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Family Fabaceae
Bitsuelas
Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.
BAGUIO BEAN
Cai dou

Scientific names Common names
Phaseolus aborigineus Burkart Abitsuelas (Tag.)
Phaseolus communis Pritzel Bitsuelas (Tag.)
Phaseolus compessus DC. Baguio bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus esculentus Salisb. Common bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus nanus L. & Jusl. Green bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Snap bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Cai dou, Qing dou, Si ji dou, Yun dou, Shi jia cai dou, Bai fan dou, Pan wen tou.
FRENCH: Haricot commun.
GERMAN: Gartenbohne.
GREEK: Fasolaki anarihetiko.
HINDI: Biins.
ITALIAN: Fagiolo, Faxoe, Faisoe, Fasoel, Cornett, Fasioi, Fasoler, Fasol, Fasulein, Fasciolo, Fascinale, Suriaca, Vasuli.
JAPANESE: Ingen mame.
MALAY: Boncis, Kacang buncis, Kacang mérah, Kacang pendek.
PORTUGESE: Feijao, Feijoerio.
RUSSIAN: Fasol' ovoshchnaia.
SLOVENIAN: Nizki fižol, Visoki fižol.
SLOVAKIAN: Fazuľa záhradná.
SPANISH: Caraota, Chaucha, Ejote, Judía, Judía común, Frejol, Poroto, Tabla, Vainita.  
SWEDISH: Trädgårdsböna.
URDU: Biins.
VIETNAMESE : Dou ve..

Botany
Phaseolus vulgaris is an herbaceous annual herb, erect and bushy, 20 to 60 centimeters tall, or twining with stems 2 to 3 meters long. Leaves are alternate, green or purple, trifoliate, stipulate, petiolate, with a marked pulvinus at base. Leaflets are ovate, entire, 6 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 11 centimeters wide. Flowers are in lax, axillary, few-flowered racemes, variegated, white, pink or purple, about 1 centimeter long. Pods are slender, green, yellow, black, or purple, cylindrical or flat, 8 to 20 centimeters long, 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide. Seeds are 4 to 6, usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent, with prominent beaks, white, red, tan, purple, grey, or black, often variegated, reniform, oblong, or globose, up to 1.5 centimeters long. (3)

Distribution
- Intensively cultivated in La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.
- Originated in Central and South America.
- Widely cultivated in the tropics, subtropics, and temperate regions. Roughly 30% of world production is in Latin America. (3)

Constituents
- Nutritive analysis yield 6.2% protein, 0.2% fat, and 63% carbohydrate. Analysis of a dried bean brand yielded moisture 12.0%, protein 22.9%, fat 1.3%, carbohydrates 60.6%, minerals 3.2%, calcium 260 mg, phosphorus 410 mg, iron 5.8 mg, and 348 calories/100 g. Vitamin contents were: thiamine 0.6, riboflavin 0.2, nicotinic acid 2.5, ascorbic acid 2.0 mg/100. Another source yielded Na 43.2, K 1160, Ca 180, Mg 183, Fe 6.6, Cu 0.61, P 309. (3)
- Study of seeds for bioactive compounds yielded alkaloids, anthocyanin, carbohydrate, catechin, fiber, flavonoids, glycosides, phasine, phytic acid, quercetin, polyphenols saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. (5)
- Nutrient analysis of pinto beans per 100 g of edible portion yielded: (Proximates) water 11.33 g, energy 347 kcal or 1452 kJ, protein 21.42 g, total lipid 1.23 g, ash 3.46 g, carbohydrate, by difference 62.55 g, total dietary fiber 15.5 g, total sugars 2.11 g, sucrose1.98 g, glucose 0.13 g, starch 34.17 g; (Minerals) calcium 113 mg, iron 5.07 mg, magnesium 176 mg, phosphorus 411 mg, potassium 1393 mg, sodium 12 mg, zinc 2.28 mg, copper 0.893 mg, manganese 1.148 mg, selenium 27.9 µg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 6.3 mg, thiamin 0.713 mg, riboflavin 0.212 mg, niacin 1.174 mg, pantothenic acid 0.785 mg, vitamin B6 0.474 mg, total folate 525 µg, total choline 66.2 mg betaine 0.4 mg, vitamin E 0.21 mg, vitamin K 5.6 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 0.235 g, total monosaturated fatty acids 0.229 g, total polyunsaturated fatty acids 0.407 g, cholesterol 0; (Amino Acids) tryptophan 0.237 g, threonine 0.910 g, isoleucine 0.871 g, leucine 1.558 g, lysine 1.356 g, methionine 0.259 g, cystine 0.187 g, phenylalanine 1.095 g, tyrosine 0.427 g. valine 0.998 g, arginine 1.096 g, histidine 0.556 g, alanine 0.872 g, aspartic acid 2.268 g, glutaminc acid 3.027 g, glycine 0.796 g, proline 1.072 g, serine 1.171 g; (Flava-3-ols) kaempferol 2.4 mg, quercetin 0.2 mg; (Isoflavones) daidzein 0.01 mg, genistein 0.17 mg, total isoflavones 0.18 mg, biochanin A 0.28 mg, formononetin 0.01 mg, coumestrol 1.80 mg; (Proanthocyanidin) proanthocyanidin dimers 19.2 mg, proanthocyanidin 4-6mers 125 mg, proanthocyanidine 7-10mers 135.6 mg, proanthocyanidin polymers (>10mers) 459.6 mg. (15)

