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Family Gramineae / Poaceae
Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.

Ya na cao

Scientific names Common names
Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. Añgangsug (Ig.)
Paspalum kora Willd. Bias-biasan (S. L. Bis.)
Paspalum villosum Blanco Bubulis (Sub.)
Paspalum sumatrense Roth Paragis (Tag.)
Paspalum thunbergii Kunth Subung-subuñgan (Tag.)
Ya jie (Chin.) Creepiing paspalum (Engl.)
  Kodo millet (Engl.)
  Water couch (Engl.)
  Ya na cao (Chin.)
Paragis is a local common name shared by (1) Eleusine indica, wire grass (2) Paspalum scrobiculatum, kodomillet.

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Herbe à épée.
GERMAN : Kodohirse, Koda-Hirse.
HINDI : Kodo, Kodra.
SPANISH : Mijo koda.
TAMIL : Varagu.

Bias-biasan is a perennial, tufted, erect, rather slender, nearly glabrous, somewhat wiry plant, 40 to 80 centimeters high. Leaves are flat, 6 to 15 centimeters long and 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Spikes numbers 3 or 4, usually spreading, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Spikelets are pale, 2-seriate, and about 2 millimeters long.

- Mostly in open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters throughout the Philippines.
- Pantropic.

- Studies on the proteins of five varieties of kodo millet showed hardly any varietal differences. Study showed gluteln to be the major storage protein. Lysine is the most limiting amino acid followed by methionine and cystine.
- Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, phenolics, saponins, proteins, and carbohydrates.
- Study showed the millet to contain 1.120mg/g. phenolics consisting of a flavonol, quercetin, and phenolic acids such as cis- ferulic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and melilotic acid. Total antioxidant potential was found to be– IC50 = 31.5 ± 0.03 mg/ml in terms of ascorbic acid and gallotannins. . The oil consisted of oleic acid (40.7%), stearic acid (37.5%) and palmitic acid (19.5%).

Parts used
Stem juice, rhizomes, roots.


- A staple food in some parts of Africa and North India.
- Juice expressed from the stem used for corneal opacities.
- Decoction of roots and rhizomes used as alterative in childbirth.
- In India, in cases of poisoning, eating of the grains of the grass is prescribed.

- Grains used in the treatment of diabetes.

Antidiabetic: Study of aqueous and ethanol extracts in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes showed a dose-dependent fall in fasting blood glucose. Treatment also showed a significant increase in liver glycogen and a significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin levels. (1)
Chronic Toxicity Study: Study of dried ethanol extract of the husk of the grain of Paspalum scrobiculatum produced (1) tranquilization and tremors in various animal species (2) potentiated the effect of hexobarbitone in mice (3) produced hypothermia in mice and rats (4) enhanced leptazol toxicity in rats (5) hypotension and diminished carotid occlusion reflex in anesthetized dogs.
Tranquilizing Effect: Previous acute and subacute toxicity study in animals showed a considerable margin of safety. In this study, a dried ethanol extract of husk of Paspalum scrobiculatum grain was given to forty psychotic patients in a double blind control, cross over method. The extract was found to have a tranquilizing effect on patients. (7)
Wound Healing: Study
in animals showed a paste from P. scrobiculatum hastened wound healing. Significant increases in protein and collagen occurred at the wound area where the poultice was applied, with more rapid wound closure.
Free Radical Quenching Potential: Six different millets were screened for free radical squenching of DPPH. Methanol extracts of the kodo millet flour showed 70% DOOH quenching compared to the other millet extracts that showed 15-33%. (9)
Antidiabetic Principles: The medicinal properties of the grain can be attirubted to quercetin and most of the phenolic acids. Quercetin, the flavonol present in the millet, is known to possess antidiabetc action. In vitro studies showed quercetin can reduce intestinal glucose absorption; block tyrosine kinase to potentiate both glucose and glibenclamide induced insulin secretion, and protect ß cell from oxidative damage induced by H2O2; partially prevent degeneration of ß-cells. Vanillic acid can help prevent the development of diabetic neuropathy by blocking the methylgloxal-mediated intracellular glycation system. (11)

Paspalum scrobiculatum is a millet that thrives in the poorest soil. The husk and leaves acquire a poisonous quality
attributed to heavy rainfalls. Grain detoxification is achieved by a year of storage or by keeping it overnight in buffalo dung. After detoxification, it is dehusked, boiled and consumed after discarding the supernatant water.
Accidental ingestion of the toxic grain causes CNS effects within a few hours: sleepiness, tremors and dizziness. Vomiting and abdominal colic may occur.
• In cattle, tremors, convulsions, coma and death may occur. (Britt. J. Pharmacol. (1962), 18, 7-18.)


Last Updated September 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Paspalum scrobiculatum / Seeds at Hana Hwy, Maui / Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License / alterVISTA
IMAGE SOURCE: Paspalum scrobiculatum Plant / Hana Hwy, Maui / Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Paspalum scrobiculatum L. - kodomillet / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antidiabetic activity of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats / Sanjay Jain, Gaurav Bhatia et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 127, Issue 2, 3 February 2010, Pages 325-328 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.038
Type II Diabetes and Kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum) / Knol
Chronic toxicity study of Paspalum scrobiculatum extract in rats / N K Bhide / Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology (1969), Volume: 18, Issue: 3, Pages: 7-18
Presence of cyclopiazonic acid in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) causing ‘kodua poisoning’ in man and its production by associated fungi / B Lalitha Rao and Akhtar Husain / MYCOPATHOLOGIA
Volume 89, Number 3, 177-180, DOI: 10.1007/BF00447028
Sorting Paspalum names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Study of Paspalum scrobiculatum extract in forty psychotic patients / V. R. Deo / Psychopharmacologia
12. 2. 1964, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 228-233
Studies on the proteins of kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) / L. Sudharshana, P. Vincent Monteiro, Geeta Ramachandra* / Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 42, Issue 4, pages 315–323, 1988 / OI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740420405
ESR spectroscopic study reveals higher free radical quenching potential in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) compared to other millets / Prashant S. Hegde, T.S. Chandra / Food Chemistry
Volume 92, Issue 1, August 2005, Pages 177–182
Phytochemical Studies of the Grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum / Bhatia Gaurav*, Joshi Shweta, Barve Ashutosh, Nema RK, Joshi Ankur, Gehlot Sonia / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2010; 2(2): 66-67
Antidiabetic Principles, Phospholipids And Fixed Oil of Kodo Millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.)
/ Kiran P, Denni M, and Daniel M. / Chemistry, Vol 4, No 2, Feb 2014

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