methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis against Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli worms. Acute toxicity evaluation showed the extract to be safe according to OECD guidelines, with no mortality and toxicity in mice even at 25,000 mg/kg. There was a concentration-dependent relationship with worm mortality with a mean worm mortality significantly higher for A. galli than for piperazine. EC50 was 11.78 mg/ml for A. galli and 17.78 mg/ml for H. gallinarum. (53)
· Antitussive / Roots: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of C. occidentalis roots for antitussive activity in rats by sulfur dioxide-induced cough reflex method. A dose extract of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant antitussive activity comparable to codeine phosphate. (54)
· Antiasthmatic / Antihistaminic / Mast Cell Stabilizing / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiasthmatic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. occidentalis on in-vitro (histamine-induced contraction in isolated goat tracheal chain) and in-vivo (milk-induced eosinophilia, mast cell degranulation and capillary permeability in mice) animal models. Results showed antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing, and decreasing capillary permeability effects which suggest a potential role in the treatment of asthma. (55)
· Genotoxicity Evaluation / Leaves: Study evaluated the genotoxic potential of C. occidentalis leaf extract by in-vivo assays system in rats using OECD guidelines. Results showed the CO-A002 did not produce adverse effect and is safe at a dose of 400 mg/kg p.o. (57)
· Myostimulant Effect /
Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of dried leaves for effect on isolated rabbit duodenum. Results showed a myostimulant effect with increase in rhythm and amplitude of isolat4ed intestine muscle. The effect was suppressed which suggests the presence of muscarinic cholinergic compounds in the aqueous extract. (58)
· Antimicrobial / Fruit Essential Oil: Study evaluated volatile oils from fresh fruits of Senna occidentalis and S. hirsuta by GC and GC-MS and antimicrobial assays. Fifty-eight constituents were identified. S. occidentalis was dominated by cyperene (10.8%), ß-caryophyllene (10.4%), limonene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.8%). S. occidentalis fruit oil exhibited better antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Aspergillus niger with MICs 78-312 µg/mL compared with S. hirsuta oil. (59)
· Mosquitocidal and Antiplasmodial: Study evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments against adults showed both S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control. In anti-plasmodial assay, S. occidentalis IC50 were 48.80 µg/,; (CQ-s) and 54.28 µg/ml (CQ-r). Results showed potential sources of metabolites for newer and safer malaria control tools. (61)
· ß-Hematin / Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the heme-polymerization activity and antimalarial activity of Senna occidentalis in in-vitro assays. The potency of many antimalarials is related to their abilities to inhibit hemozoin (ß-hematin formation). Results showed good inhibition of ß-hematin formation by methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves. In vitro antimalarial studies showed dose dependent suppression of plasmodial growth. Secondary metabolites such as anthraquinones, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids may be responsible for the antimalarial activities observed. (62)
· Antimicrobial against Vibrio cholerae / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of extracts of leaves of Senna occidentalis and spondias mombin and stem sap of Musa sapientum against two epidemic strains of V. cholerae. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of S. occidentalis and S. mombin showed vibriocidal activities, Senna occidentalis water extract showed an MIC of 166.25 mg/ml and MBC of 332.50 mg/ml against the two strains tested. However, both extracts of SO and SM< were not effective in vitro on the epidemic strains tested. Results suggest the herbs could be useful in drug research. (see constituents above) (63)
· Antibacterial / Antitubercular / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antitubercular activities of ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extracts of Senna occidentalis. On in vitro antibacterial screening, the crude extracts showed varying activities with highest zone of inhibition at 12 mm and anti-tubercular activity with MIC ranging from 97.6-390.6 µg/mL. The EA extract showed significant antibacterial activity against most of the test microorganisms, with the most susceptible being P. aeruginosa with 12mm ZOI, followed by B, subtilis with 10 mm ZOI. The ethanol extract was most effective in inhibiting growth of M. smegmatis and M. bovis with MICs of 97.6 and 195.3 µg/mL, respectively. (65)
· Antidiabetic Effect / insulinomimetic / Leaf Supplementation: Study evaluated the effect of Senna occidentalis leaf supplement on blood glucose level, liver enzymes, and total protein in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Quantitative phytochemical screening showed the supplement has high amount of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids in percentage composition of 20%, 10.80%, 15%, 0.55% and 7.20%. respectively. Supplement treated animals showed significant reduction in blood glucose, along with increase in total protein. Study showed Senna occidentalis leaf supplement has potent hypoglycemic effect due to high content of active principles that possess strong and potent insulinomimetic and ß-cell regenerating potential as evidenced by histopathlogical studies of pancreatic tissue. Caution is mentioned because of cytotoxic saponins which may be present in the supplement capable of causing damage to both pancreas and liver. (66)
