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Family Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.

Lu yu shu

Scientific names  Common names 
Arthrothamnus bergii Klotzsch & Garcke Bali-bali (P. Bis.) 
Arthrothamnus ecklonii Klotzsch & Garcke Consuelda (Span.)
Arthrothamnus tirucalli (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke Katuit (Tag.) 
Euphorbia geayi Costantin & Gallaud Konsuerda (Tag.) 
Euphorbia laro Drake Gaton (Ig.)
Euphorbia media N.E.Br. Pobreng-kahoy (Tag.)
Euphorbia rhipsaloides Lem. Putputud (Ig.) 
Euphorbia rhipsaloides Willd.. Solda-solda (C. Bis.) 
Euphorbia scoparia N.E.Br. Suelda-con-suelda (Bik.) 
Euphorbia suareziana Croizat Suerda (Tag.) 
Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Aveloz (Engl.)
Euphorbia viminalis Mill. [Illegitimate] Finger tree (Engl.) 
Tirucalli indica Raf. Finger euphorbia (Engl.)
Tirucalli tirucalii (L.) P.V.Heath Pencil cactus (Engl.)
  Pencil tree (Engl.)  
  Milk bush (Engl.)
  Milk hedge (Engl.) 
  Petroleum plant (Engl.)
  Rubber euphorbia (Engl.)
  Indian tree spurge (Engl.) 
Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AMHARIC: Kinchib.
ARABIC: Azfur zukkum, Injil, Zaqqume hindi, Knjil.
BENGALI: Lanka sij, Latadaona, Siju .
CHINESE: Luyu shu.
DANISH: Levende pind.
FRENCH: Arbre de Saint-Sebastien, Euphorbe antivenérien, Euphorbe antivenérienne, Euphorbe éffilée, Garde maison, Liane sans feuille.
GERMAN: Benzin-Wolfsmilch , Bleistiftstrauch, Latex-Wolfsmilch.
GUJARATI: Thor dandalio
HINDI: Barki-sehund, Konpal, Konpahlsehnd, Sehund.
KANNADA : Bonta kalli, Mondugalli.
MALAY : Getih urip, Kaju tangan, Kayu patah, Tentulang, Tikel tosan, Tulang, Tulang-tulang.
MALAYALAM: Guda, Kalli, Kol kalli, Tirukalli.
MARATHI: Kada nivali, Shera, Vajraduhu.
ORIYA: Vajradruma.
PERSIAN: Shir tothar.
PORTUGUESE: Aveloz, Cassoneira.
RUSSIAN: M.olochai tirukalli
SANSKRIT: Satala, Trikantaka, Vajradruma.
SINHALESE : Nawa handi.
SPANISH: Alfabeto chino, Aveloz, Consuelda, Disciplinilla, Esqueleto, Palito.
SWAHILI: Malangili, Malanfili, Mtupa mwitu, Mtovua macho, Mwasi, Mwasi mchakaazi, Mchakaazi.
SWEDISH: Gummieuforbia
TAMIL: Eli palai, Kalli, Kodi kalli, Kompu kalli, Thadi kalli, Thiru kalli, Tirukalli.
TELUGU: Chemudu, Kada jemudu.
THAI: Khia cheen, Khia thian.
VIETNAMESE: Cành giao, Cây xuong cá, Cây xuong khô, San hô xanh.

Bali-bali is an erect. smooth, somewhat fleshy shrub or small tree, 2 to 5 meters high, growing to 30 feet in the wild. Branches are green, somewhat fleshy, cylindric, clustered or scattered, about 5 millimeters thick. There are no leaves except for a few, small, linear-oblong ones which are about 1 centimeter long or less, soon disappearing to leave the stems smooth and cylindrical, glossy green and pencil-thick. Involucres are shortly-stalked, clustered in the forks of the smaller branches, small, and turbinate. Each cell has a solitary seed.

- Found from norther Luzon to Mindanao.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
- Occasionally garden hedge.

- Ornamental planting.

• Euphorbon isolated from the needles, with 4 percent caoutchouc.
• A latex analysis yielded 75 to 82 percent resin, and 14 to 15 percent caoutchouc.
• Studies show the latex to be rich in terpenes, including ingenol and phorbol esters, the latter, highly irritating and shown to be tumor-promoting.
• Study isolated six terpenes: (1) cyclotirucaneol (2) cycloeuphordenol (3) tirucalicine (4) tirucaligine (5) euphorginol (6) euphorcinol.
• Latex showed great similarity in composition and activity to the highly poisonous croton seed oil from Croton tiglium.

• Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloid, coumarins, polyphenols and tannins, and triterpenes.
• GC-MS analysis of dried powdered stems yielded 46 constituents. The major constituents were lanosta -8,24-dien-3-ol, (3β)- (13.60%), (23S)-ethylcholest-5-en-(3β)-ol (7.02%), linoleic acid (2.96%) and viminalol (2.57%). (48)
• Study of 70% acetone extract yielded 12 compounds i.e. a tigliane diterpene ester, 4α-deoxy-phorbol-13-acetate (1), a atisane diterpene,ent-(3β,13S)-dihydroxyatis-16-en-14-one ( 2), together with six triterpenoids, lanosterol (3), 3-epi- glutinol (4), oleana-9 (11),12-dien-3-one (5), β-amyrenone (6), olean-18-en-3-one (7), friedelin (8), and four other compounds, stigmast-4-en-3-one (9), β-sitosterol (10),  kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (11) and scopoletin (12). (55)

- Latex considered an energetic revulsive, vesicant and rubefacient.
- Juice also used as vesicatory.

- Milky juice in small doses considered purgative; in large doses, emetic and an acrid irritant.
- Studies on bark/latex have suggested antibacterial, molluscicidal, antiherpetic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic, anti-arthritic, anti-tumor, tumor-promoting, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, mosquito larvicidal properties.

Parts utilized
Roots, stems, latex.

· In the Philippines, the first report of use came from Father de Sta. Maria: Heated root scraping mixed with coconut oil are applied externally to the stomach to relieve pain.
· Poultices of stems used for healing of fractures of bones.
· Latex used for wound healing.
· The milky juice, in small doses, is purgative; in large doses, emetic.
· Milky juice also applied to itches and insect bites. Also used for ear aches, whooping cough, asthma. Also, used to remove warts.
· Latex employed as a cure for wounds. Contact with eyes may cause blindness.
· Decoction of the branches for colic and stomach pains.
· The latex may cause eye irritation or blindness.
· Externally, a warm rubefacient remedy for toothaches, rheumatism,
· Milky juice used to raise blisters, especially in syphilitic nodes.
· Juice, given with butter, said to cure affections of the spleen and acts as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints.
· Juice used as drops for earaches.
· Latex applied to various skin lesions: wounds, warts, swollen glands, earaches, and tumors of the nose.
· Roots used for treatment of schistosomiasis and sexually transmitted diseases.
· Latex used for sexual impotency and sterility.
· Latex used to promote breast enlargement.
· Latex boiled in milk used as antidote for poisoning and snake bites.
· Decoction of tender branches or roots used for colic and gastralgia.
· In Java bark is applied to fractures.
· Fresh, acrid juice used as vesicatory; also used to remove warts.
· Infusion of roots given for bone pains.
· Poultice of root or leaves used for ulcerations of the nose and for hemorrhoids.
· Decoction of wood applied on skin in leprosy and paralysis of the hands and feet following childbirth.
· Decoction of roots used to relieve pains in the abdomen; also used as purgative.
· In Africa, root used for snakebites; the latex for skin tumors, syphilitic ulcers; seeds and latex for intestinal parasites; decoctions of the wood for bacterial infections.
· In Malaysia, stems are pounded and used for swellings. Also used for hemorrhoids.
· In the Amazon, Madagascar and South Africa, latex used as application to warts, rheumatism, neuralgia and toothaches. Bark of plant used to treat fractures.
· In Dutch Indies, poultice of pounded stems are used to extract thorns.
· Root infusion for aching bones.
· In India, latex used for asthma, cough, earache, neuralgia, rheumatism, toothache and warts. Paste of fresh leaves and latex diluted with water used for cancer.
· In Peru, used for abscesses, asthma, cancer, stomachaches and toothaches.
· In Brazil, latex is used as folk medicine against syphilis.
· Repellent: In Africa, used as insect repellent.
· Poison:
In the Philippines, latex used as fish poison. In the Congo, a variety of the species used as criminal poison.
· Pesticide:
Possesses pesticidal features against pests like Brevicoryne brassicae (aphids), Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (mosquitoes), Lymnaea natalensis (mollusks) and Biomphalaria glabrata. (44)
· Fixative:
Sap has strong fixative power. Mixed with with animal hair, used for fastening knife blades to wood handles and spear-heads to shafts. (45)
· Oil:
Oil once used for linoleum, oilskin, and leather-cloth applications. (45)
· Wood:
Used for making toys, rafters and veneers.  (45)
· Fuel:
Used for fuel when alternatives are not available. (45) Yields charcoal suitable for gunpowder use. Latex hydrocarbon, a C30 triterpenoid, yields high octane gasoline on cracking. Biomass can be converted into gas, liquid fuels, and solid fuels such as pellets, briquettes and charcoal.(49)

