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Family Liliaceae
Bawang
Allium sativum L.
GARLIC
Hsiao Suan

Scientific names Common names
Allium sativum Linn. Ahos (Bis.) 
Allium pekinense Prokhanov Bawang (Tag.)
  Bauang (Tag.)
  Common garlic (Engl.)
  Garlic (Engl.)
  Nectar of the Gods (Engl.)
  Poor Man's Treacle (Engl.)
  Hsiao Suan (Chin.)
  Stinking Rose (Engl.) 
   

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Thawm, Thoum, Thum, Toom, Toum, Saum.
ARMENIAN: Sekhdor.
BENGALI: Rasun.
BURMESE: Chyet thon phew.
CHINESE: Suan, Da suan, Da suan tou.
CROATIAN: Češnjak.
DANISH: Hvidløg.
DUTCH: Knoflook.
FINNISH: Valkosipuli.
FRENCH: Ail blanc, Ail commun, Ail cultivé, Ail de printemps, Ail sans bâton, Ail rose sans bâton.
GERMAN: Echter Knoblauch, Knoblauch, Gemeiner Knoblauch, Gewöhnlicher Knoblauch.
GREEK: Skorda, Skordo, Skordon, Skortho.
HEBREW: Shoum, Shum.
HINDI: Lahasun, Lahsan, Larsan, Lasun.
ITALIAN: Aglio, Aglio comune.
JAPANESE: Gaarikku, Ninniku.
KANNADA: Bellulli, Lashuna.
KHMER: Khtüm sââ.
KOREAN: Ma nul.
LAOTIAN: Kath'ièm.
MADURESE: Bhabang poté.
MALAY: Bawang putih, Bawang puteh.
MALAYALAM: Vallaipundu.
MARATHI: Lasuun.
NEPALESE: Lasun.
NORWEGIAN: Hvitløk.
PERSIAN: Seer, Sir.
POLISH: Czosnek, Czosnek pospolity.
PORTUGUESE: Alho.
PUNJABI: Lasun, Lasan.
RUSSIAN: Luk chesnok, Chesnok, Luk posevnoi..
SANSKRIT: Lashunaa.
SERBIAN: Beli luk.
SINHALESE: Sudulunu.
SLOVENIAN: Česen
SPANISH: Ajo, Ajo comun, Ajo vulgar.
SUNDANESE: Bawang bodas.
SWAHILI: Kitunguu saumu.
SWEDISH: Vitlök, Vitloek, Hvitlök.
TAMIL: Vellaypoondoo, Vellaippuuntu, Wullaypoondoo.
TELUGU: Vellulli.
THAI: Krathiam, Hom tiam.
TURKISH: Sarımsak, Sarmesak, Sarmusak.
URDU: Leshun.
VIETNAMESE: Toi

Botany
Bawang is a low herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. True stem is much reduced. Bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, consisting of several, densely crowded, angular and truncated tubers. Leaves are linear and flat. Umbels are globose, many flowered. Sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple. Stamens are not exerted from the perianth.

Distribution
- Extensively grown in Batangas, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Norte, Mindoro, and Cotobato.
- A native of southern Europe.
- Now widely cultivated in most parts of the world.

Constituents
• Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and minerals. The sulfur compounds are responsible for the pungent odor and many of its medicinal effects.
• Saponins; tannins; sulfurous compounds; prostaglandins; alkaloids; volatile oils; allicin (bulb).
• The antihelmintic property is due to allyl disulphide content.
• The most important chemical constituents are the cysteine sulfoxides (alliin) and the nonvolatile glutamylcysteine peptides which make up more than 82% of the sulfur content of garlic. Allicin, ajoenes and sulfides are degradation products of alliin.
Some of garlic's effect is attributed to alicin, its active ingredient, which is converted to ajoene, allyl sulfides and vinyldithiins.
• Allicin (dially thiosulfinate or dially disulfide) is generated only when the garlic is crushed or cut, which activates the enzyme allinase which metabolizes alliin to allicin.
• Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allycysteine.
• Bulb: allicin; volatile oil, 0.9% - allyl disulfide, allypropyl disulfide; inulin; protein; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 0.2%; ash, 9.4%; choline, 0.7%; myrosinase.
Leaves: Protein, i.2%; fat, 0.5%; sulfides.

Properties
• Antibacterial, antihelminthic, antimycotic, antiviral, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, fibrinolytic, hypotensive, promoting leucocytosis, lipid lowering and platelet aggregation inhibition.