· Anthelmintic /Tapeworm: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Senna occidentalis on rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Praziquantel (PZQ) was used as reference drug. Effects were evaluated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed dose dependent anthelmintic activity. At highest concentration of 80 mg/ml, mortality was seen in 12.82 ± 0.24 hours. Electro microscopy showed irrevocable destruction all over the body tegument with sloughing of microtriches and shrinkage of scolex, along with exposure of basal lamina, decrease in nucleus lucency, and intense vacuolization. (67)
· Central Nervous System Depressant Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the central nervous system depressant effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of S. occidentalis in mice. The extract showed significant decrease in the onset of sleep. significant decrease (p<0.05) in number of head dips with no significant difference in time taken to complete the task. Results suggest CNS depressant and sedative effect. (68)
· Trypanosuppressive Activity / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of crude methanol extract of leaves of S. occidentalis on biomarkers of oxidative stress in Wistar rats with experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Acute toxicity study showed an LD50 ≥ 5000 mg/kg. Treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress induced by trypanosomes, suggesting possible antioxidant properties of the extract and its trypanosuppressive activity in trypanosomes. (69)
· Emodin / Antibacterial Anthraquinone / Roots: Study of ethanolic root extract of C. occidentalis for antibacterial activity isolated a biologically active component identified as emodin. MICs against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 7.8 x 10-3 and 3.0 x 10-3, respectively. Emodin showed remarkable bacteriostatic effect on gram positive bacteria tested, especially S. aureus, higher when compared to standard neomycin. It showed no activity against two gram negative bacteria, K. pneumonia and E. coli. (72)
• Effect of Roasting on Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of roasting on the phytochemical properties of Senna occidentalis seeds. Phytochemicals analyzed were tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, oxalate and phenolics. Results showed roasting time and temperature have significant effects on seed parameters analyzed. There was increased in tannin, alkaloid, saponin, and phenolic contents and a decrease in the contents of flavonoids and oxalates. (73)
• Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant / Anti-Atherosclerogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of leaves of C. occidentalis in male rats with hypercholesterolemia. After treatment, the extract induced a significant increase (p<0.01) in water consumption and food intakes. The extract significantly (p<0.05) prevented the elevation in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. There was a decrease in the atherogenic, triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) index in rats. There was also a significant inhibition changes and formation of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. (74)
• Haematinic Potency / Crude Extracts: Study evaluated the haematinic potencies of aqueous crude extracts of Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis and compared with a proprietary haematinic, Haematopan B12. Test animals were bled to induce anemia. All experimental animals showed accelerated recovery. The extracts showed comparative haematinic potencies as Haematopan B12. (76)
• Anticonvulsant / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of seeds using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure model. The ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kbw showed potent dose dependent anticonvulsant activity. The extract also showed marked antioxidant property by DPPH assay and H2O2 method with IC50s of 14.8, compared to ascorbic acid with 14.56 and 14.3, respectively. (77)
• Effect on Rat Kidney / Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Senna occidentalis on renal function and histopathology. Various concentrations from 350 mg/kg to 3000 mg/kbw were used for 28 days on Wistar rats. There were no behavioral changes nor deaths observed even at concentration of 5000 mg/kbw during acute toxicity testing. There were no significant effects on biochemical parameters. Histology sections of kidney showed well preserved glomeruli and tubules with only few animals showing mild to moderate sclerosis. Oral administration of 3000 mg/kbw for 28 days did not produce significant effects. (see study above) (78)
· Anti-Breast Cancer / Anti-Angiogenic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-breast cancer, anti-angiogenc and antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of selected local botanicals i.e., Cassia occidentalis, Callistemon viminalis, Cleome viscosa and Mimosa bamata. All the selected plant extracts demonstrated effective cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells, with C. occidentalis with IC50 of 70 ± 0.11 µg/ml. In the in-vivo CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) model, all plants exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting the blood vessel density. All plants exhibited considerable antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. (79)