• With little effort the poisonous latex can be converted to the equivalent of alcohol and has led chemist Melvin Calvin to propose its exploitation for producing oil. Milk bush grows on land not suitable for other crops, and is estimated to produce 10-50 barrels of oil per acre.
• Bali-bali is included in the list of oils with a potential for biodiesel: Algae Oil, Artichoke Oil, Canola Oil, Castor Oil, Coconut Oil, Corn, Cottonseed Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Hemp Oil, Jatropha Oil, Jojoba Oil, Karanj Oil, Kukui Nut Oil, Milk Bush, Pencil Bush Oil, Mustard Oil, Neem Oil, Olive Oil, Palm Oil, Peanut Oil, Radish Oil, Rapeseed Oil, Rice Bran Oil, Safflower Oil, Sesame Oil, Soybean Oil,Sunflower Oil, Tung Oil.
• Considered 30 times cheaper than ordinary oil and a prospective resource of methane and biogas.

Toxicity / Concerns
Toxicity, Immune Suppression, Tumor-Promoting, and Cancer Concerns
• Latex is rich in terpenes, including phorbol and ingenol esters. Studies have shown the latex to be toxic. Phorbol esters are highly irritating and has been documented to promote tumors. One phorbol has been shown to enhance Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, cause DNA damage to immune cells and cause suppression of the immune system. An extract has also been shown to decrease the ability of T-cells to kill EBV.
• Although touted folklorically for treating cancers, studies on its esters show tumor-promoting activity. The latex has been documented to promote tumor growth and/or trigger certain cancers. Some studies consider it an environmental risk factor for Burkitt's lymphoma.
Contact Irritant / Uveitis / Keratoconjunctivitis:

• Latex skin contact causes burning and irritation. Ingestion causes burning and irritation of the mouth, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Several deaths have been attributed to the use of E. tirucalli for medicinal purposes. Reports have been made of chemical eye injury (keratoconjunctivitis) from exposure to the latex of ET.
• Many reports of mortality and morbidity with ingestion of the latex: vomiting, perforation of the stomach, intestines and kidney. In rats, it showed rapid severe inflammation, an oxytocin response, pro-convulsive and anti-convulsive effects,
• The triterpene esters are all highly inflammatory with carcinogenic activities.

