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Family Cannaceae

Tikas
Canna indica Linn.
CANNA LILY
Mei ren jiao

Scientific names  Common names 
Canna achiras Gilles ex D.Don Balunsaying (Bis.) 
Canna achiras Gill. Bangali (Bik.) 
Canna altensteiniii Bouché Kakuentasa (Tag.) 
Canna amabilis T.Koyama & Nob.Tanaka. Kiuingam (If.) 
Canna ascendens Ciclar. Kolintasan (Bis.) 
Canna aurantiaca Roscoe Kuentas-kuentasan (Tag.) 
Canna aureovittata Lodd. Lasa (Iv.) 
Canna bidentata Bertol. Saging-saging (Tag.) 
Canna bifida Roam. & Schult. Tapuranga (Bis.) 
Canna carnea Roscoe Tikas (Tag.) 
Canna cearensis Huber Tikas-tikas (Tag., Bis.) 
Canna cinnabanina Bouché Tikis-tikis (Tag.) 
Canna coccinea Mill. Tukas-tukas (Tag.) 
Canna commutata Bouché Plantanillo (Sp.) 
Canna compacta Roscoe Canna lily (Engl.) 
Canna concinna Bouché Indian bread shot (Engl.) 
Canna crocea Roem. & Schult. Indian shot (Engl.)
Canna densilfolia Bouché Queensland arrowroot (Engl.)
Canna discolor Lindl.  
Canna edulis Ker Gawl.  
Canna ehrenbergii Bouché  
Canna exigua Bouché  
Canna eximia Bouché ex Horan.  
Canna flavascens Link  
Canna floribunda Bouché  
Canna formosa Bouché  
Canna fuchsina Ciciar.  
Canna fulgida Bouché  
Canna heliconiifolia Bouché  
Canna humilis Bouché  
Canna indica Linn.  
Canna juncea Retz.  
Canna laeta Bouché  
Canna lagunensis Lindl.  
Canna lambertii Lindl. ex Ker Gawl.  
Canna lanuginosa Roscoe  
Canna leptochila Bouché  
Canna lutea Mill.  
Canna macrophylla Horan.  
Canna maculata (Hook.) Link  
Canna montana Blume  
Canna lutea Mill.  
Canna orientalis Rosc.  
Canna speciosa Rosc.  
Canna tenuiflora Bouché ex A.Dietr.  
Canna texensis Regel  
Canna variegata Besser  
Canna variegatifolia Ciciar.  
Canna ventricosa Bouché  
Canna xalapensis Bouché  
Cannacorus indicus (L.) Medik.  
Distemon brasiliensis (Roscoe ex Spreng.) Bouché  
Xyphostylis lutea (Mill.) Raf.  
Canna indica L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Adalut, Butsarana.
CAMBODIA: Che:k te:hs.
CHINESE: Mei ren jiao.
FRENCH: Balisier, Canna.
INDONESIA: Ganyong, Buah tasbeh, Ubi pikul.
LAOTIAN: Kwayz ke: so:n, Kwayz ph'uttha so:n.
MALAYSIA: Daun tasbeh, Ganjong, Pisang sebak.
SPANISH: Achira.
THAI: Phuttharaksa, Phutthason.
VIETNAMESE: Chu[oos]i hoa, Dong r[ef]ng, Khoai dao.

Etymology
- Seeds are small, hard and heavy globular that sink in water. The resemble black shotgun pellets that gave the name "Indian Shot."

