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Family Cannaceae
Bandera española
Canna x generalis L. H. Bailey & E.Z. Bailey
CANNA LILY
Da hua mei ren jiao

Scientific names Common names
Canna x generalis L.H. Bailey & E.Z. Bailey Canna (Engl.)
Canna x orchioides L. H. Bailey [Unresolved] Canna lily (Engl.)
  Indian shot (Engl.)
  Wild canna lily (Engl.)
Most Cannas cultivated in Philippine gardens are the results of hybridization between species, notably C. indica, C. flaccida, C. glauca and C. coccinea. Hybridization has led to the use of names like Canna x indica, Canna x glauca, etc. For simplicity, some prefer to call all ornamental hybrids as Canna x generalis.
Canna × generalis L.H. Bailey & E.Z. Bailey is an accepted name The Plant List
 

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Da hua mei ren jia.
FRENCH: Balisier.
JAPANESE: Hana kana, Furenchi kana.
SPANISHL Bandera española.

Botany
Canna lily is a perennial succulent herb with unbranched stem. Leaves are oblong, acute or acuminate, bright green or tinged with maroon or red, with entire margins. Inflorescence is terminal. Flowers are irregular, showy, red, yellow, or pink, plain or with tiny blotches on petals. Fruit is a 3-valved capsule.

Most Cannas cultivated in Philippine gardens are the results of hybridization between species, notably C. indica, C. flaccida, C. glauca and C. coccinea. Hybridization has led to the use of names like Canna x indica, Canna x glauca, etc. For simplicity, some prefer to call all ornamental hybrids as Canna x generalis.

Distribution
- Most Cannas cultivated in Philippine gardens are the results of hybridization between species, notably C. indica, C. flaccida, C. glauca and C. coccinea.
- Now common at roadsides and waste places in the Tiaong, Quezon area.


Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- As hybrid, see folkloric uses of Tikas (Canna indica).


Studies
Wastewater Duress:
The resistance of wetland plant species is the key to ecological wastewater treatment technology. In a study of four plants showed Canna generalis and P. communis to have stronger anti-stress capability. As wastewater duress time increased, the anti-stress capability of Canna generalis increased. (2)
Canna Gum: In search of an acceptable alternative pharmaceutical gum, Canna gum, an exudate from the stalks, was studied. It was found to be an efficient, non-toxic, emulsifying agent, and a potential substitute for foreign-produced gums. However, the production methods failed to produced desired quantity of the gum.
(3)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium Pollution: Study showed Canna generalis to have phytoremediating properties in cadmium pollution. (4)
Phytoremediation of BTEX Contaminated Soil: Study showed canna (Cannax generalis) can accumulate BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) from root zone and rhizome zone soil and translocate the compounds to the shoot. Removal content of contaminated soil with 40% water content was a little higher than 20% soil water content, suggesting soil water content should be a consideration in phytoremediation. (5)
Phytoremediation / Phosphorus and Nitrogen in Domestic Waste Water: Study reports on phytoremediation of excessive phosphorus and nitrogen using CxG reeds through a constructed wetland in dosmestic wastewater. Results showed the Canna plant was very efficient in remediating Nitrogen contaminants, fairly effective on Phosphorus and incapalbe of removing Phenolic compound pollution. Results recomment C. x generalis for Nitrogen bioremediation in dosmestic wastewater. (6)
Phytoremediation / Copper and Zinc from Pig Waste: Canna x generalis was one of five plants found with the ability to accumulate Cu and Zn from the soil applied with pig manure. Roots were the main site for accumulation followed by stems and leaves. (7)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update October 2015
September 2013


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Canna names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(2)
Study on the Effects of Wastewater Duress on MDA in Constructed Wetland Plants / Min Lu, Ke Ke Li, Dong He Li, Shun Teng Liu, Fei Wang, Jie Zhao / Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 610 - 613) / 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.610-613.3402
(3)
A preliminary investigation of canna gum / Dolores Ann Strittmatter / Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Volume 44, Issue 7, pages 411–414, July 1955 / DOI: 10.1002/jps.3030440707 / Article first published online: 28 SEP 2006
(4)
Studies of Phytoremediation on Canna Generalis for Soil Cadmuium Pollution / Wu Shuangtao(Research Institute of Environmental Chemistry and Technology / Industrial Safety and Dust Control, 2005-09
(5)
Phytoremediation of BTEX contaminated soil by Canna×generalis. / M Boonsaner, S Borrirukwisitsak, A Boonsaner / Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2011 Sep 16;74(6):1700-7. Epub 2011 Apr 16.
(6)

Phytoremediation of Phosphorus and Nitrogen with Canna x generalis Reeds in Domestic Wastewater through NMAMIT Constructed Wetland / Samson O. Ojoawo, Gaddale Udayakumar, Pushparaj Naik / Aquatic Procedia, Volume 4, 2015, Pages 349–356
(7)
Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Copper and Zinc from Pig Waste / Wang Yan / Thesis 2005


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