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Family Menispermaceae
Bayating
Tinomiscium philippinense Diels.

Scientific names Common names
Tinomiscium philippinense Diels. Bayating (Pamp.)
  Kalumpañgi (Bag.)
Tinomiscium philippinense Diels is an unresolved name. The Plant List

Botany
Bayating is a stout, woody vine. Stem has a gray bark and milky sap. Leaves are thin, ovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and about 10 centimeters broad, smooth except at the nerves beneath, with a broad rounded base and pointed tip, on long petioles, up to 15 centimeters in length. Flowers are yellow, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, and occurring in considerable numbers on long, slender, drooping branches which grow in clusters, usually on the stems.

Distribution
- Endemic.
- Found in Pangasinan, Quezon, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Lanao and Davao Provinces in Mindanao, in forests at low and medium altitudes.

Constituents
- Yields a crystalline compound, Picrotin, a tutinolide sesquiterpene lactone.
- Picrotoxin has been reported to have CNS stimulant effect, insecticidal and nematocidal properties.
- Picrotoxin may also be used as an antidote to barbiturates. (5)

Properties
- Studies have suggested antiangiogenic, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Sap, fruit.

Uses

Folkloric
- White milky sap diluted with water used as eyewash.
Others
Fish poison: Fruit used as fish poison.


Studies
Crystalline Principle / Constituent:
Roots yielded a crystalline principle in the form of white needles. On elementary analysis and molecular weight determinations lead to the molecular formula C21H26O6. A tertiary phenolic alkaloid and a quaternary base are also present in the roots. (2)
Tinophyllone: Study isolated tinophyllone, a diterpenoid, with a formula of C21H26O6.
• Anti-Angiogenic / Antibacterial / Toxicity Evaluation / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of crude and semi-crude leaf extracts of T. philippinense. A dichlormethane leaf extract at 1000 µg/disc showed the highest antiangiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All fractions exhibited bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on three bacterial strains, with P. aeruginosa showing higher sensitivity to the dichlormethane semi-crude extract. The ME of leaves was non-toxic at maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated November 2017 / June 2013

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
A Study of the constituent of Tinomiscium philippinense Diels (fam Menispermaceae) / Swaeng Kuyaganot. - 1956 / Thesis (M.S. in Pharmaceutical Chemistry) - University of the Philippines, 1956.
(2)
Study of the constituents of Tinomiscium philippinense Diels (Fam. Menispermaceae) / Kuyaganont S / T ScINET-PHIL.
(3)
Tinophyllone, a diterpenoid from Tinomiscium philippinense Diels. / Aguilar-Santos G / Chem Ind 1965 Jun 19.:1074-5.
(4)
The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect of Tinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae) leaf extract / Sheryl Rena-Aguila, Mario A. Tan*, Oliver B. Villaflores / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine (2016) 4(1): 61-68 / doi: 10.12980/jclm.4.2016j5-145
(5)
Lactone Bitter Principles: Picrotoxin /
Phar macognogy 





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