Properties
- Beans considered depurative, resolvent, carminative, diuretic, antidiarrheal, emollient. (3)
- Studies has suggested antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antiurolithiatic, osteoprotective, antiproliferative properties.

Toxicity
-
Roots reported to cause dizziness and human beings and animals. Seeds reported to contain trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. Eating of a few raw beans has been reported to cause poisoning, notably sickness and diarrhea, which was attributed to phasin, a toxalbumin destroyed by cooking. (3)

Parts used
Pods, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Immature pods are cooked and eaten as vegetable.
- Immature pods marketed fresh, frozen, or canned.
- Leaves used as pot herb. In Java, young leaves are eaten as salad. (3)
Folkloric
- Beans have been used for acne, burns, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, eczema, sciatica and tenesmus. (3)
- In Benin, the Adja use the juice from crushed leaves to treat wounds. Babies who cannot breastfeed are give leaf decoction to drink. Crushed roots mixed with water drunk to facilitate difficult labor. Leaves of Séssé landrace use in treatment of sterility by Idaasha group, and for fever, bee stings, and bad body odor by the Fon sociolinguistic group. Crushed seeds mixed with seasoning cube of Maggi® in water applied to facilitate removal of umbilical cord from newborns. Powder of burned seeds mixed with palm oil licked to treat pharyngitis. Leaves of Akpakoun vovo folk variety used for treatment of bee stings and vaginal infections by the Fon sociolinguistic group. The Ron group drink crushed leaves and roots in water to treat obesity. obesity. (20)
Others
- Mystical-Religious uses:
In Benin, nine common bean folk varieties were considered by farmers as magical plants with supernatural properties i.e., for protection of fields, homes, pregnancies, and persons against evil spirit attacks, and to help spiritually fight enemies. Seeds and roots used for bewitchment treatment. Infusion of roots in a little water with palm kernel oil added is drunk to treat supernaturally caused illnesses. Seeds used to attract animals to hunters Leaves mixed with spider eggs and the last drops of urine of person wanting to be loved, and the juice applied to the eyes of the bewitched. (2
0)

Studies
Effect on Collagen Content:
Study investigated the effect of an aqueous pod extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on collagen content and characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The a/ß ratio of acid- and pepsin-soluble collages was significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. Extract treatment significant reduced the accumulation and cross-linking of collagen. Results showed a positive influence of P. vulgaris pods on the content of collagen and its properties in STZ-diabetic rats.   (4)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study showed an aqueous extract of leaves possess hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties, ameliorating high levels of marker enzymes. (6)