· Inhibitory Effect on Uterine Contractions / Roots: Study evaluated the ex vivo activity of ethanol root extract of Senna occidentalis on isolated rat uterus primed with diethyl stilbestrol. The extract significantly inhibited ACh-induced uterine contractions (p<0.05) and CaCl2-induced uterine contractions (in Ca2+-free medium) (p<0.05) in a non-competitive but concentration-dependent manner. Results showed the root extract inhibited agonist-induced uterine contractions probably through interaction with voltage-operated calcium channels. (81)
· Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and NO Inhibitory Constituents / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of 36 extracts of nine Indian medicinal plants by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The ethyl acetate extract of C. occidentalis roots exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of TNF-a and NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Five compounds isolated from the roots of C. occidentalis suppressed LPS-induced IL-1ß, TNF-a, and NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Emodin and chrysophanol also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. Results suggest C. occidentalis roots as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated ailments. (82)
· Osteogenic Effect / Prevents Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteopenia / Stem and Leaf: Study evaluated the effects of extract and fraction of leaf and stem of Cassia occidentalis in fracture healing and glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia models of rat. The extracts were tested on rat femur osteotomy (fracture healing) model. The ethanolic stem extract was more effective than the leaf extract in enhancing bone regeneration at the site of osteotomy. The butanol fraction of the stem was more effective in bone regeneration at the femur osteotomy site and in preventing bone loss in the GIO model. Skeletal preservation involved stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. Six osteogenic compounds were isolated of which apigenin-6C-glucopyranoside was most effective in vitro. Results showed the standardized extract and butanolic fraction of stem has osteogenic and anti-resorptive effects. resulting in protection against glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Results validate the use of Cassia occidentalis for fracture healing and its beneficial effect in glucocorticoid induced osteopenia. (85)
· Amelioration of Hematological Damage Caused by Diethylnitrosamine / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects pf ethanol extract of leaves on hematological parameters in diethyl nitrosamine induced toxicity in rats. DEN caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in RBC, Hb, and platelets. with decrease in WBC, MID, and GRA. Administration of ethanol extract/silymarin significantly (p<0.05) moderated the hematological indices. (86)
· Purification of Antibacterial Proteins / Seeds: Crude ammonium sulphate precipitated and dialyzed proteins of S. occidentalis seeds were evaluated for antibacterial potential by agar well diffusion and broth dilution techniques against ten bacterial isolates made up of five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria. The proteins were active against all Gram positive bacterial isolates (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Enteroccocus sp., L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis) but were inactive against all Gram negative bacterial isolates. Results suggest the seeds contain proteins that have narrow spectrum, synergistic antibacterial activity against important food spoilage bacteria with potential for development as antibacterial agent for food preservation. (88)
· Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on an easy, one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of C. indica and Senna occidentalis. Alkaloids, flavanoids, and tannins in the plant extracts were thought to be responsible for the bioreduction process. (89)
• General info:
Almost all parts (leaf, root, seeds) of the pant are used as food and medicine by tribal populations in India. (83)
• Poisonous when taken in considerable
amounts by domesticated animals, known to cause deaths in cows, horses
and goats. The seeds contain emodin, mucilage, proteins, tannic acid,
fatty acids and essential oils. There are many anthraquinone derivatives and alkaloids in CO, and no single principle toxin has been identified. Toxicity seems to occur with seasonality, when the beans become palatable with the taste of raw edible beans.
• Animals: Plant causes poisoning in different plant species. all parts are toxic, but with differing levels of toxicity. Most poisoning in animals come from pods and beans. In cattle, it is reported to cause severe muscle degeneration, liver degeneration and death. The toxic effects can be rapidly fatal.
• Vet clinical signs: Toxicity manifestations include lethargy, recumbency, jerky respiration, tremors, diarrhea, ataxia, hyperpnea, incoordination. Death may occur within 24 hours.
• Risk of Poisoning in Children: The beans may be an object of use in the games, playing house, play-cooking and accidental ingestions. Pica, an abnormal craving for food as a manifestation of disease or iron deficiency, can be a risk for poisoning in children. Case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 percent in children.