Traditional use of the latex from Euphorbia tirucalli in the treatment of cancer in South
The study concludes that cancer management with E. tirucalli has no scientific basis and its esters have already presented a tumor-promoting ability. There are also endemic cancers in places where E. tirucalli is widely distributed and folklorically used. (2)
Developmental Toxicity:
Toxicological screening in rats suggests that the latex aqueous solution of E. tirucalli did not interfere with embryo development or implantation, but seems to alter the placenta morphology. (3)
New highly irritant euphorbia factors from latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L.:
5 new euphorbia factors were isolated from the latex, all of which are highly sensitive to autoxidation. (4)
Anti-Tumor Activity:
Study of ET in tumor-bearing mice showed a modulatory effect on myelopoietic response and levels of PGE2 possibly through regulation of granulocyte and macrophage production and expression of functional activities. (5)
Tumor Promoting:
• Although touted folklorically for treating cancers, studies on its esters show tumor-promoting activity. The latex has been documented to promote tumor growth and/or trigger certain cancers. Some studies consider it an environmental risk factor for Burkitt's lymphoma. (6)
Study of a biopolymeric fraction from ET showed dose-dependent anti-arthritic activity and in vivo immunomodulatory capacity as a major component in inhibiting arthritis. (7)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant:
Study of aqueous extract of E tirucalli exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect, decreasing serum enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation and increasing levels of tissue GSH. The hepatoprotective effect may be due to its antioxidant potential. (13)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves and Stem Bark:
E. coli and P. aeruginosa were most sensitive to a leaf extract. Stem bark extract exhibited significant activity against P. vulgaris, K. pneumonia. Leaf extract showed maximum antifungal activity with A. fumigatus. Low MIC exhibited by an extract against S. aureus presents a potential alternative to orthodox antibiotics. (14) Study evaluated various extracts of stems for antimicrobial activity. An ethanolic stem extract showed bacterial inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and E. coli. The extract was also inhibitory to all fungi tested. (52)
Inganen Diterpenes:
The prevalent constituents of the plant latex are diterpenes of the Inganen types (ingenol esters), as well as tigliane (phorbol esters). Study data has shown that Inganen as well as colchicene have an inhibitory effect on tubulin polymerization, instable of MT nucleation and formation. Neurons exposed to Inganen initiate a cellular process than can lead to cell death - Inganen-induced apoptosis. (15)
Like all other pest remedies, E. tirucalli extracts vary in efficacy. High efficacy was observed with Anopheles spp. larvae, B. brassicae, R. similis, H. multicinctus, and P. goodeyi. (16)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic:
Latex extract of E. tirucalli showed moderate analgesic activity in the tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing test possibly through the suppression of prostaglandin and bradykinin formation. Results suggest both a central and peripheral analgesic activity. The analgesic activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the latex extracts. (17)
Biogas Production:
The results of a laboratory study on biogas production from Euphorbia tirucalli showed a maximum biogas yield of 298 liters per kg dry matter after mesophilic digestion (at 35 degrees Celsius) with bacteria from domestic waste water treatment for 21 days. Results showed E. tirucalli as a good feedstock for biogas production under laboratory conditions, with biogas production ranging from 218 to 293 liters/kg dry matter. Results provide a very interesting potential source of bioenergy in tropical countries. (18) Study assessed the biogas production from E. tirucalii. The highest biogas production was observed in 1:10 Euphorbia tirucalii to water ration (55.70 liters.). Also, E. tirucalii does not need any chemicals to generate biogas production. (
Gastric Wound Healing: Study evaluated the effect of a crude extract of Euphorbia tirucalli in the stomach healing process of mice subjected to a 1 cm longitudinal incision in the gastric body sutured with 6-0 polypropylene stitches. Results showed wound healing activity with no signs of peritonitis, hematoma, or fistulas, with no significant statistical difference in histological parameters. (
Microbicidal: Acetone extracts of stem portions of E. tirucalli showed activity against test organisms viz. Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, and Candida albicans. (
Latex Activation of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle/ Role in Burkitt's Lymphoma: Study examined the effects of unpurified E. tirucalii latex on EBV gene expression. Study suggests environmental exposure to the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli could directly activate the EBV lytic cycle and provide evidence of a role for E. trucalli in the etiology of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. (