Antioxidant / Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of P. vulgaris pods in rats with STZ-induced diabetes showed antioxidant activity with a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides and significantly increased the reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase in liver and kidneys of rats with STZ-induced diabetes. (7)
Enhanced Weight Loss: Study evaluated the effect of a dietary supplement containing 1,000 mg of P. vulgaris extract derived from white kidney bean. The extract was previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase and inhibit starch reabsorption with associated weight loss. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study conducted on 101 volunteers with BMIs between 25-40 showed clinically and statistically significant decrements in body weight and waist circumference. (8)
Phytohemagglutinin: Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean can cause malabsorption and diarrhea when fed to rats. Study evaluated the effect of PHA on ion transport in the rabbit ileum in vitro.
Osteoprotective Effect / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing plants are explored for potential use in the treatment of estrogen-related disorders. Study evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effect of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Treatment with P. vulgaris seeds prevented estrogen deficiency-induced osteopenia without affecting the uterine mass. Results suggest a potential candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (9)
In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids: Study evaluated the in vitro binding of bile acids by kidney bean (P. vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolins). All four beans tested showed varying degrees of bile acid binding. Relative bile acid binding on DM was 12%, TDF (total dietary fiber) 12%, and IDF (insoluble dietary fiber) 14%. for kidney bean was 3% and 11%. Results on bile acid binding suggest a potential to be explored for lowering blood lipids, lipoprotein, and atherosclerosis risk. (10)
Antioxidant / Antidiabetic: Study on long-term oral administration of aqueous P. vulgaris pods extract showed, besides a pronounced hypoglycemic effects, a positive influence on liver and kidney function markers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. It also inhibited free radical production and liver peroxidation and activated antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidneys of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. (11)
Catecholamines / L-Dopa and Dopamine: Catecholamines are key metabolites found in the nervous system and endogenous deficiency is associated with patho-physiological disorders. Study investigated the amount of L-DOPA and dopamine in the leaves and roots of three species of legume family viz. Pisum sativum (garden pea), Phaseolus vulgaris (haricot bean) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Results showed all three cultivars accumulated different levels of L-DOPA and dopamine in leaves and roots.   (12)
Blocking Carbohydrate Absorption and Weight Loss: A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of P. vulgaris has been shown to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase, possibly preventing or delaying digesting of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. In randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a white bean extract vs placebo. The subjects who consumed the most carbohydrates showed a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to placebo group. (13)
• Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor / Weight Loss and Glycemic Control: The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor. A proprietary product, Phase 2® Carb Controller demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss and reduce post-prandial spikes in blood glucose levels through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity. Results suggest potential for integration into various products. (16)
• Enhanced Weight Loss From P. vulgaris Dietary Supplement: Dietary supplements that inhibit gastrointestinal amylase are called "starch blockers" and have been associated with weight loss by interfering with breakdown of complex carbohydrates and limiting their gastrointestinal absorption. A randomized, double-blinded,placebo controlled study of a dietary supplement taken three times daily containing 1,000 mg of P. vulgaris extract from white kidney bean showed statistically significant greater (p<0.001) average reduction of body weight. The mechanism of weight loss may be attributed to alpha-amylase inhibiting activity. (17)
• Source of Bioactive Peptides: Study reports on the common bean as a good alternative low cost source for production of functional hydrolysates containing peptides. The bioactive peptides have potential for use in the treatment and prevention of diseases, like hypertension and cancer. (18)
