Bilogo is a smooth woody vine, reaching a length of 4 to 10 meters. Branches are pendulous. Leaves are ovate to elliptic-ovate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, toothed at the margins. Flowers are numerous, greenish or greenish white, borne on lax, pendulous panicles, 7 to 18 centimeters long and about 5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is ovoid or subglobose, 7 to 9 millimeters long, yellow, three-celled and usually three-seeded. Seeds are red and surrounded by a fleshy aril.
- In thickets and second-growth forests at low altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, and Cavite Provinces in
Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India through Malaya to New Caledonia.
Seeds yield an oil, a bitter resinous principle, tannin and ash.
- Oil from seeds yield alkaloids celastrine and paniculatin in varying amounts.
- Destructive distillation of seeds yield oleum nigrum – an empyreumatic black oil.
- Fatty oil contains colasterol and a coloring matter, chromagen.
- A study of the leaves suggested a small amount of scarcely poisonous alkaloid and a glucoside.
- Analysis of the percentages of individual acids in seed fat showed: formic, 1.5; acetic, traces; benzoic, 3.4; palmitic, 31.2, stearic, 3.5; oleic, 22.5; linoleic, 15.7; linolenic, 22.2. (5)
- Oil considered a nerve-stimulant and brain tonic, alterative, stimulant.
- Seeds considered aphrodisiac, appetizer, anti-inflammatory, brain tonic,expectorant, intellect- and memory-promoting, emetic, expectorant, liver tonic, stimulant, sudorific.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, memory-enhancing, neuroprotective, anthelmintic properties.
- GC-MS study of essential oil of seeds showed an oil yield of 0.09% (v/w) with a total of 56 constituents identified, comprising 99.2% of total oil. Major components were palmitic acid (38.61%), phytol (11.72%), erucic acid (6.99%), trans-beta-copaene (4.78%) , and linalool (3.97%). (see study below) (19)
- In a study for phenolic acid (µg/g dry wt), crude extract yielded benzoic acid 3629.70, gallic acid 393.40, and tannic acid 3652.20. (see study below) (26)
Seeds, leaves, oil.
- Pulverized seeds used as antirheumatic; also used for cases of paralysis.
- Leaves used for dysentery.
- Decoction of seeds, with or without aromatics, used for rheumatism, gout, paralysis and gout.
- Boiled seeds used for body and mind purification and blood cleansing.
- Oil, with benzoin, nutmegs, cloves and mace, used as a remedy for beriberi; also used as a powerful stimulant.
- Oil used as ointment for malarious rheumatic pains and for paralysis.
- In Ayurveda, bark considered as abortifacient; the leaves and leaf sap used as antidote to opium poisoning. Also used as brain tonic, appetite stimulant, and emetic.(1)
- In Greco-Arabic Yunani medicine, seed oil used to treat physical weakness, mental confusion, asthma, headaches, joint pains and arthritis. Also used as a sexual stimulant.
- In India, used for memory difficulties, to improve memory recall and retention.
- In Kerala, India, plant widely used for many human diseases and health disorders. Roots used for purifying the blood, eradicating stomach parasites; root paste for skin disease, ground roots for burns and boils; mixed with C. asiatica as an intellect enhancing tonic. Crush bark stem used as antidote to cobra venom; bark decoction used as abortifacient. Leaves used as anthelmintic; leaf juice locally for earaches; leaf juice for memory power; fried leaves with flowers of H. rosa-sinensis to induce menstruation. Seed oil used for skin diseases, rheumatism, arthritis and various inflammatory conditions; also used for diabetes, beri-beri, asthmatic cough and chest pains. (14)
- Used for leprosy by tribal people of Myong district in Assam, India. Powdered seeds and oil are applied to affected parts. (28)
• Phytochemicals: Analysis of seeds yielded terpenes, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides. (1)
• Antioxidant: Study of aqueous extracts have shown antioxidant activity, augmented endogenous antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation in rat brain.
• Nootropic Effect / Memory Enhancing / Seed: Study evaluated an aqueous seed extract for effects on memory and learning using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test in a rat model. Piracetam was used as standard drug. Results showed dose-dependent cholinergic activity with a statistical improvement in memory processing compared to control. The mechanism of cognition enhancement may be due to increased acetylcholine level in the rat brain. (2)
• Nootropic Effect / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the nootropic activity of C. paniculata whole plant methanolic extract using different rat models. Results showed significant improvement in learning and memory of rats as indicated by decline in transfer latency using elevated plus maze and decrease in escape latency during training and retrieval using morris water maze. The activity was attributed to inhibition of brain AChE activity. (20)
• Cognitive Enhancing / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds for their effect on cognitive function in rats. Results showed the aqueous extract of C paniculatus seed has cognitive-enhancing properties and an antioxidant effect might be involved. (7)
• Learning and Memory / Oil: Study data indicates CP oil causes an overall decrease in the turnover of all three central monoamines and suggests involvement of these aminergic systems in the learning and memory process.
