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Family Fabaceae
Phanera integrifolia (Roxb.) Benth.

Scientific names Common names
Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb. Agpoi (Tagalog)
Phanera integrifolia (Roxb.) Benth. Banot (Tagalog)
Accepted Infraspecifics Uplig (Ilokano)
Phanera integrifolia subsp. cumingiana (Benth.) de Wit Flame vine bauhinia (Engl.)
Phanera integrifolia subsp. integrifolia  
Phanera integrifolia var. nymphaeifolia (G.Perkins) Mackinder & R.Clark  
Phanera integrifolia is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
There are conflicts on synonyms. Some compilations list Bauhinia integrifolia and B. cumingiana as synonyms, while others list B. integrifolia and Phanera integrifolia as synonyms. Some of the other synonyms applied are: Bauhinia holosericea Ridl. (1917), B. flammifera Ridl. (1920).

Other vernacular names
MALAYSIA: Akar katup-katup; Ketup-ketup, Kekatup.
THAILAND: Ku-kuu kuu-do, Chongkho yaan, Yothakaa.

Gen info
- Etymology: The genus name Bauhinia honors the brothers Jean (1541-1613) and Gaspard (1560-1624) Bauhin, Swiss botanists. The species epithet integrifolia is a combination of Latin terms integer meaning 'entire' and folium mean leaf.

Bauhinia integrifolia is a large-tendrilled liana with rusty-woolly, grooved young branches. Leaves alternate; stipules minute, early caducous; petiole 1-5 cm long; blade ovate to orbicular, 6.8-12.4 cm × 7.5-12.5 cm, base deeply cordate, apex entire, emarginate, shallowly or deeply bifid, 9-11-veined. Inflorescence a more or less dense panicle composed of corymbose racemes; flower buds globose, ovoid or ellipsoid, hypanthium tubular; flowers bisexual; calyx splitting into 2(-3) lobes; petals 5, obovate, 8-15 mm long, claw short, orange turning red; stamens 3, staminodes 2, minute; ovary subsessile, rusty-woolly. Fruit a legume, oblong, up to 20 cm × 5 cm, glabrescent, 5-8seeded, dehiscent. Seed ovateorbicular, about 2 cm in diameter. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. (1)
- Also native to Borneo, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand. (1)
- A common lowland species, found up to 1200 m altitude.

- Phytochemical screening of stems yielded alkaloids, anthraquinones, steroids and triterpenoids, with absence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins.

- Studies have suggest anti-angiogenic, non-cytotoxic, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stems, roots.


- In the Philippines, decoction of roots used for coughs and  applied as post-partum medicine. (2)
- The Manobo tribe herbalists use decoction of B. integrifolia stems to treat relapse experienced by mothers after childbirth; also used as abortifacient and for birth control.
- In Johor (Peninsular Malaysia), leaf juice used for stomach disorders.
- Leaf juice used for stomach problems.
- Used for treatment of snakebites.

- Roots used for treatment of syphilis.
- Cordage / Tying: Durable stems used for tying. Strong bast made into rope and bowstrings. (2)

Anti-Angiogenic / Non-Cytotoxic / Stem:
Study evaluated the anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic potentials of 70% acetone and water extracts of B. integrifolia stems. Using duck chorionallantoic membrane assay, both extracts exhibited dose dependent anti-angiogenic activity. As concentration increased from 10 gm to 1000 mg/mL, the formation of new blood vessels decreased. On brine shrimp lethality assay, both extracts were non-cytotoxic. (4)
Antibacterial / Stem: Study of stem extract showed antibacterial properties against two gram positive strains, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Extracts showed no activity against E. coli, K. pneumonia, A. niger and S. cerevisiae.


March 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Fabaceae: Phanera integrifolia subsp. cumingiana / Flowering vine / Copyright © 2017 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL121739] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Phanera integrifolia / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Wikimedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phanera integrifolia / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Bauhinia integrifolia  / (PROSEA) Plant Resources of South-East Asia
Anti-angiogenic and non-cytotoxic potentials of aqueous and acetone extracts of the stem of Philippine forest liana, Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb / Leila Ombat, Franco Teves / International Journal of Biosciences,  2015; 7(5): pp 184-191 / DOI:  10.12692/ijb/7.4.184-191 / pISSN: 2220-6655 / eISSN: 2222-5234
Antibacterial and antifungal assays of the stem extracts of two Philippine lianas, Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb. and Strongylodon paucinervis Merr /
Leila A. Allado-Ombat, Franco G. Teves / ELBA: Bioflux, 2015; 7(2)
Comparative Toxicity, Phytochemistry, and Use of 53 Philippine Medicinal Plants / Lydia M Clemen-Pascual, Rene Angelo S Macahig, Nina Rosario L Rojas / Toxicology Reports, 2021; 9: pp 22-35 / DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.12.002


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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