• Phaseolamin / α-Amylase Inhibitor: Study isolated a proteinaceous inhibitor of α-amylase, phaseolamin. Phaseolamin inhibits hog pancreatic α-amylase in a noncompetitive manner. (19)
• Phenolic Composition / Antioxidant / Antiproliferative Activities: Study evaluated extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in Italy for phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antiproliferative activity. Extracts were able to inhibit the proliferation of human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line, Liquid chromatography yielded known polyphenols such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeci acid, and kaempferol. Antioxidant activity ranged fro 1.568 to 66.572 mg necessary to inhibit DPPH radical by 50%. (21)
• Moderate Interactions with Antidiabetic Drugs: Medications for diabetes interacts with Phaseolus vulgaris. Bean pods might lower blood sugar and might augment the hypoglycemic effect of diabetes medications. (22)
- Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Bean Hulls: Extracts extract from hulls obtained from four bean cultivars were evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in relation to their phenolic contents. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bean hulls by ORAC were 6-8-fold those of corresponding whole beans. Acetone extract of black bean hull exhibited strong COX-1 (!C50 1.2 µg/ml) and COX-2 (IC50 38µg/ml) inhibitory effects, better than aspirin. The anti-inflammatory activity of bean hulls was dependent on phenolic content and antioxidant activity that were significantly affected by cultivar and extracting solvent. (23)
• Antihyperglycemic Benefit as Food Component: Phaseolus vulgaris bean pods are widely used as remedy for diabetes mellitus. Review reports that from the first half of the 20th century up to recently publications show contradictory results. Study suggests Phaseolus preparations should not be use as first choice in phytopharmaceutical treatment of diabetes. Fairly high doses of aqueous extracts are needed. Rather, because of fiber content and a-amylase inhibitory effect, the beans may be more useful as food components for preventing or ameliorating T2DM. (24)
• Hypoglycemic Activity / α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activities of Faglioli di Sarconi beans (P. vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes. The light green seed color of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity with IC50 of 1.1 and 19.3 mg/ml, respectively. Biiologic activity was attributed to alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. (25)
• Effect of Heating on Haemagglutinating Activity and Nutritional Properties / Seeds: Toxic lectins in red, white, and black kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are sensitive to heat treatment, which is greatly improved by pre-soaking of the seeds. Heating at all temperatures above 75C will decrease both haemagglutinating activity and toxicity. However, the only safe method to eliminate toxicity was to heat fully hydrated seeds to 100C for a minimum of 10 minutes. (26)
• Natural Coagulants P. vulgaris and M. oleifera / Removal of Congo Red Dye: Textile industrial wastewater consists of a large variety of pollutant dyes and chemicals. Study evaluated the efficiency of Phaseolus vulgaris and Moringa oleifera as coagulants for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using process parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, initial dye concentration, and settling time on dye removal capacity Results showed comparable efficiency as conventional commercial coagulant Alum. (27)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of crude extract and fractions of dried pulverized P. vulgaris plant material. In acute, subacute, and chronic models, the extract showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in lipid profile parameters, with a 38.44% reduction of total cholesterol in the subacute model. HDL was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the acute study by 20.85%. In antioxidant assay, the the highest percentage reduction of DPPH was 80.61% with the PVEF and PVBF fraction at 400 mg/kg. Results showed extracts and fractions of P. vulgaris possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity with the ethyl acetate fractios showing better and more consistent results. (28)
• Antiurolithiatic / Ethylene Glycol Induced Renal Calculi / Seeds: Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic potential of ethanolic extract of seeds of P. vulgaris in calcium oxalate urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol in male Wistar rats. Cystone was used as standard drug. On treatment with the extract and cystones, all urinary, serum biochemical and oxidative stress parameters were reversed to almost normal values. In vivo antioxidant enzymes were restored by decreased lipid peroxidation in the kidney. (29)