Botany
Tikas is stout herbaceous plant with a tuberous rootstock. Whole plant is green and smooth, growing 1.5 meters high. Leaves are lanceolate or ovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long, 10 to 20 centimeters wide. Inflorescence is somewhat waxy-glaucous, erect, with a peduncle about 30 centimeters long. Flowers are red, solitary or in pairs, the bracts about 1.3 centimeters long. Sepals are 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, greenish-white though sometimes tinged with red, and lanceolate or oblong. Corolla tube about 1 cm long, the involute lobes being red or reddish, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. The staminodes are bright-red, petal-like, the outer one being about 4 centimeters long, somewhat spatulate, acute, or slightly acuminate, and the others somewhat smaller, though the anther-bearing ones are as long as the outer one, about 4 centimeters wide, and recurved about the insertion of the anther. Inflorescence somewhat waxy-glaucous, erect, with a peduncle about 30 centimeters long. Fruits are capsules, green oblong-ovoid, softly echinate (spiny), and 2 to 2.5 centimeters long. Seeds are about pea-sized, somewhat spherical, with shining, black seed-coat.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines in settled areas, occurring in waste places and near settlements.
- Native of tropical America, and now pantropic in distribution.

Constituents
- Rhizomes yield fat, traces of an alkaloid, gum and starch.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenols, sterols, flavonoids and saponins.

- Study of red flowers yielded four anthocyanin pigments apart from quercetin and lycopene: Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside, Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, and Cyanidin-O-β-galactopyranoside. (8)
- Solvent extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oils and fats, proteins, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. Further analysis by UV-Vis and FT-IR suggest the presence of proto alkaloids, 9-amino 3,4 dihydroxy 2 methoxy non-6-yne. 78% gave positive results for proto alkaloids, and 33% gave a positive reaction for iso quenolins. (21)

- GC and GC-MS study of essential oil of rhizome of Canna indica (yellow flower variety) yielded 43 compounds representing 95-32% of the oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and derivatives form the major part (52.56%). The major terpene/terpenoid constituents are y-eudesmol (9.79%), δ-cardinol (6.33%), y-selinene (5.23%), and luciferin (5.05%). (24)

Properties
- Sweet-tasting, slightly cooling-natured, antipyretic, relieves gastrointestinal disorders.
- Rhizomes considered demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, antipyretic.
- Seeds considered cordial and vulnerary.
- Roots considered acrid and stimulant.

Parts utilized
· Rhizomes, flowers, leaves.
· May be collected during any time of the year.
· Rinse, remove appendage or roots, section into pieces sun-dry or use fresh.

Uses
Edibility
· Fruit reportedly edible. However, the info is dubious as the fruit is a dry capsule containing very hard seeds. (22)
- Arrowroot obtained by rasping the root to a pulp, washing, and straining to rid of fibers. Young tubers are eaten cooked. (22)
Folkloric
· Principally used in the treatment of acute jaundice type of hepatitis. Use 15 to 30 gms dried material or 60 to 90 gms fresh rhizome material in decoction. Commonly, recovery from jaunditic symptoms may be observed after one week of administration.
· In the Philippines, decoction of rhizome used as diuretic. Also, when macerated in water, used to alleviate nosebleeds.
· In Costa Rica infusion of leaves used as diuretic; rhizomes used as emollient.
· Decoction of rhizomes used in fevers, dropsy and dyspepsia.
· Flowers may be used for external wound bleeding - use 10 to 15 gm dried material in decoction.
• In Bangladesh, paste of plant used for tonsillitis.
• In Thailand, rhizome has been used with other herbs for cancer treatment.
• In
southwest Nigeria, leaves used for malaria.
• In Southern India, stems and leaves used in mixture with various herbal plants for wound healing. Stem juice of canna indica is mixed with stem of Cyanotis villosa and applied externally to heal wounds. Mixture of Trichodesma zeylanicum leaf, G. glabra rhizome, Canna indica stem and P granatum bark are mixed and ground to a paste and applied topically to wounds. Stem juice of C. indica mixed with stem juice of Commelina benghalensis and fruits of Areca catechu applied topically to wounds. (16)
Others
Food wrap: Leaves reportedly used for wrapping tamales.

Craft: Used in jewelry.
Fiber: Stems are source of fiber. Reported use for making paper.

