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Family Meliaceae
Aglaia smithii Koord.

Scientific names Common names
Aglaia badia Merr. Batukanag (Ilk.)
Aglaia bicolor Merr. Masaleng (Negrito)
Aglaia ramosii Quisumb.  
Aglaia smithii Koord.  
Aglaia smithii Koord. is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online.

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Monjowojan (Sulawesi), Alawe (Moluccas), Duren (Irian Jaya).

Gen info
- Aglaia is a genus of 117 species of woody dioecious trees belong to the Mahogany family (Meliaceae). Due to considerable morphological variation, the genus presents numerous taxonomic problems, with the number of accepted species varying from 117 to over 390 depending on species concept used. (5)

Aglaia smithii is a small to medium-sized tree usually less than 10 m tall; leaflets (5-)9-15, subopposite, with 9-13 pairs of secondary veins, with numerous pits or scales above, below densely set with peltate dark reddish-brown scales and a few larger and darker scales; calyx 5-lobed, petals 5, anthers 5, style-head depressed-globose; fruit obovoid.  (1)

Tree up to 10 m. Leaves 27–47 cm long; petiole 6–8 cm long, petiole, rachis and petiolules densely covered with scales like those on the twigs. Inflorescences in the axils of several leaves near the apex of the shoot, up to 28 cm long; peduncle c. 6 cm, peduncle, rachis and branches densely covered with scales like those on the twigs. Flowers c. 2.5 mm long and 3.5 mm wide; pedicels c. 3 mm, the pedicels and calyx densely covered with orange-brown scales which have a paler margin. Petals 5. Staminal tube c. 2 mm long and 3 mm wide, the aperture with 10 triangular lobes which have stellate yellow hairs on their margins; anthers 5, c. 0.7 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, inserted below the margin, with yellow stellate hairs, the staminal tube thickened below and between the anthers. Unripe fruits c. 1 cm long, obovoid, with numerous bumps and densely covered with scales on the outer surface. (6)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Maluku, New Guinea, Sulawesi. (2)
- Grows primarily in wet tropical biome(s).

- Common in primary forest and coastal forest on clayey soils, up to 40 m altitude. (1)
- Classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

- Study of A. smithii bark isolated two new dammarane triterpenoids, aglinone (1) and aglinin E (20S,24S-epoxy-25-hydroxy-1-en-dammarene) (2) along with three known compounds 3-epiocotillol (3), aglinin A (4) and eichlerianic acid (5). (3)

- Studies have suggested cytotoxic properties.

Parts used


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Wood: Wood is reddish brown, hard and heavy. Used for temporary construction in the Philippines.
Used for poles in Irian Jaya.

Cytotoxic Triterpenoids / Bark:
Study of A. smithii bark isolated two new dammarane triterpenoids, aglinone (1) and aglinin E (20S,24S-epoxy-25-hydroxy-1-en-dammarene) (2) along with three known compounds 3-epiocotillol (3), aglinin A (4) and eichlerianic acid (5). Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50s of 21, 42, 34, and 11 µg/mL, respectively. (3)
3-Epiocotillol / Cytotoxicity / Bark: Study of A. smithii
methanolic bark extract isolated 3-epiocotillol. The toxic activity of the compound against  brine shrimp (Artemia salina) showed LC50 of 13.4 µg/mL. Cytotoxic activity against murine leukemia cells P-388 by Alley Method showed weak activity with IC50 11 µg/mL. (4)


November 2022

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE:   Aglaia smithii (A. bicolor LT) US3345102 / by filibot.web / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Aglaia smithii / PROSEA

Aglaia smithii / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the bark of Aglaia smithii (Meliaceae) / Khalijah Awang, D Harneti et al / Phytochemistry Letters, 5(3): pp 496-499 / ISSN: 1874-3900 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phytol.2012.04.013
3-Epiocotillol from the bark of Agalia smithii (Meliaceae) and toxic activity against Artemia salina and cytotoxic activity against murine leukemia cells P-388 / Harneti D, Tjokronegoro R, Subarnas A, Supratman U / Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, 2010
Aglaia / Wikipedia
Aglaia smiithii / Flora Malesiana

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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