Bias-bias is a perennial mucilaginous plant, slender, creeping or
ascending, branched, up to 70 centimeters and usually pubescent. Stems root at the nodes.
Leaves are oval, 4 to 7 centimeters long and pointed at both ends. The spathes
are 1 to 3 together, green, funnel-shaped, compressed, about 1.5 centimeters
long and wide. Flowers are blue, with long stalks in anthesis, fascicled,
several in each spathe, with the petal 3 to 4 millimeters long. Capsules are
4 to 5 millimeters long.
- Common in open grasslands
and waste places in the settled areas, at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in tropical Africa and Asia to Japan and Malaya.
Anthocyanins, dammarane triterpene, sterols, campesterol.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phlobatannins, carbohydrates, tannins, glycosides, volatile oils, resins, balsams, flavonoids and saponins. Terpenes, sterols, anthraquinones, and phenols were absent. Pharmacognostic analysis yielded moisture of 11.60%, ash value 6.24%, water soluble extractive value of 22.45%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 5.99%, and acid insoluble ash of 1.21%. (11)
- Roots yield carotenoid, flavocommelin, capesterol, n-octacosanol, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, beta-carotnene
- Alcoholic extract yielded flavanoids, sterols, carotenoids.
- Considered febrifugal, anti-inflammatory, demulcent, emollient, hypotensive, CNS depressant, diuretic,
refrigerant, laxative and astringent.
Whole plant, leaves, stems.
Edibility / Nutrition
- Leaves are edible.
- A famine food in India.
- - In Africa and India, leaves and stems cooked as vegetables.
- No reported folkloric
medicinal use in the Philippines.
- The entire plant, in decoction,
is used as an emollient collyrium.
- Also used to combat strangury.
- In Cameroon, stem used
for probing wounds.
- In Kenya, used in conjunctival
problems associated with measles.
- In India, used in treatment
of leprosy and nervous system disorders. Also, reported use for mouth thrush, conjunctival inflammation, psychosis, epilepsy, insanity and exophthalmia.
- In China, used as diuretic, febrifuge and anti-inflammatory.
- In Southern Africa, used to combat infertility.
- In Bangladesh , used for otitis media, suppurative sores, snakebites, swelling and burns. Also used for conjunctivitis, cataracts, night blindness, pain (headaches and toothaches), skin diseases (eczema, abscesses, acne, scabies, warts), respiratory tract disorders.
• Mastitis: External application of poultice
of stems of Wattakaka volubilis and leaves of Commelina benghalensis
over the affected udder.
• Fodder: In Africa and India, used as feed for livestock; elsewhere, a grazing feed for goats, with its high moisture and protein content.
• Carotenoid Composition: In
a study to determine the carotenoid composition of green leafy vegetable,
Chenopodium album, C benghalensis and Solanum nigrum were found to contain
higher levels of both lutein and beta carotene. (1)
(1) Studies have shown antibacterial
activity against Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, E coli and B subtilis
and supports its use in formulations for ethnoveterianry use for mastitis.
(2) Among crude extracts of C. benghalensis, the diethyl etheric extract was highly active against all the 10 bacteria species tested. The results offer scientific basis for the traditional use of the plant against infection by burns and wounds. (3) In a study evaluating whole and dried plant extracts for antimicrobial activity, dried plant material yielded greater amounts of extractives. The ethanol extracts were superior to the aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed activity against C albicans, E coli, S aureus comparable to nystatin and gentamicin.
• Analgesic: Study showed C benghalensis possesses significant analgesic action probably through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, antioxidant activity and a central analgesic mechanism. Results provide a scientific basis for it folkloric use for pain treatment. (8)
• Anti-Cancer: Study showed the methanolic extract of CB contains bioactive compounds that may be beneficial in the treatment of malignant growths, probably through an antineoplastic activity consequent to dysregulated expression of apoptosis-responsive genes.
• Antiproliferative / Anti-Lymphoma: Study showed C. benghalensis has anti-proliferation properties against Wil-2NS lymphoma cells. (13)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of various root extracts in paracetamol-induced liver damage model in Wistar rats. An aqueous and alcoholic extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity, and the latter showed efficacy comparable to N-acetyl l-cystine. (19)
• Sedative / Anxiolytic: Study investigated the sedative and anxiolytic properties of four different fractions of aerial parts. Results showed the chloroform and pet ether soluble fraction to have significant in vivo dose-dependent sedative and anxiolytic effects. (20)
• Heavy Metal Phytoremediation: Study showed a potential for plant use for heavy metal sequestration from urban stream sediments, with good accumulation in roots suggesting good phytostabilization. (21)
• Diuretic Activity: Study evaluated the diuretic effect of a methanolic extract on experimental rats. Results showed the MECB extract produced notable diuretic effect comparable to reference drug furosemide. (22)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of CB roots for analgesic activity in Swiss albino mice. The extract showed dose dependent central (hot plate and tail flick tests) and peripheral analgesic (acetic acid induced writhing test) activities in all the experimental models. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity with significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. (24)
• Toxicity Study / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves for acute and sub-acute toxicity in female Wistar rats. Determination of median lethal dose (LD50) showed the Commelina extract was safe. Study using carrageenan-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma, and xylene induced ear edema models showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in all three models. (25)
• Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity:
Study evaluated the lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of methanol leaf extracts of C. benghalensis, Tradescantia fluminensis and T. zebrina. All extracts showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition, and all three showed positive results for the presence of flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit lipoxygenase activity and may be responsible for the inhibitory activity of the extracts. (26)
• Potential Forage for Ruminants: Study evaluated the potential of C. benghalensis as forage for ruminants, effects of plant maturity on composition, rumen degradability, digestibility and N balance. Results showed advancing maturity affected the chemical composition, but not rumen degradability. Inclusion of CB in Sorghum almum diet improved intake, digestibility and N intake, suggesting its potential as food supplement. (27)
• Anti-Tumor / Forage for Ruminants: Study showed crude methanolic extract of CB exhibited growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects in Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cancer cell lines. This study investigated the precise molecular mechanisms associated with the CMECB-induced growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects. Results showed a significant reduction in cell viability and inhibition of proliferation of experimental cell cultures. Study confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Results showed CMECB induces its anticancer activity by inducing G2/M phase arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis independent of p53 protein activity. (28)
• Nephroprotective / Quinalphos (QP) Induced Oxidative Stress on Kidney Tissue: Study investigated the protective and curative effect of CG and Cissus quadrangularis against quinalphos induced oxidative stress in kidney tissue. Results showed nephroprotection from cell damage caused by QP. Bot CBE and CQE restored the level of kidney markers. Among the two, CQE showed better protection compared to CBE. (29)