Studies
• AIDS / HIV1-RT Inhibition: Canna indica was one of twenty Thai medicinal plants used to treat AIDS tested for their HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. C indica rhizomes showed HIV-1 RT inhibition ratio higher than 90% at 200 bug/ml concentration. Further study of C indica and two proteins isolated showed significant HIV-1 RT inhibition.(1)
Cannagenin / Molluscicidal: Study yielded cannagenin, which had a highly synergistic with chlorophyll on the morality of snails. (
2)
Molluscicidal:Study showed C indica to have time and dose dependent mollusicidal activity in a dose that was not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat as the snail L acuminata.(
3)
Hepatoprotective: Study showed the methanol extract of aerial parts of Canna indica has liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.
(4)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study
of hydroalcoholic extract showed significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Results were compared with reference drug Silymarin.
Cytotoxicity / Anticancer: Study yielded two pure compounds,
stigmasterol and 6-beta-hydroxystigmasta-4, 22-diene-3-one and two other toxic minor components. They showed cytotoxicity against P388 leukemia cells. (5)
Antioxidant: Study results clearly indicate the aerial parts of C indica is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.(
6)
Flower Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Pigment Source: Study of red flowers of Canna indica isolated anthocyanins. Four anthocyanin pigments were isolated from quercetin and lycopene. The compounds showed good antioxidant activity. Results suggest a promising pigment source for food applications.
(8)
Antinociceptive / Antihelmintic: Study of benzene and methanol extracts of C. indica showed significant central and peripheral analgesic activity. Anthelmintic activity, evaluated on Pheretima posthuma, showed a methanolic extract of rhizomes taking less time to cause paralysis of the earthworms.(10)
Phytoremediation of Triazophos: Study showed the potential of C. indica in a hydroponic system for phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) from contaminated water.(11)
Anti-HIV 1 Protein / Plastocyanin / Leaves: Study isolated a novel 10kDa protein with anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity from the leaves of Canna indica. The leaf protein was shown to be a plant plastocyanin with HIV-1 RT inhibitory property. (13)
Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract: Nano biotechnology is a field that applies the Nano scale principle and techniques to understand and transform bio systems (living and non -living), using biological principles and materials to create new devices and systems integrated from the nanoscale. Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance because of simplicity and ecofriendliness. In the study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from the leaf extract of Canna indica. (14)
Phytoremediation / Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils: Contamination of soils with heavy metals mainly result from industrial activities, i.e., mining and smelting, energy and fuel production, disposal of pharmaceutical wastes, fertilizers and pesticide application. Study showed Canna indica effectively translocated lead and chromium to aerial parts while the roots retained high quantities of cadmium, nickel and zinc. C. indica can be considered an effective accumulator of heavy metals and effective for the reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils. (15)
Antidiarrheal / Leaf Extract: Study of methanolic extract of of C. indica showed anti-diarrheal properties comparable to atropine and loperamide via reduction of fluid secretion, gastrointestinal motility and acetylcholine-induced contractions. (17)
• Natural Indicator in Acid Base Titration / Flowers: Study reports on the use of C. indica flower extract as a natural acid base indicator. Results suggest the natural indicator is useful, economical, simple, and accurate for acid-base titration use. (19)
• Hemostatic Effect / Flower: Study evaluated the hemostatic effect of C. indica flower extract in mice. Results showed a hemostatic effect with significant reduction in bleeding time, clotting time and permeability of abdominal capillary. (20)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of C. indica. Results showed significant inhibitory activity against human pathogenic activity but no activity against tested fungi. The essential oil extract was bacteriostatic at lower concentrations and bactericidal at higher concentrations. (23) Study of rhizome of yellow flower variety yielded 43 components. The oil showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and mild activity against B. subtilis. (see constituents above) (24)

Availability
- Wild-crafted. 

