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Family Orchidaceae
Bamboo orchid
Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr.

BIRD ORCHID
Zhu ye lan

Scientific names Common names
Arundina affinis Griff. Bamboo orchid (Engl.)
Arundina bambusifolia Lindl.             [Illegitimate] Bird orchid (Engl.)
Arundina chinensis Blume Grass-like leaf arundina (Engl.)
Arundina densa Lindl. Kinta weed (Engl.)
Arundina densiflora Hook.f.  
Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr.  
Arundina maculata J.J.Sm.  
Arundina meyenii (Schauer) Rchb.f.  
Arundina minor Lindl.  
Arundina philippii Rchb.f.  
Arundina pulchella Teijsm. & Binn.  
Arundina pulchra Miq.  
Arundina revoluta Hook.f.  
Arundina sanderiana Kraenzl.  
Arundina speciosa Blume  
Arundina stenopetala Gagnep.  
Bletia graminifolia D.Don.  
Cymbidium bambusifolia Roxb.  
Cymbidium meyenii Schauer  
Cymbidium speciosum Reinw. ex Lindl.  
Ophrys arundinacea Noronha [Illegitimate]  
Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Ghasphul.
CHINESE: Zhu ye lan.
FRENCH: Orchidée bambou.
INDONESIAN: Hui bini, Hui laki
LITHUANIAN: Siauralapé arundina.
MALAY: Orkid buluh.
NEPAL: Teet pindalu.
OTHERS: Arundina, Phanyar.

Etymology
The name Arundina graminifolia derives from the Greek word arundo, referring to the reed-like stems, and from the Latin words gramineus and folius referring to the grass-like leaves.

Botany
Arundina graminifolia is a tall terrestrial plant up to 3 meters high. Stems are erect, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters tall and up to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are borne in two ranks, linear-lanceolate and grass-like, 12 to 30 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. Simple terminal Inflorescence may be branched, 15 to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are purple red, pink to white, up to 10 centimeters across. Sepals and petals are similar, white, overspread with pink, the lip is large, darker than the sepals and petals, veined magenta with a yellow to orange-yellow patch at the base. Fruit is an elongated capsule filled with tiny seeds.

Distribution
- Cultivated in gardens.
- Grows well in the Baguio area.
- Also occurs in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaya and Java.

Constituents
Study isolated five compounds: (2E)-, 2-propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decosyl ester (I), p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (II), triacontanol (III) and p-hydroxybenzylethyl ether (IV), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl (V).
• Phytochemical analysis yields benzyldihydrophenanthrene, arundinaol, stilbenoid arundinan and phenanthrene constituents.

• Contains tannin, saponin and heptacosane.
• From the rhizome, a benzyledihydrophenanthrene.
• Study isolated a novel stilbenoid, arundinan (2-( p-hydroxybenzyl)-3-hydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl). (6)
• Study of tubers isolated 34 compounds: two were new, both stilbenoids (arundinan and arundinaol), and 22 compounds were isolated for the first time. (see study below) (11)
• Study of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid, Compound 1, 3(S),4(S)-3',4'-dihydroxyl-7,8,-methylenedioxylpterocarpan, together with ten known flavonoids: medicarpin (2), 5-hydroxy-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(3'',4'':6:7)-flavone (3), butein (4), sulfuretin (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-β-3-O- glycosides (7), kaempferol (8), kaempferol-β-3-O-glyco- sides (9), (+)-catechin (10), steppogenin-4'-O-β-D- glucosiade (11). (see study below) (12)
• Study of whole plant isolated five new phenolic compounds, gramniphenols C-G (1-5) and eight known compounds (6-13). (see study below) (14)
Study of rhizome isolated a novel benzyldihydrophenanthrene named arundinaol, elucidated as 7-hydroxy-1-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-2,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. (16)
• Study isolated six phenanthrenes: blestriarene A (1), shacidin (2), densiflorol B (3), ephemerantho-quinone (4), coelonin (5), and lusianthridin (6). (see study below) (17)
• Study of aerial parts yielded two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2), together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10). (see study below) (18)

Properties
Considered antibacterial, antitumor, antidotal, immune regulating.

Studies have suggested anticancer, antioxidant, antidepressant, antiviral, anti-lipid peroxidation, antibacterial, anti-hemolytic properties.

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, roots, stem, leaves, juice.