Euphol Induces Human Gastric Cancer Death: Study demonstrated that euphol, a euphane-type triterpene alcohol, attenuated TGF-ß-inudced smad2 phosphorylation, and induced gastric cancer cell death through mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Results suggest euphol may distribute TGF-ß receptors in lipid rafts, and the membrane modifications may induce cancer cell death. (
Euphol / Cytotoxic Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines: The anti-tumor effects of euphol in vitro were assessed using MTS assays on 77 human cancer cell lines from 13 solid tumor models. Euphol demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity with dose and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on all cancer cell lines analyzed. (
Antimicrobial / Latex: Study of various extracts of latex of E. tirucalii showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, E. coli and Candida albicans. (
Inhibition of Melanoma Proliferation: Study showed homeopathic preparations and ultra diluted latex showed good performance in inhibiting human melanoma (MV3) proliferations. (
Mosquito Larvicidal / Latex: Study evaluated the efficacy of E. tirucalii latex as larvicide against Anopheles fenestus and Anopheles gambae. Results showed the fresh latex has high efficacy to cause mortality in A. mosquito larvae, with a potential for adoption as plant based mosquito larvicide. (
Antibacterial for Antiseptic Gel: Study evaluated the antibacterial compounds of E. tirucalii for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in the form of an antiseptic gel. The most effective concentration of the extract to inhibit growth of S. aureus is 75% with 3.25 cm inhibition zone diameter. (
Molluscicidal / Stem Bark:
Study evaluated methanol extract of stem bark against two freshwater snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus, both intermediate hosts of liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which causes endemic fascioliasis in cattle and livestock. Results showed E. tirucalii was toxic against all the stages of both snails, with a potential as a source of safer molluscicides. (
31) Study evaluated an acetone extract of stem bark against two harmful snails L. acuminata and I. exustus in an experimental pond. Results showed dose dependent toxicity with a significant negative correlation between LC values and exposure periods: 53.58 mg/L (24h) to 19.47 mg/L (96h). The extract was toxic against both snails and has potential as eco-friendly option in the management of fascioliasis disease. (41)
Antitumor / Latex: Study showed aveloz latex suppressed and prevented growth of mouse breast cancer cells, at high concentration causing cell lysis, at low concentrations, drastically reducing cell viability. (
Antimicrobial / Stems and Leaves: Study of stem and leaves extract showed some effect on bacteria while the latex showed best sensitivity on some fungi species. (
ZnO Nanoparticles: Study reports on the biological synthesis of ZnO using stems of Euphorbia tirucalii avoiding the use of harmful reducing/stabilizing agents. The ET stem assisted synthesis of ZnO NP is simple, fast, cheap and efficient. (
Ocular Injury from Latex: Study reports 3 cases of ocular injuries caused by the milky latex from E. tirucalii and Dieffenbachia sequine. Visual acuity was reduced between 6/30 and 6/20. Euphorbia sap caused punctate erosion, microbullae and Cescemet's folds. Ocular symptoms developed in 5 to 18 hours despite copious irrigation. Supportive treatment resulted in full recovery without sequelae over 1 week. When working with the plant, wearing gloves and eye protection is advised, together with washing exposed areas with soap and water before contact with others. (
Reactivation of HIV Latency / Elimination of Viral Reservoir: Study showed that esters of ingenol from E. tirucalii act as reactivators of latent HIV from reservoir cells. Compound 1 (ingenol-3-dodecatrienoate) inhibited viral replication and activated human CD4 cells. Through proviral activation and blocking of viral entrance through receptor down regulation, it can be used in shock-and-kill strategy as adjuvant to HAART therapy to eliminate viral reservoir. (
Lectin Antitumor Effect / Latex: Study purified a lectin fraction from the latex of E. tirucalii and evaluated its activity against tumor Erhlich. The interaction of fraction lectin with receptor surface of tumor cells could interfere with tumor microenvironment. The production of TNF-α by macrophages may be related to the antitumor activity. (
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the effects of crude extract of E. tirucalli in cutaneous wound healing in Swiss mice. The crude hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated better outcomes in the healing process, acute inflammation and fibrosis on the 14th day postoperatively. (
Modulation of Cytokine Response / Latex: Study evaluated the production of type 1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines by circulating leukocyte subsets submitted to brief stimulation with the crude latex of E. tirucalli. Results showed a significant increase (p,0.05) in the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes positive for type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a mixed profile of cytokine production. Data indicated a predominant type 1 cytokine response. (