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated December 2017 / August 2014


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Johann Weinmann- Canna Indica / Mezzotint and copperplate engraving / click on image to go to source page / Old Print Gallery
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
In vitro HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities of Thai medicinal plants and Canna indica L. rhizomes
/ Warunya Woradulayapinij et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 101, Issues 1-3, 3 October 2005, Pages 84-89 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.03.030
(2)
Cannagenin / A New Molluscicidal Agent from Canna indica L. / Hemaia Motawe /
Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, Issue 4 February 1995 , pages 3 - 10 / DOI: 10.1300/J044v02n04_02
(3)
Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root / S M Tripathi and D K Singh / Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (2000) 33: 1351-1355
(4)
Investigation of Hepatoprotective activity of Aerial Parts of Canna indica L. on carbon tetrachloride treated rats / Prashant R Kaldhone et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(12),1879-1882
(5)
Study on cytotoxicity of the hexane crude extracted from the rhizome of Canna indica Linn. on cancer cells. / Sunan-Chainaku et al / IBIDS / International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements
(6)
In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of methanolic extract of Aerial Parts of Canna indica L. / Prashant R.Kaldhone et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(11),1712-1715
(7)
MEDICINAL PLANTS USEFUL FOR MALARIA THERAPY IN OKEIGBO, ONDO STATE, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA / Tolu O Odugbemi et al / Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2007) 4 (2): 191- 198

(8)
Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins / Srivastava J, Vankar PS / Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010 Dec;48(12):1015-9. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
(9)
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Canna indica L. against CCl4 induced toxicity / Mahesh Rahinj, Mittal Bhanushali et al / Dept. of Pharrmacology Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy

(10)
Antinociceptive and Anthelmintic Activity of Canna indica / S A Nirmal, S M Shelke, P B Gagare, P R Jadhav, and P M Dethe / Natural Product Research, Vol 21, No 12, Oct 2007, 1042-1047.
(11)
Technical note phytoremediation of triazophos by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system.
/ Cheng S, Xiao J, Xiao H, Zhang L, Wu Z. / Int J Phytoremediation. 2007 Nov-Dec;9(6):453-63. doi: 10.1080/15226510701709531.
(12)
Canna indica / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(13)
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTI-HIV-1 PROTEIN FROM CANNA INDICA L. LEAVES
/
Apanchanid Thepouyporn, Chalobon Yoosook, Wongsatit Chuakul, Krit Thirapanmethee, Chanita Napaswad and Chanpen Wiwat / Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, Vol 43 No. 5 September 2012
(14)
Green synthesized of silver nanoparticles using Canna indica leaf extract and its characterization
/ Veera Babu Nagati, Raju Nalvothula, Rama Koyyati, PratapRudra Manthur Padigya* / Int.J. ChemTech Res. 2014, 6(4),pp 2271-2276.
(15)
PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS USING CANNA INDICA L. / Subhashini, V., Ch. Rani, D. Harika and A.V.V.S. Swamy / International Journal of Applied Biosciences ISSN 2319-9938 Vol. 1(1), 2013, pp. 09-13
(16)
Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences / Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu, S∗/ International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-42, Sep-Oct 2009
(17)
Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoea Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Canna indica Leaf (Cannaceae) / O. Ofeimun Josephine, Owolabi Omonkhelin Josephine* and Oluyole Taye Cosmos / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol. 2 (2) Apr-Jun 2013
(18)
Canna indica / (Partial List) Synonyms / The Plant List
(19)
Use of Canna indica Flower Extract As A Natural Indicator In Acid Base Titration / Niranjan Mahajan, Rahul Jadhav, Pimpodkar Nayana Vinayak and Karande Prashant Pradip / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 1, Issue 1; July-Sept 2008
(20)
Hemostatic Effect of Canna Indica L. / ZHANG Lin,ZHANG Bai'e,HUANG Li,CHEN Yun,FANG Chunsheng / Journal of Dali University, 2011-12
(21)
Phytochemical Analysis of Canna indica L. / Jeyaraman V, Muthukkumarasamy S and Antony Joseph Velanganni A* / Indian Journal Of Natural Sciences, Vol 1, Issue 5, April 2011
(22)
Canna indica / Planst For A Future
(23)
Screening and antimicrobial activity of Canna Indica against Clinical pathogens bioactive
/ Jency George / International Journal for Life Sciences and Educational Research, Vol 2(3), pp 85-88, July 2014
(24)
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the rhizome of Canna indica Linn / Indrayan AK, Bhojak NK, Kumar N, Shatru A, Gaur, A / IJC-B Vol.50B(08) August 2011

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