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: A study on the methanol extract of flowers showed C paniculatus had both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. (3)
• Cognitive Enhancement / Neuroprotection: Study evaluated the seed oil of Celastrus paniculatus on its effect on the learning process in adult male Wistar rats. Results showed decrease in AChE activity in treated animals leading to increased cholinergic activity in the brain. There was significant decrease in AChE activity assayed from the hypothalamus, frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat brain. (4)
• Neuroprotective / Glutamate Induced Toxicity: Study on neuronal cultures from rat forebrain to evaluate CP neuroprotective effects showed the water soluble extracts protected against glutamate-induced toxicity by modulation of glutamate receptor function. (6)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study on different leaf extracts showed CP possesses remarkable microbial toxic activity against human and agricultural pathogens. (8)
• Anthelmintic / Oil: Study of the four seed oils from four medicinal plants, including C paniculatus, on the anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma, showed all of them exhibited moderate to significant anthelmintic activity. Piperazine was the standard reference drug. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study of seeds by carrageenan-induced paw edema method on albino rats showed anti-inflammatory activity. Seeds yielded two alkaloids: celastrine and paniculatine. (13)
• Immunomodulatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory property of a petroleum ether extract of seeds on immunological, hematological, and oxidative stress parameters in a pyrogallol-induced immunosuppression model in rats. Results showed significant immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity. (15)
• Intestinal Relaxant Effect / Sesquiterpene / Seed Oil: Study evaluated a methanol seed extract for in vivo effects on isolated preparations of rat intestine. Three new sesquiterpene polyol esters were isolated. Results showed a relaxant effect. Three new sesquiterpene polyol esters were isolated, which in synergy with yet undetected compounds, may be responsible for the relaxant effect. (16)
• Neuroprotective / Cortico-Hippocampal Salvage in Chronic Aluminium Induced Neurodegeneration / Seed Oil: Study of C. paniculatus seed oil showed a significant prevention in the onset of aluminum-induced neural insult and overall systemic oxidative stress in an animal model of senile dementia of Alzheimer's type in male Wistar rats. Study concludes that C. paniculatus is a putative decelerator of A1-mediated Alzheimer's like pathobiology. (17)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the essential oil of seeds. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, and lipoxygenase inhibition assays. Chloroform extract of seeds showed high total phenolic content and exhibited strong antioxidant potential. An aqueous extract of seeds showed strong anti-inflammatory properties. (see constituents above) (19)
• Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesteroolemic rats induced by a high fat diet. Results showed significant decrease total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with substantial increase in HDL, together with a significant decrease in atherogenic index. (21)
• Effect on Immobilization Stress / Jyothismati Oil / Seed: Jyothismati oil extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds was shown to be efficient in treating experimentally induced acute and chronic stress in albino mice. (22)
• Neuromodulating Effect / Aluminum Induced Neurotoxicity / Seeds: Study investigated the preventive potential of alcoholic seed extract in aluminum induced neurotoxicity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain. Treatment increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and decreased the level of LPO and activities of marker enzymes. Results suggest the seed extract has potential in counteracting the damage inflicted by aluminum on rat brain regions. (23)
• Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated different solvent extracts of C. paniculatus leaves for analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing assay in Swiss albino mice. All test extracts exhibited significant analgesic activity—the methanol extract was most potent followed by ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. (24)
• Antidepressant / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of C. paniculatus seed oil in young Swiss albino mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress using models of forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Results showed significant antidepressant activity in both unstressed and chronic unpredictable mild stressed mice probably due to inhibition of MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels, and scavenging of free radicals. (25)
• Antifungal / Seed Oil: In a study of methanolic crude extract of A. calamus, T. cordifolia and Celetrus paniculatus for antifungal activity, C. paniculatus showed better activity against Alternaria solani and Helminthosporium sp. (see constituents above) (26)
• Relaxant Effect on Rat and Human Ileum: Study evaluated the relaxing action of methanolic extract prepared from seeds of C. paniculatus in rat ileum . CPE exerted a a powerful myogenic and L-type Ca(2+)-dependent relaxing effect in isolated rat ileum. Human ileum was also sensitive to the inhibitory effect of CPE. If confirmed, data could explain the traditional use of the herb for intestinal spasms. (27)
Oil, seeds, tinctures, and extracts in the cybermarket.