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Family Meliaceae
Balukanag
Chisocheton cumingianus (C. DC) Harms.

Scientific names Common names
Chisocheton amboinensis Valeton Balibisan (Mand.)
Chisocheton apoensis Elmer [Invalid] Balita (Buk.)
Chisocheton benguetensis Elmer [Invalid] Balokanag (Bik.)
Chisocheton cumingianus (C. DC) Harms. Balukanag (Tag.)
Chisocheton morobeanus Harms Batuakan (Ig.)
Chisocheton torriceliensis Harms. Dagan (Mand.)
Dasycoleum cumingianum C. DC Bayongboi (Gad.)
Didymocheton multijugum (Seem.) Harms Diualat (Tag.)
Dysxoylum multijugum Arn. Dododo (Bik.)
Dysxoylum sorsogonense Elmer [Invalid] Dudos (Bik.)
  Kalimotain (Tag.)
  Kaniknik (S. L. Bis.)
  Kapboñgau (Ap.)
  Kato (Tag.)
  Kogod (Bik.)
  Makalasa (Neg.)
  Malakalad (C. Bis.)
  Maramabolo (Ibn.)
  Pakalsa (Neg.)
  Salakin (Tag.)
Balukanag is a shared common name with Bagilumbang (Aleurites trisperma Blanco).
Chisocheton cumingianus (C.DC.) Harms is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
MYANMAR: Tagat-pyu.
THAI: Yom makok.
VIETNAMESE: Goi chuy.

Botany
Balukanag is a good-sized forest tree, reaching a height of 20 meters. Leaves are alternatingly crowded along the relatively thick twigs, with elliptic leaflets 20 to 25 centimeters in length. Flowers are almost 2 centimeters long, tubular, borne on elongated panicles. Fruit is solitary or loosely clustered, brown and subscurfy, pear-shaped, about 8 centimeters in diameter, growing upon long stout stalks. Nut averages 3 centimeters in length and 2.5 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Albay Provinces in Luzon; in Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Camiquin de Misamis; and Mindanao.

Constituents
- Nut contains a considerable percentage of nondrying oil, called catoseed oil.
- The nut's hard shell constitutes about 60 per cent of the total weight of the seed. The balukanag oil is 35.56 per cent of the dried kernel.

- Dried kernel has the following composition: Fat (by extraction) 44.12%, protein 9%, ash 3.19%.
- Study of leaves yielded six phytosterols and three dammarane-type triterpenoids, namely: chisopanoids A-F (1-6) and chisopanones G-I (7-9), together with nine known triterpenoids (10-18). (see study below) (4)
- Study of bark yielded a new 30-nor trijugin-type limonoid, chisotrijugin (1). (5)
- Study of stem bark of C. cumingianus yielded a new lanostane-type triterpenoid, 3ß-hydroxy-25-ethyl-lanost-9(11),24(24')-diene (1), along with 3β-hydroxy-lanost-7-ene (2) and β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (3). (see study below) (6)

Properties
- Balukanag oil is nondrying with a rancid smell and slightly bitter.
- Oil is purgative, but not as powerful as castor oil.


Parts used
Seed oil.

Uses

Folkloric
- Oil is purgative; also, used externally for rheumatism and inflammations due to edema.
- Internally, oil is used for gastralgia and cholera; for the former, a teasponful in coffee or soup; the latter, a tablespoonful.
Others
- Oil: The oil (catoseed oil) is used for soap making and illumination. Oil from kernel used in hair cosmetic products.
- Wood: Yields a soft white wood used for making furniture, wall paneling, plywood, boxes. (3)
- Paper: Pulp used for paper making. (3)

Studies
Chemical Constituents:
Study evaluated the chemical constituents of the twigs of Chisocheton cumingianus subsp.balansae (C. Candolle) Mabberley. Ten compounds were isolated: 4 triterpenes-- odoratone(1), grandifoliolenone(2), 24-epi-piscidinol A(3), and chisiamol F(4); 3 sesquiterpenes--1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene(5), 1β,8α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene(6), and alismoxide(7); and 3 anthraquinones, including chrysophanol(8), emodin(9), and emodin monomethyl ether(10). (1)
• Phytosteroids and Triterpenoids / Cytotoxicities / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded six phytosteroids, three dammarane-type triterpenoids, together with nine known triterpenoids. Compounds 5 and 6 showed potent cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 human cancer cell line with IC50 of 3.24 ± 1.39 and 8.85 ± 4.73 µM, and also showed inhibition of cell proliferation mainly by apoptosis induction. (see constituents above)  (4)
• Cytotoxic Constituents / P-388 Murine Leukemia Cells / Stem Bark: Study of stem bark of C. cumingianus yielded a new lanostane-type triterpenoid, 3ß-hydroxy-25-ethyl-lanost-9(11),24(24')-diene (1), along with 3β-hydroxy-lanost-7-ene (2) and β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (3). Compounds 1-3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50 values of 28.8 ± 0.10, 4.29 ± 0.03, and 100.18 ± 016 µg/ml, respectively. (see constituents below) (6)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Updated February 2017

Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Meliaceae : Chisocheton cumingianus : Infructescence / / Copyright © Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL27799] / click on photo to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo /Fruits of Chisocheton paniculatus / Nandini Velho / CC BY-SA 3.0 / File:Fruits of Chisocheton paniculatus.JPG / Created: 16 March 2010 / Wikipedia
Infructescence
Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL27799]
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Digitally modified image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 41 / Chisocheton cumingianus (Balukanag) / 1920
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical constituents of Chisocheton cumingianus / YANG Ming-hua,WANG Jun-song,KONG Ling-yi / Chinese Journal of New Drugs, 2012-05
(2)
Chisocheton cumingianus / Synonyms / The Plant
(3)
Chisocheton cumingianus / Useful Tropical Plants
(4)
Phytosteroids and triterpenoids with potent cytotoxicities from the leaves of Chisocheton cumingianus
/
Shan-Shan Huang, Kai-Li Jian, Rui-Jun Li, Ling-Yi Kong* and Ming-Hua Yang* / RSC Adv., 2016,6, 6320-6328 / DOI: 10.1039/C5RA23626F
(5)
A New 30-nor Trijugin-type Limonoid, Chisotrijugin, from the Bark of Chisocheton cumingianus (Meliaceae) / Dewa Gede Katja, Kindi Farabi, Vidia Afina Nuraini, Nurlelasari Nurlelasari, Ace Tatang Hidayat, Tri Mayanti, Desi Harneti, Unang Supratman / International Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 8, No. 3; 2016
(6)
Cytototoxic constituents from the bark of Chisocheton cumingianus (Meliaceae) / Dewa Gede Katja, Kindi Farabi, Nurlelasari, Desi Harneti, Tri Mayanti, Unang Supratman / Journal of Asian Natural Products / http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2016.1196671
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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