Parts utilized
Bulbs: Features prominently as a condiment and flavor in Filipino cuisine.
Herbalists, with concerns that cooking diminishes medicinal potency, recommends eating raw garlic cloves.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
- Widely used by Filipinos for flavoring dishes.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bulbs used for hypertension. Also used as diuretic, and eaten fresh or burned for coughs in children.
- Arthritis, rheumatism, toothaches: Crush several cloves and rub on affected areas.
- Crush clove applied to both temples as poultice for headache.
- Crush garlic or cut clove crosswise and rub directly to areas of insect bites.
- Decoction of leaves and bulbs for fever and as hypotensive, carminative, expectorant, and antihelmintic.
- Juice from freshly crushed garlic used for colds, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, asthma and bronchitis.
- Decoction use for tonsillitis.
- Steam inhalation of chopped garlic and a teaspoon of vinegar in boiling water used for nasal congestion.
- Fresh garlic has been used as a complement to INH therapy for tuberculosis. In Mexico, fresh bulb is eaten as a preventive for tuberculosis.
- In India, garlic juice diluted in water, applied externally to prevent hair from turning grey.
- Diluted juice used for earaches and deafness.
- In the Antilles, used as vermifuge.
- Also used for menstrual cramps.
- Used for digestive problems and gastrointestinal spasms.
- Infusion of a peeled broiled clove used for gas pains.
- Juice of bulb with common salt applied to bruises and sprains; also used for neuralgia and earache.
- Rubbed over ringworm for soothing effect.
- In WWI, fresh raw juice was used as antiseptic for control of wound suppuration.

Studies
• Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic: Topically, ajoene 0.4% cream, has been found 70% effective in certain dermatologic fungal infections. A 0.6% gel was effective in tinea corporis and tinea cruris.
Anticandidal: Study on the mode of action of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) against Candida albicans showed garlic treatment affected the structure and integrity of the outer surface of the yeast cells. Growth was affected in a number of ways: decreased total lipid content, higher phosphatidylserines and lower phosphatidylcholines, and decrease oxygen consumption of AGE-treated C. albicans. AGE exerts its effect by oxidation of thiol groups causing enzyme inactivation and subsequent microbial growth inhibition.
Hypertension: Studies suggest a beneficial antihypertensive effect but blood-lowering effects probably not dramatic. Other studies show a vascular benefit through improvement of aortic elasticity and possible slowing of the rate of atherosclerosis progression.
Hyperlipidemia / Antioxidant: (1) Controversial, but probably has beneficial effect on serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Some studies have shown a 4% to 12% lowering of total cholesterol. It seems to have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL). (2) Study of feeding of fresh garlic bulbs to induced-hypercholesterolemic rats showed decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and increase in HDL levels.(3) Study concluded that garlic extracts may have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.
Anti-cancer / Chemoprotective: (1) Possible anticarcinogenic properties, specifically colon, stomach and prostate cancers. In stomach cancers, probably through its inhibitory effect on H. pylori. In epidemiologic studies on stomach and colorectal cancer prevention, the garlic use was 3.5 grams to 30 grams of fresh or cooked garlic per week. (2) Study showed garlic may have an adjuvant effect on various defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary salivary glands of rat through increased availability or utilization of beta-carotene.
Hepatoprotective / Hematologic Effects: Study results on female Wistar rats suggest garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and hematological effects.
Antidiabetic: Study results of ethanolic extracts of AS in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that A. sativum can be considered an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.
Sperm Immobilization Activity : Study of crude extract of A. sativum bulb showed spermicidal activity in vitro.
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Treatment: A trial showed garlic may improve oxygenation and symptoms in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
Anti-Thrombotic Activity : Study of extracts of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina showed both extracts offered protection against thrombosis produced by an intravenous injection of ADP and adrenalin, with A sativum showing the stronger activity.
Diallyl Sulfide / Anti-Cancer: Study showed diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, when given by gavage to mice, inhibited by 74% the incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine.
Cardiovascular Benefits: Garlic is an ideal herb with its several cardiovascular benefits: blood pressure lowering, antihyperlipidemic effects, platelet inhibition and fibrinolytic effects, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic effects
Antibacterial / Anti-Staph aureus: Study of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
Antitumorigenesis: Study showed garlic oil may have an adjuvant effect on host defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary glands of rat through increased availability and utilization of beta-carotene.
Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from juices of Allium species merit consideration.
Antioxidant: In a study using DPPH scavenging method, raw garlic extract showed a color change from deep violet to yellow, indicating antioxidant activity.
Essential Oil / Antibacterial / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Essential oil extract from Allium sativum bulbs showed inhibitory activity on growth of over 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains tested.
Antibacterial / Garlic and Ginger Comparative Study: In a study comparing the antimicrobial potency of various extracts of garlic and ginger, results showed all the bacterial strains to be most susceptible to garlic aqueous extract while showing poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract.
Chemoprevention: Experimental studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of tumor growth.
Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the protective role of raw Nigelia sativa, garlic, and onion against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, garlic or onion significantly inhibited histamine stimulated acid secretion. Raw Nigella sativa and garlic showed a decrease in ulcer index. Boiling reduced the potency of garlic and onion.