• Poisoning / Hepatomyoencephalopathy: In India, cases of acute encepalopathy were subsequently attributed to consumption of C. occidentalis beans causing a multisystem disease - a hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks. (10)
• Toxic Cardiomyopathy in Poisoned Rabbits: Ground endosperm of seeds given to rabbits caused a fatal cardiomyopathy with mitochondrial degeneration, lipid accumulation, myofibrillar degeneration, myocytolysis and minor reparative changes. (22)
• Clinical & Pathological Features of Toxicity: The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chickens are on skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and heart. Pathological findings are necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones, derivatives and alkaloids. The clinical spectrum and histopath are similar in animals and children.
· Non-Toxicity in Acute and Subacute Testing / Stem and Leaf: A preclinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of C. occidentalis stem and leaf in in male and female Wistar rats did not show acute and subacute toxicity, suggesting safety for use by humans. (40)
· Anthraquinones / Toxicity: Study identified the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of different fractions of methanol extracts of seeds yielded five anthraquinones (AQs), viz. physcion, emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol. In cytotoxicity analysis of the AQs in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, rhein showed to be the most toxic moiety. Study indicate AQ aglycones are responsible for producing toxicity, which may be associated with symptoms of hepatomyoencephalopathy in CO poisoning cases. (46)
· Hepatic Toxicity: Study of fresh leaves in albino rats showed hypoproteinaemic effects, with increase in ALT, AST, and ALP, suggesting the leaves may be slightly toxic as a concoction for liver ailments. (47)
· Sub-Acute Intoxication / Seeds: Study evaluated the toxic effects of prolonged administration of seeds to male Wistar rats. Rats of the experimental group showed lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation. Histopathological studies showed fiber degenerations in skeletal and cardiac muscles, vacuolar degeneration in liver parenchyma, and mild necrosis in proximal convoluted tubules. Alterations were dose dependent. The CNS showed moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis, especially in the cerebellum. Electron microscopy showed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues. (60)
· HME: Hepatic Myencepalopathy Syndrome: There have been few reports of human toxicity of Senna occidentalis seeds. In western Uttar Pradesh, India, for two decades an acute brain disease in children, recurring every year, with a 70-80% fatality rate, was initially diagnosed as a viral encephalitis of unknown origin. Later it revealed itself as a multi-system disease affecting the liver, muscles, and brain caused by phytotoxins, and was renamed hepatic myencepalopathy (HME). Today the toxicity is attributed to the consumption of seeds of Senna occidentalis. (64)
· Long Term Use Effects on Hematopoietic Tissues / Seeds: While all plant parts have reported toxicity, most of the toxicity is due to seeds. Despite its toxicity, it is widely used for therapeutic purposes in humans. This study evaluated the effects of chronic administration of seeds on hematopoietic organs, including bone marrow and spleen in male Wistar rats. Results showed rats treated with 2% seeds showed changes in hematoligcal parameters. There was a significant decrease of myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ration. Chronic treatment promoted reduction in cellularity of both bone marrow and spleen. In bone marrow smears, there was change in iron stores and spleen hemosiderin accumulation. Histologically, there was bone marrow eythroid hyperplasia consistent with increased reticulocyte count. Results suggest long-term administration of seeds can promote blood toxicity. (75)
· An Uncommon Cause of Liver Failure: Study reports an unusual case of an elderly woman who presented with an acute hepatoencephalopathic syndrome after ingestion of Senna occidentalis leaves self-medicating for knee osteoarthritis. Despite intensive care management, mechanical ventilation, prophylactic antibiotics, fresh frozen plasma, and IV vitamin K, among others, the patient died on the third day of admission. Autopsy was denied. Postmortem liver biopsy showed changes consistent with drug-induced liver injury. Senna occidentalis toxicity is a rapidly progressive hepatomyoencephalopathic disease with high mortality rats. There is no known antidote. The report discusses the consequences of Senna toxicity, the importance of identification and systematic study of these cases to better understand its pathophysiology, possible treatment options and implications on public health. (84)
· Toxic Effects on Lymphohematopoetic System: Study evaluated the toxic effects of Senna occidentalis seeds on the lymphohematopoetic system in rats during the growth and pre-natal period. Results showed S. occidentalis can compromise some immunological parameters in rats exposed to seeds during different development periods. The exposure promotes toxic effects on erythrocytes. The toxic effects were directly related to S. occidentalis toxic effects rather than a nutritional alteration caused by reduced feeding. (87)
- Leaf powder, extracts, tinctures in the cybermarket.