Antioxidant / Anticancer / Aerial Parts: Study reports on optimized water extraction conditions for total phenolic recovery and preparation of methanol and aqueous extracts from aerial parts of the plant, and to test for antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Water extract yielded TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g while the methanol extract yielded 77.33 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant assays showed strongest correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity for ABTS and DPPH methods. The methanol extract showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. (
Cytotoxicity on Brine Shrimp Lethality: Toxicity study against Artemia salina brine shrimp showed an LD50 of 23.10 (ppm) and 256% RT (relative toxicity) compared to lapachol control (100%). (
Developmental Toxicity Study: Developmental toxicity in rats suggests the possibility that the latex aqueous solution of E. tirucalli did not interfere with tubaric embryo development or with implantation, but seems to have altered placenta morphology. (
• Anthelmintic: Study of petroleum ether and dichlormethane-methanol extract of latex reports anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma as evidenced by decrease in time period to paralysis and death. (44)
• Cytogenetic Effect / Sperm Head Morphology / Stems: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic crude extract of E. tirucalli stems on sperm head morphology in male balb/c albino mice. Results showed significant (p<0.01) toxic effects on sperms of male mice that increased with increasing dose and time. GC-MS study yielded 3 hydrocarbons (toluene, tetradecane, and1-iodo- and bicyclo[3,2,1]octane). Studies have shown toxic effect of hydrocarbons, with cases of spontaneous abortion or miscarriage linked to paternal exposures to hydrocarbons and other chemical substances. Study suggests caution and choice of appropriate dose and period of treatment in its use in traditional medicine. (46)
• Antiproliferative / Variations in Activity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of extracts of E. tirucalli aerial parts for probable geographic variations. Extracts in various concentrations were tested against leukemia (HL-60), lymphoma (Daudi) and melanoma (B16F10) cell lines. Results showed significant regional variability in cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative differences in some classes of secondary metabolites may explain the variations in antitumor activity.  (47)
• Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer Cell Lines / Stems: Study evaluated the medical effects of E. tirucalli stem extracts in breast cancer lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB231). Results showed inhibition of cell proliferation in a concentration and cell type dependent manner. Study suggests the extract might induce cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase by p21 overexpression. (50)
• Topical Latex for Intestinal Adhesions in Experimental Peritonitis: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of an aqueous solution of avelox latex on survival and intestinal adhesions in rats with experimental peritonitis. Results showed increased formation of intestinal adhesions and prevented deaths of all animals with peritonitis. (51)
• Modulation of Gene Expression / Larynx Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Latex:
Study evaluated the effects of an antitumoral fraction of E. tirucalli latex on larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), morphology, cell proliferation and gene expression. Results showed the involvement of E. tirucalli latex in the altered expression of genes in the tumorigenic processes, which has potential application as a therapeutic indicator of larynx cancer. (53)
• Cytotoxicity / Genotoxicity: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of E. tirucalli in human leukocytes and its effects on osmotic fragility in human erythrocytes. Results suggest the aqueous extract induces genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in human leukocytes, possibly via interaction with the antioxidant enzyme system, increasing ROS formation and decreasing cellular tolerance level to chemical plant constituents. (54)
• Peroxidase / Antifungal / Latex: Study purified a novel peroxidase from the latex of E. tirucalli. The enzyme exhibited antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The simple purification, high yield, and stability suggest potential for biotechnological applications. (56)
• Wart Remover / Sap: Study evaluated the effectiveness of E. tirucalli (Pobreng kahoy) sap as wart remover. Study involved 10 patients with a 10-day application of sap. Results showed the sap significantly reduced the size of the warts. (57)
• Amelioration of Collagen Induced Arthritis / Triterpenoid Fraction: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of a triterpenoid fraction isolated from E. tirucalli in collagen induced arthritis model in Wistar rats. Results showed significant )p<0.05) anti-arthritic activity as evidenced by decrease paw volume. Altered hematological parameters (CRP and WBC) were brought back to near normal. Radiological and histopathological studies indicated remodeling of ankle joints. Results paralleled standard drug diclofenac. (58)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.