Precautions
Anticoagulant Use: Reports have suggested that garlic may decrease platelet aggregation and have antifibrinolytic activity; therefore, should be used with caution in patients on anticoagulant therapy.
Induction of Cytochrome P450-34A: Concern for patients on cyclosporine and protease inhibitors. May increase the effects of hypoglycemic drugs.

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Perennial market produce.
Commercial: Tablets, extracts, capsules, powder and tea.
 

Last Update March 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg / William Woodville: "Medical botany", London, James Phillips, 1793, Vol. 3 Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Herbal Therapeutics: R.W. Watkins, MD, Emergency Medicine, April 2002
(2)
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) / MayoClinic.com
(3)
Hepatoprotective and some haematological effects of Allium sativum and vitamin C in lead-exposed Wistar rats / International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1 (3), pp.064-067, March 2009
(4)
Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):624-9.
(5)
Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. / Ahmad MS, Ahmed N / J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):796S-799S
(6)
The Effect of Fresh Crushed Garlic Bulbs (Allium sativum) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats / Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3: 15-19, 2008
(7)
Hypocholesteremic and Antioxidant Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (2): 161-166, 2009 / ISSN 1680-5194
(8)
Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts / Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 131-135
(9)
Treatment of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome With Allium Sativum L. (Garlic): A Pilot Trial / Abrams Gary MD and Michael Fallon MD /
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: October 1998 - Volume 27 - Issue 3 - pp 232-235 Clinical Research
(10)
THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCEDSALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu et al / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994
(11)
Effects of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina on thrombosis in mice / S O Awe et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 12 Issue 1, Pages 57 - 58 • Published Online: 18 Dec 1998 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(19980201)12:1<57::AID-PTR176>3.0.CO;2-M
(12)
Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethyihydrazine-induced colon cancer / Michael J Wargovich / Carcinogenesis (1987) 8 (3): 487-489. / doi: 10.1093/carcin/8.3.487
(13)
Studies on the Anticandidal Mode of Action of Allium sativum (Garlic) / Mahmoud Ghannoum / Journal of General Microbiology 134 (1988), 2917-2924 ; DOI 10.1099/00221287-134-11-2917
(14)
Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic): An Evidence-Based Review / Fataneh-Sadat Bathaei, MD, Shahin Akhondzadeh, PhD / J Teh Univ Heart Ctr 1 (2008) 5-10
(15)
Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on Staphyloccus aureus: An in vitro study / Deresse Daka / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (4), pp. 666-669, 24 January, 2011
(16)
THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCED SALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu, A S M Giasuddin, A R Mohammad / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994
(17)
Antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa and Allium sativum./ Dankert J, Tromp TF, de Vries H, Klasen HJ. / Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1979 Oct;245(1-2):229-39.
(18)
Antioxidant properties of raw garlic (Allium sativum) extract / Rahman, M. M., Fazlic, V. and Saad, N. W. / International Food Research Journal 19(2): 589-591 (2012)
(19)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ESSENTIAL OIL COMPARED TO
DIFFERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS IN EASTERN ALGERIA
/ Sihem Khadri, Nafissa Boutefnouchet*, Mazzouz Dekhil / St. Cerc. St. CICBIA 2010 11 (4)
(20)
ROLE OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) IN VARIOUS DISEASES: AN OVERVIEW / Londhe V.P.*, Gavasane A.T., Nipate S.S., Bandawane D.D., Chaudhari P.D. / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research And Opinion 1: 4 (2011) 129 – 134.
(21)
Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria / Iram Gull*, Mariam Saeed, Halima Shaukat, Shahbaz M Aslam, Zahoor Q Samra and Amin M Athar / Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2012, 11:8 / doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-8
(22)
Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) in Cancer Chemoprevention / S Ejaz, L C Woong, A. Ejaz / http://www.ann-clinmicrob.com/content/11/1/8
(23)
Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer / Amir N, Al Dhaheri A, Al Jaberi N, Al Marzouqi F, Bastaki SMA/
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRMC.S23032
(24)
Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans / Katey M. Lemar, Ourania Passa, Miguel A. Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Carsten T. Müller, Sue Plummer, Brian O'Rourke and David Lloyd / doi: 10.1099/mic.0.28095-0 / Microbiology October 2005 vol. 151 no. 10


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