Availability
Cultivated.

Updated Feb 2019 / Nov 2017
July 2015


IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Phaseolus vulgaris / Rasbak / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER MAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Blossoms of the common bean / Schnobby / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER MAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Phaseolus vulgaris, the common green bean /of the common bean / David Adam Kess / 14 Oct 2015 / Creative Common Attribution / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Phaseolus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(2)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. / James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
(4)
Effect of an aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on the properties of tail tendon collagen of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes / L. Pari and S. Venkateswaran / Braz J Med Biol Res, July 2003; 36(7): pp 861-870 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2003000700006 
(5)
Evaluation of bioactive components in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (fabaceae) cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire / OCHO-ANIN ATCHIBRI A. L*, KOUAKOU T. H., BROU K. D., Kouadio Y. J., Gnakri D. / Journal of Applied Biosciences 31: 1928 - 1934
(6)
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (RED KIDNEY BEANS) ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS / Luka CD*, Olatunde A, Tijjani H and Olisa-Enewe IA / IJSIT, 2013, 2(4),292-301
(7)
Antioxidant effect of Phaseolus vulgaris in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Subramanian Venkateswaran MPhil and Leelavinothan Pari PhD / Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr (2002) 11(3): 206–209
(8)
Enhanced Weight Loss From a Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract in Overweight Men and Women / Xiangming Wu MD, Xiaofeng Xu MS, Jianguo Shen MD, Nicholas V. Perricone, Harry G. Preuss, MD / The Journal of Applied Research • Vol.10, No. 2, 2010
(9)
Osteoprotective effect of Phaseolus vulgaris L in ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats / Shirke SS, Jadhav SR, Jagtap AG. / Menopause. 2009
(10)
In vitro binding of bile acids by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolins) / T.S. Kahlon *, G.E. Smith, Q. Shao / Food Chemistry 90 (2005) 241–246
(11)
Effect of Aqueous Extract from Phaseolus vulgaris Pods on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in the Liver and Kidney of Diabetic Rats / Mariana Yuriivna Kyznetsova, Olha Mycholaivna Makieieva, Dariia Oleksandrivna Lavrovska, Maria Oleksandrivna Tymoshenko, Daryna Pavlivna Sheverova, Tetiana Ivanivna Halenova, Oleksiy Mycholayovych Savchuk, Lyudmila Ivanivna Ostapchenko / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, May 2015; 5(05): pp 1-6 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50501
(12)
Catecholamines are active plant-based drug compounds in Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba Species / Mahdi Khozaei*, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Gashtasb Mardani, Rahman Emamzadeh / J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2014; 3(1): 61-65.
(13)
BLOCKING CARBOHYDRATE ABSORPTION AND WEIGHT LOSS: A CLINICAL TRIAL USING A PROPRIETARY FRACTIONATED WHITE BEAN EXTRACT / Jay Udani, MD; Betsy B. Singh, PhD / ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES, jul/aug 2007, VOL. 13, NO. 4 / https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15005645
(14)
Acid -Tolerant Rhizobia of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from the Intensively Cropped Soils of La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines / Rosemary M. Gutierrez,* and Wilfredo L. Barraquio / Philippine Journal of Science
(15)
Phaseolus vulgaris / National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 / USDA
(16)
A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control / Marilyn L Barrett and Jay K Udani / Nutr J. 2011; 10: 24.  / doi:  10.1186/1475-2891-10-24
(17)
Enhanced Weight Loss From a Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract in Overweight Men and Women / Xiangming Wu MD, Xiaofeng Xu MS, Jianguo Shen MD, Nicholas V. Perricone, Harry G. Preuss, MD / The Journal of Applied Research, Vol.10, No. 2 (2010)
(18)
Nutraceutical Properties of Bioactive Peptides in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) / Heredia-Rodríguez L, de la Garza AL, Garza-Juarez AJ, and Vazquez-Rodriguez JA* / Journal of Food Nutrition and Dietetics, Publ Jan 09, 2017
(19)
Purification and Properties of Phaseolamin, an Inhibitor of ar-Amylase, from the Kidney Bean, Phaseohs vulgaris / J. John Marshall and Carmen M Lauda / THE JOURNAI. OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol 250, No 20, pp. 8030-8037, October 25, 1975
(20)
Folk taxonomy and traditional uses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces by the sociolinguistic groups in the central region of the Republic of Benin / Laura Estelle Yeyinou Loko, Joelle Toffa, Ariette Adjatin, Ahouelete Joel Akpo, Azize Orobiyi, and Alexandre Dansi / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2018; 14:52 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0251-6
(21)
Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking / Maria Neve Ombra, Antonio d'Acierno. et al / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Volume 2016 /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1398298
(22)
Phaseolus vulgaris / Drug Interactions / WebMD
(23)
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) Hulls / B Dave Oomah, Amelie Corbe, and Parthiba Balasubramanian / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010; 58(14): pp 8225–8230 / DOI: 10.1021/jf1011193
(24)
Beans and Diabetes: Phaseolus vulgarisPreparations as Antihyperglycemic Agents / Axel Helmstädter / Journal of Medicinal Food, April 2010; 13(2) / https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2009.0002
(25)
Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) / Raffaella Pascale, Giuliana Blanco et al / Food Chemistry, March 2018; 242(1): pp 497-504 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.091
(26)
The effect of heating on the haemagglutinating activity and nutritional properties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds / George Grant, Linda More, Norma McKenzie, Arpad Pusztal / Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, Dec 1982; 33(12): pp 1324-1326 / http://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740331220
(27)
Efficacy of Moringa oleifera andPhaseolus vulgaris (common bean) as coagulants for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution / G. Vijayaraghavan, S. Shanthakumar / J. Mater. Environ. Sci. , 2015; 6(6): pp 1672-1677

(29)
Antiurolithiatic activity of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in Wistar rats / Sree Lakshmi Namburu, Sujatha Dodoala, Bharathis Koganti, KVSRG Prasad / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Oct-Dec 2017; 11 (4): pp 281-289

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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