Updated January 2018 / November 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / File:Euphorbia tirucalli Blanco1.210b-cropped.jpg/ Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Euphorbia tirucalli / Aveloz / Tropical Plant Database / Raintree Nutrition
Tradtional use of the latex from Euphorbia tirucalli in the treatment of cancer in South Brazil / P. Cataluña, S.M.K. Rates
Toxicological screening of Euphorbia tirucalli L.: Developmental toxicity studies in rats / Aldo César Passilongo Silvaa, Dieime Elaine Pereira de Fari et al 
New highly irritant euphorbia factors from latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. / G. Fürstenberger1 and E. Hecker1 
African Burkitt's lymphoma and an Epstein-Barr virus-enhancing plant Euphorbia tirucalli. / 1: Lancet. 1987 May 30;1(8544):1257-8. / Osato T, Mizuno F, Imai S, Aya T, Koizumi S, Kinoshita T, Tokuda H, Ito Y, Hirai N, Hirota M, et al. 
Euphorbia tirucalli L. modulates myelopoiesis and enhances the resistance of tumour-bearing mice / International immunopharmacology / 2006-Feb; vol 6 (issue 2) : pp 294-9 
Anti-arthritic activity of a biopolymeric fraction from Euphorbia tirucalli / Sarang Bani et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 2007, vol. 110, no1, pp. 92-98 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.021
Studies in the Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia tirucalli and Calotropis procera / Abdul Qasin Khan / 1989
Research into Euphorbia latex and irritant ingredients Scientific articles with references and (in many cases) summaries / collected by Dr. Richard J. Hodgkiss 
African ethnobotany / Hans Dieter Neuwinger 
Biodiesel from Milk Bush, Pencil Bush Oil as Bio-diesel, Biofuel - Reference & Resources / Oligae
Plant Oils Used for Bio-diesel / BDpedia
Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Euphorbia tirucalli / T M Jyothi et al / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS / Jan 2008 / vol 7 . No 1, pp 25-30
. / Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay, K P Singh and Ashwani Kumar / Journal of Phytology 2010, 2(4): 65–77
EFFECT OF INGANEN ANTICANCER PROPERTIES ON MICROTOBULE ORGANIZATION / Ali Khaleghian, Gholam Hossein Riazi et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.3, July 2010, pp.273-278
Evaluation of Pesticidal Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli against Selected Pests / Mwine Tedson Julius / Thesis / ISBN-number: 978-90-5989-423-5
Biogas production from Euphorbia tirucalli / FACT / Fact-Foundation.com 
Sorting Euphorbia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. 
Gastric healing process with raw extract of Euphorbia tirucalli L.: study in rats. / dos Santos OJ, de Carvalho FF Jr, Sauaia-Filho EN, Santos RH, Santos RA, Barbalho WG. / Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2013 Nov-Dec;26(4):256-9.
Activation of the Epstein–Barr virus lytic cycle by the latex of the plant Euphorbia tirucalli / A MacNeil, O P Sumba, M L Lutzke, A Moormann and R Rochford / British Journal of Cancer (2003) 88, 1566–1569. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600929
Euphol from Euphorbia tirucalli induces human gastric cancer death through the degradation of TGFβR in lipid raft membrane microdomain (657.12) / Ming-wei Lin, Yaw-Bin Huang, Chia-Yuan Hsieh, Deng-Chyang Wu, Fang-Rong Chang and Chun-Lin Chen / The FASEB Journal—The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 28 no. 1 Supplement 657.12
Cytotoxic effect of euphol from Euphorbia tirucalli on a large panel of human cancer cell lines / Rui Manuel Reis, Viviane Aline Oliveira Silva, Marcela Nunes Rosa, Aline Tansini, Joao Paulo Da S.N. Lima, Chris Jones, Luiz Francisco Pianowski / J Clin Oncol 31, 2013
Medicinal Value of Euphorbia Tirucalli / Nishi Gupta, Garima Vishnoi, Ankita Wal, Pranay Wal / Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 2013, Vol 4, No 1, pp 40-46 / DOI: 10.4103/0975-8453.135843
Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Invitro Phytochemical Investigation, Chracterization & Antimicrobial Study Of Latex Of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. / S. R. Kane*, S. V. Bhandari / Int.J.ChemTech Res.2013,5(5) 
ANALYSIS OF IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF HIGH DILUTIONS OF Euphorbia tirucalli L. IN HUMAN MELANOMA CELLS. / Renata Macedo dos Reis Januário da Silva, Dulcinéia Furtado Teixeira, André Luiz Franco Sampaio, Tereza Cristina de Aguiar Leitão / 
Evaluation of larvicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) against larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes / Julius Mwine*, Patrick Van Damme and Francis Jumba / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(19), pp. 1954-1959, 4 October 2010 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.383 
EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI STEM EXTRACT AS ANTI-BACTERIAL SUBSTANCE FOR ANTISPETIC GEL / Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Yogyakarta State University 
A Comparative Study of Toxic Effect of a Euphorbia's Plant Euphorbia tirucalli Against Two Freshwater Harmful Snails in Laboratory as Well as in Pond and its Effect on Their Reproductive Physiology / Saroj Chauhan & Ajay Singh / World Journal of Zoology 7(3): 258-263, 2012 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjz.2012.7.3.64156 
Evaluating of Biogas Production from Euphorbia tirucalli / Taddese Girmay / American Journal of Environment, Energy and Power Research Vol. 2, No. 2, November 2014, pp. 1 - 9
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Euphorbia tirucalli Extracts and the Effect of Latex on Growth and Viability of Mouse Breast Cancer Cells EMT-6 / Khalil Lafi Aljabarin, M. Farraj, Bahjat Jabarin, and Zhou Jian Feng / IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), Volume 13, Issue 3 Ver. VI. (Mar. 2014), PP 59-63