Uses
Edibility
• Flowers reportedly edible.
Folkloric
• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In India, scrapped bulbous stem applied on heels to treat cracks.
• Leaves, root and juice used for ear pain and rheumatism.
• In traditional Chinese medicine, used as antidote, diuretic, and demulcent.
• In Bangladesh, roots used for snakebite and intestinal biliary colic. Leaves, roots, and juice used for ear pain and rheumatism. Rhizome and leaf paste applied locally for rheumatic pains. (3)
• Flowers used to treat high blood pressure.
• Roots decoction used for diabetes, tumors, hepatitis.
• In Indonesia, boiled roots used as tonic for men, to strengthen them for work. (13)
• Roots and stems use for jaundice, beriberi edema, abdominal pain, snake bites, carbuncles and sores.

Studies
Arundinaol:
A novel benzyldihydrophenanthrene named aundinaol was isolated from the rhizome of AG. (4)
Cytotoxicity against Five Cancer Cell Lines:
Study isolated eight new C-4 alkylated deoxybenzoins, three new diphenylethylenes, and five known diphenylethylenes. Evaluated for cytotoxicity, compounds 4, 5, and 9-11 showed significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. (5)
Diphenylethylenes / Anticancer:
Study of Arundina graminifolia isolated two new dephenylethylenes, gramniphenols H and I (Compounds 1 and 2), together with six known diphenylethylenes. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against PC3 cells, while compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against NB4 and PC3 cells. (7)
Bibenzyl Derivatives / Anti-Tumor Activity:
Study isolated bibenzyl derivatives from the tuber of Arundina graminifolia. Compound 3 with bibenzyl ring opening exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity than compounds 1 and 2 with bibenzyl ring closing. (8)
Antioxidant:
Study investigated the scavenging effects of Arundina graminifolia on active oxygen species OH and O2 generated by Fenton reaction and riboflavin photosensitization. Results suggest AG showed significant scavenging and antioxidant activity. (9)
Antitumor Stilbenoids and Antidepressant YL102: Study of tubers yielded isolated 34 compounds: two were new, both stilbenoids (arundinan andarundinaol), and 22 compounds were isolated for the first time. Pharmacologic evaluation showed the bibenzyls possessed remarkable anti-tumor activity in vitro. A new antidepressant fomulation YL102 was investigated and developed on the basis of clinical uses and bioactivities. (11)
Flavonoids / Anti-Tumor / Cytotoxicity: Study of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid, together with ten known flavonoids. Compound 1—
3(S),4(S)-3',4'-dihydroxyl-7,8,-methylenedioxylpterocarpan—was evaluated against human tumor cells lines. Compound 1showed high cytotoxicity against HSY5Y cell with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and moderate cytotoxicities with IC50 valves 5-10 μM for other four tested cell lines. (see constituents above) (12)
Anti-Viral Phenolic Compounds: Study isolated five new phenolic compounds, gramniphenols C-G (1-5) and eight known compounds (6-13). Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed anti0tobacco mosaic activity with IC50 of 20.8, 40.8, and 57.5 µM, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed anti-HIV-1 activity with therapeutic index values above 100:1. (14)
Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride: Study of an acetic ether extract showed an inhibitory effect on lecithin lipid peroxidation induced by y-Fenton radical, LPO induced by carbon tetrachloride. Results suggest the detoxification mechanism could be related to its strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation induced by chemical poison. (15)
• Phenanthrenes / Antibacterial / Anti-Hemolytic: Study of A. graminifolia isolated six phenanthrenes. The compounds exhibited antibacterial and anti-hemolytic activities. Compounds 1 and 2 showed medium activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. Study of bactericidal mechanisms observed rupture of cell wall and membrane and leakage of nuclear mass. Compounds 1-3 attenuated erythrocyte damage. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant anti-hemolytic activity. (see constituents above) (17)
• Cytoprotective / Aerial Parts: Aerial parts of A. graminifolia yielded two new phenanthrene derivatives, together with a known lignin dimer and seven known stilbenoids. Isolated compounds were studied for cytoprotective activity via reduction of beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability). (see constituents above) (18)
• Stilbenoids / Anti-Hepatic Fibrosis Activity: Study isolated ten stilbenoids which were examined for anti-hepatic fibrosis activity against HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Compounds 4 (3,3'-dihydroxy-5--methoxy-
bibenzl) and compound 5 (7-hydroxy-2,8-dimethoxy-phenanthrene-1,4-dione) exhibited moderate growth inhibitory effects with IC50 61.9 µg/mL and 53.7 µg/mL, respectively. (19)
• Cytotoxic Deoxybenzoins and Diphenylethylenes: Study yielded eight new C-4-alkylated deoxybenzoins (1-8), three new diphenylethylenes (9-11) and five known diphenylethylenes. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. Compounds 4,5, and 9-11 showed significant cytotoxicity evaluated against five cancer cell lines, with IC50 ranging from 1.8 to 8.7 µM. (20)

Availability
- Ornamental cultivation.


