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Family Phyllanthaceae / Euphobiaceae
Binayuyo
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn
BLACK CURRANT TREE
Fang ye wu yue cha

Scientific names Common names
Antidesma frutescens Jack Arosep (Ilk.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn Binayuyo (Tag.)
Antidesma paniculatum Blume Binayuyu (Tag.)
Antidesma pubescens Roxb. Bananyo (Tagb.)
Antidesma rhamnoides Brongn. ex Tul. Bignay-pugo (Tag.)
Antidesma schultzii Benth. Bignay-yoyo (Tagb.)
Antidesma spicatum Blanco Bugnai (Tagb.)
Antidesma vestitum Presl. Tubo-tubo (Bik.)
  Kakapal (Bis.)
  Black currant tree (Engl.)
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AUSTRALIAN: May-Kamw (Aborigines).
BANGLADESH: Khudijam.
BURMESE: Byaitsen, Pyizin.
CAMBODIAN: Tarm eu greng, Dangkiep k'daam.
CHINESE: Fang ye wu yue cha.
FRENCH: Antidesma à fruits noirs.
GERMAN: Antidesmablatter.
HINDI: Januprulisaru, Umtao.
JAPANESE: Anchidesuma guhaesenbira.
KHMER: Dang kiep kdam.
LAOTIAN: Mau noi.
MALAY: Ande-ande, Binayuyo, Cuncak, Guchek, Guncak, Gunchin, Kenjam, Kewalot, Kunchir, Ondeh ondeh, Onjam, Sepat, Sigoreh, Tandurupis, Tendrupis, Wuni sepet.
RUSSIAN: Antidesma.
THAI: Haymaasoi, Maak mao, Mamao, Mamao kaao bao, Mang mao, Mao kaiplaa, Mao paa, Mao soi.
VIETNAMESE: Chòi mòi, Chóp mòi, Chua mòi, Chùm mòi, Cóc Mạc mạu.

Botany
Binayuyo is a small deciduous tree growing to a height of 16 meters. Bark is light grey.Leaves are simple, alternate, shortly petioled, broadly elliptic or orbicular obovate, 6 to 11 centimeters long; margins entire and pubescent; base rounded, rarely obtuse; apex rounded, sometimes mucronate. Male flowers are yellowish green, grouped into much branched spikes. Sepals usually 5, with 4 to 5, 2 to 2.5 millimeters long stamens with filaments free. Female flowers are many, grouped in branched racemes with very short pedicels. Drupes are small, about 4.5 millimeters in diameter, dark purple when ripe and agreeably acid.

Distribution
- Found in southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Philippines. (9)

Constituents
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves yielded phenols, tannins, glycosides, saponins, reducing sugar, flavones, xanthoproteins, and coumarins. (2)
- Leaves showed physical constants of total ash, 8%; moisture, 69%; dry weight, 31%; stomatal index 32, and vein islet number 80. (2)

Properties
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic, sedative, properties.

Parts used
Leaves, fruit.

Uses

Edibility
- Leaves and fruits are edible.
- Fully ripe fruit can be eaten raw, cooked, or made into jams and jellies. (9)
- Shoots have a sour flavor; used as vegetable and spice.
- In India, leaves used as vegetable in rural areas of Western Ghats.
Folkloric
- In India, leaves applied as paste for headaches.
- Leaves used for fever.
- In Thailand, leaf decoction used for blood nourishment. In Vietnam, leaves and bark used for cough and rheumatism. In China, stems used for menstrual disorders. In Bangladesh, leaves used to enhance breast milk production. In Thailand, flowers used for herpes simplex. In Cambodia, used for stomachaches. (7)
- Fruit is purgative; stems are emmenagogue Leaves used as poultice for headaches, scurf, fevers, and abdominal swellings. (9)
Others
- Wood: Used for construction. (9)

Studies
Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic:
Study investigated the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of a crude methanolic extract of A. ghaesembillla. Results showed significant hypoglycemic potential with dose dependent decrease in blood glucose. The crude extract also showed moderate to strong antioxidant potential attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds and its ability to scavenge free radicals.  (3)
Acute Toxicity Testing: Acute toxicity testing of crude methanolic extract performed on Sprague-Dawley rats showed no mortality and nontoxicity up to 5000 mg/kg. (3)
Anxiolytic / Sedative: Study evaluated the anxiolytic and sedative activities of methanol and chloroform extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla fruits using rodent behavioral models. Results showed the fruit extracts to possess significant neuropharmacological activity with strong sedative and anxiolytic potential. (4)
Vomifoliol / Megastigmane / Leaves: Study isolated vomifoliol, a megastigmane derivative, from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla. Naturally occurring megastigmane derivatives have been previously found to have antiproliferative, anticancer, and cytotoxic effects. (5)
Antioxidant / Fruits: Study investigated methanolic extracts from ten fruits for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. Mao khipia (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.) and mao luang (Antedesma bunius) showed highest radical scavenging activity correlating with total phenolic and anthocyanin contents in the berry extracts and scavenging activity. (6)
• Brine Shrimp Lethality: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla to assess for potential pharmacologic activities by Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). A 50-50 ethanol extract showed potential bioactive components with the most toxic concentration at less than 10 ppm toxic in both acute and chronic LC50 values. (10)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of extract of leaves. The leaves showed higher antioxidant activity when compared to standards with higher catalase (0.220 mg) and polyphenolic content (653.46 ± 1.09 mg/100g). (11)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated November 2017
January 2015


OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Antidesma ghaesembilla Blanco1.25-original.png / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Antidesma names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(2)
Pharmacognostical studies on leaf of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn, A promising wild edible plant
/ Poonam C. Patil, Varsha D. Jadhav(Rathod)* and Shivprasad D. Mahadkar / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2013, 4(3):136-142
(3)
Antioxidant Activity And Hypoglycemic Potential Of Antidesma Ghaesembilla Gaertn (Phyllantaceae)
/ Maryglen F. Gargantiel, Mafel C. Ysrael / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 3, MARCH 2014
(4)
Pharmacological Evaluation of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn Fruits for Central Nervous System Depressant Activity / Md. Razibul HABIB, Md. Mominur RAHMAN, Md. Obayed RAIHAN, Abeer NATH, Md. Alamgir HOSSAIN, Mohammed Aktar SAYEED, Md Sohel RANA & Mohammad A. RASHID* / 2012 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 11 (2): 188 - 195
(5)
Isolation of Vomifoliol: A Megastigmane from Leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla
/ S. MARIA, F. ISLAM,*, N. QAIS and C.M. HASAN / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 25, No. 6 (2013), 3533-3534 / doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2013.13872
(6)
Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity / Supachai Samappitoa & Luchai Butkhup* / International Journal of Fruit Science, Volume 10, Issue 3, 2010 / DOI:10.1080/15538362.2010.510421
(7)
Antidesma ghaesembilla / Vernacular names, botany, traditional uses / GlobinMed
(8)
Antidesma ghaesembilla / Synonyms / The Plant List
(9)
Antiidesma ghaesembilla / Useful Tropical Plants
(10)
Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay of the Ethanolic Extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn
/ Reizl P. Jose, Kay P. Ramos, Maricel L.Gelsano, Olga M. Nuñeza*, Mylene M. Uy / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 4 [9] August 2015: 88-92
(11)
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ASSESMENT OFMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANTIDESMA GHAESEMBILLA GAERTN. LEAVES. / Varsha Jadhav and Poonam Patil /

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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