Biosynthesis of ZnO nano particles assisted by Euphorbia tirucalli (Pencil Cactus) / Shilpa Hiremath*, Vidya C, , M A Lourdu Antonyraj , M N Chandraprabha , Priya Gandhi, Atishu Jain and Kunal Anand / International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue1 (Sept 2013)
Case Report: Ocular Injuries from Plant Sap of Genera Euphorbia and Dieffenbachia / Kuo-Fang Hsueh, Pei-Yu Lin, Shui-Mei Lee, Chang-Fu Hsieh / Chin Med Assoc, 2004;67:93-98
Reactivation of HIV latency by ingenol esters isolated from Euphorbia Tirucalli / R Delvecchio, C Monteiro Abreu, D Pandeló, R Santana Aguiar, JA Gli?ski, P Kinkade, J Douglas, A Tanuri, LF Pianowski / Planta Med 2012; 78 - PD16 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1320374
Evaluation of the antitumor effect of lectin obtained from the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli against tumor cells of ehrlich / Aline Richter*, Caroline Mota, Fernanda Santiago, Marcelo Barbosa / BMC Proceedings 2014, 8(Suppl 4):P38
Evaluation of the use of raw extract of Euphorbia tirucalli L. in the healing process of skin wounds in mice
 / Euler Nicolau Sauaia Filho; Orlando José dos Santos; Allan Kardec Duailibe Barros Filho; Altieres de Arruda Rocha; Rafael Campos Silva; Rayan Haquim Pinheiro Santos; Rennan Abud Pinheiro Santos / Acta Cir. Bras. vol.28 no.10 São Paulo Oct. 2013 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502013001000005 
The crude latex of Euphorbia tirucalli modulates the cytokine response of leukocytes, especially CD4+ T lymphocytes / Bethânia A. Avelar; Felipe J. N. Lélis; Renato S. Avelar; Mathias Weber; Elaine M. Souza-Fagundes; Miriam T. P. Lopes; Olindo A. Martins-Filho; Gustavo E. A. Brito-Melo / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.21 no.4 Curitiba July/Aug. 2011 Epub June 03, 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000096 
Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts / Benjamin Munro, Quan V. Vuong, Anita C. Chalmers, Chloe D. Goldsmith, Michael C. Bowyer, and Christopher J. Scarlett / Antioxidants 2015, 4, 647-661 / doi:10.3390/antiox4040647 
Molluscicidal Effect of Medicinal Plant Euphorbia tirucalli on the Harmful Snails in Experimental Ponds / Saroj Chauhan and Ajay Singh / World Journal of Zoology 10 (1): 47-53, 2015 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjz.2015.10.1.91102 
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district / Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro, Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo, Délio Soares Raslan, Claudia Mashrouah Jamal, Dâmaris Silveira / Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 42, No 2, Abr./Jun. 2006 
Toxicological screening of Euphorbia tirucalli L.: Developmental toxicity studies in rats / Aldo César Passilongo Silva, Dieime Elaine Pereira de Faria, Nathália Barbosa do Espírito Santo Borges, Ivone Antônia de Souza, Vera Maria Peters, Martha de Oliveira Guerra / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 110, Issue 1, 1 March 2007, Pages 154–159
The cytogenetic effect of Euphorbia tirucalli stems methanolic extract on sperm head morphology in male albino mice / Reyam jameel Al-Shaikhli* and Abbas Abdullah Al-Janabi / HOAJ Biology 2017 / doi: 10.7243/2050-0874-6-1
Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L (Euphorbiaceae) from three regions of Brazil /
Marina L do C Caxito, Cristiane P Victório*, Helber B da Costa, Wanderson Romão, Ricardo M Kuster and Cerli R Gattass / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2017; 16 (5): 1013-1020 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v16i5.7
GC - MS analysis of some volatile constituents extracted from stem of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn / Ezany Yusoff, Azlina Ahmad, Suharni Mohamad, Nadia Farahana Muhammad / Arch Orofac Sci (2017), 12(1): 36-44
Validation of the antiproliferative effects of Euphorbia tirucalli extracts in breast cancer cell lines / M Choene, L Motadi / Molecular Biology, Jan 2016, Vol 50, Issue 1: pp 98-110
EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS / Lihian Alves de Araujo, Fatima Mrue, Roberpaulo Anacleto Neves et al / Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2015 Oct-Dec; 28(4): 243–246. / doi:  10.1590/S0102-6720201500040006
Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Euphorbia tirucalli L. / Jadhav D M. D U Gawai, and E M Khillare / Bionano Frontier, Vol 3(2): July-Dec 2010
Euphorbia tirucalli modulates gene expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma / Gabriela Bueno  Franco-Salla et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineBMC series, 2016, 16:136 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1115-z
Euphorbia tirucalli aqueous extract induces cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and changes in antioxidant gene expression in human leukocytes / Emily Pansera Waczuk, Jean Paul Kamdem et al / Toxicology Research, 2015, 4: 739-748 / DOI:10.1039/C4TX00122B
Chemical Constituents from Euphorbia tirucalli / WANG Li; XIAO Guo-qiong; WANG Yu-fei; ZANG Zhen; ZHAO Yong / Natural Product Research and Development, 2014-12
Biochemical and biophysical characterization of a peroxidase isolated from Euphorbia tirucalli with antifungal activity / Anita Shukla, Ravi Kumar gundampati & Medicheria V Jagannadham / Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, Vol 34, Issue 5, 2016
The effectiveness of Euphorbia tirucalli (Pobreng kahoy) sap as wart remover / Hector Alcantara, Marc Andrew S. Capistrano et al / Thesis-Dissertations, 2004 / Cebu Doctors University: College of Nursing 
Triterpenoid fraction isolated from Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.. ameliorates collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats / Pramod Chandrasenan*, M V Neethu, V M Anjumol, Vysakh Anandan, Raj S elvaraj / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 6 (01), pp. 070 - 075, Jan 2016 /
DOI: 10.7324//JJAPS..22016.600112

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