Updated February 2018 / August 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical constituents from the rhizoma of Arundina graminifolia / China journal of Chinese materia medica / 2004-Feb; vol 29 (issue 2) : pp 147-9
(2)
MEDICINAL ORCHID WEALTH OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH / Dr. a. Nageswara Rao

(3)
Inherited Folk Pharmaceutical Knowledge of Tribal People in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh / Animesh Biswas, M A Bari, Mohashweta Roy, and SK Bhadra / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge • Vol 9 (1), Jan 2010, pp 77-89
(4)
One new benzyldihydrophenanthrene from Arundina graminifolia / Mei-Feng Liu et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 7, Issue 5 October 2005 , pages 767 - 770 / DOI: 10.1080/102860204100016890181
(5)
Cytotoxic Deoxybenzoins and Diphenylethylenes from Arundina graminifolia
/ Qiu-Fen Hu, Bin Zhou, Yan-Qing Ye, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Yin-Ke Li, Gang Du, Guang-Yu Yang *, and Xue-Mei Gao * / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (10), pp 1854–1859 / DOI: 10.1021/np400379u
(6)
A NEW STILBENOID FROM ARUNDINA GRAMINIFOLIA/ MEI-FENG LIU, YUN HAN, DONG-MING XING, YUE SHI, LI-ZHEN XU, LI-JUN DU and YI DING* / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, September 2004, Vol. 6 (3), pp. 229–232
(7)
Two New Diphenylethylenes from Arundina graminifolia and Their Cytotoxicity
/ Yin-Ke Li et al / Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 11 3257 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.11.3257
(8)
Antitumoral bibenzyl derivatives from tuber of Arundina graminifolia / Liu Meifeng, LV Haoran, Ding Yi / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
(9)
Study on the Antioxidant Activities of Arundina Graminifolia Dai Medicines / Wang Xuemei1 Zhang Jiansheng, Gao Yuntao / Journal of Yunnan Nationalities University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2009-02
(10)
Arundina graminifolia / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Arundina Graminifolia of Dai Medicine and Pharmaceutical Studies of Antidepressant YL102 / Doctoral Dissertation / China Papers
(12)
Flavonoids Derivatives from Arundina graminifolia and Their Cytotoxicity
/ LIDAN SHU, YANQIONG SHEN, LIYING YANG, XUEMEI GAO,* and QIU-FEN HU / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 25, No. 15 (2013), 8358-8360
(13)
COMPARING MEDICINAL PLANTS USE FOR TRADITIONAL AND MODERN HERBAL MEDICINE IN LONG NAH VILLAGE OF EAST KALIMANTAN / Suharjito, D., Darusman, L.K., Darusman, D. and Suwarno, E. / Bionatura-Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Hayati dan Fisik Vol. 16, No. 2, Juli 2014: 95 - 102
(14)
Antiviral Phenolic Compounds from Arundina gramnifolia / Qiu-Fen Hu, Bin Zhou, Jian-Ming Huang, Xue-Mei Gao, Li-Dan Shu, Guang-Yu Yang*, and Chun-Tao Che / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (2), pp 292–296 /
DOI: 10.1021/np300727f
(15)
The inhibition effect of the extract of arundina graminifolia on lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride / GAO Yun-tao, LIU Ping, HE Mi-er, LIU Shu-bo / Journal of Yunnan University of Nationalities, Natural Sciences Edition, 2013-03
(16)
One new benzyldihydrophenanthrene from Arundina graminifolia / Mei-Feng Liu, Yun Han, Dong-Ming Xing, Wei Wang, Li-Zhen Xu, Li-Jun Du & Yi Ding / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 7, 2005, Issue 5 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/102860204100016890181
(17)
Phenanthrenes from Arundina graminifolia and in vitro evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-haemolytic properties / Xuemeng Yan, Bingxue Tang & Meifeng Liu / Natural Product Research, Vol 32, Issue 6 (2018) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1332606
(18)
Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae) / Florence Auberon*, Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Stéphanie Krisa, Cyril Antheaume, Gaëtan Herbette, Frédéric Bonté, Jean-Michel Mérillon and Annelise Lobstein / Molecules 2016, 21, 1430 / doi:10.3390/molecules21111430
(19)
Study on the structures and anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of stilbenoids from Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr. /  and  / IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol 274, Conference 1
(20)
Cytotoxic Deoxybenzoins and Diphenylethylenes from Arundina graminifolia
/ Qiu-Fen Hu, Bin Zhou, Yan-Qing Ye, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Yin-Ke Li, Gang Du, Guang-Yu Yang and Xue-Mei Gao / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (10), pp 1854–1859 / DOI10.1021/np400379u
(21)



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