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Family Fabaceae
Bitsuelas
Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.
BAGUIO BEAN
Cai dou

Scientific names Common names
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Abitsuelas (Tag.)
Phaseolus communis Pritzel Bitsuelas (Tag.)
Phaseolus compessus DC. Baguio bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus esculentus Salisb. Common bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus nanus L. & Jusl. Green bean (Engl.)
  Snap bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Cai dou, Qing dou, Si ji dou, Yun dou, Shi jia cai dou, Bai fan dou, Pan wen tou, Ban wen dou.
FRENCH: Haricot commun.
GERMAN: Gartenbohne.
GREEK: Fasolaki anarihetiko.
HINDI: Biins.
ITALIAN: Fagiolo, Faxoe, Faisoe, Fasoel, Cornett, Fasioi, Fasoler, Fasol, Fasulein, Fasciolo, Fascinale, Suriaca, Vasuli.
JAPANESE: Ingen mame.
MALAY: Boncis, Kacang buncis, Kacang mérah, Kacang pendek.
PORTUGESE: Feijao, Feijoerio.
RUSSIAN: Fasol' ovoshchnaia.
SLOVENIAN: Nizki fižol, Visoki fižol.
SLOVAKIAN: Fazuľa záhradná.
SPANISH: Caraota, Chaucha, Ejote, Judía, Judía común, Frejol, Poroto, Tabla, Vainita.  
SWEDISH: Trädgårdsböna.
URDU: Biins.
VIETNAMESE : Dou ve..

Botany
Phaseolus vulgaris is an herbaceous annual herb, erect and bushy, 20 to 60 centimeters tall, or twining with stems 2 to 3 meters long. Leaves are alternate, green or purple, trifoliate, stipulate, petiolate, with a marked pulvinus at base. Leaflets are ovate, entire, 6 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 11 centimeters wide. Flowers are in lax, axillary, few-flowered racemes, variegated, white, pink or purple, about 1 centimeter long. Pods are slender, green, yellow, black, or purple, cylindrical or flat, 8 to 20 centimeters long, 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide. Seeds are 4 to 6, usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent, with prominent beaks, white, red, tan, purple, grey, or black, often variegated, reniform, oblong, or globose, up to 1.5 centimeters long. (3)

Distribution
- Intensively cultivated in La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.
- Originated in Central and South America.
- Widely cultivated in the tropics, subtropics, and temperate regions. Roughly 30% of world production is in Latin America. (3)

Constituents
- Nutritive analysis yield 6.2% protein, 0.2% fat, and 63% carbohydrate. Analysis of a dried bean brand yielded moisture 12.0%, protein 22.9%, fat 1.3%, carbohydrates 60.6%, minerals 3.2%, calcium 260 mg, phosphorus 410 mg, iron 5.8 mg, and 348 calories/100 g. Vitamin contents were: thiamine 0.6, riboflavin 0.2, nicotinic acid 2.5, ascorbic acid 2.0 mg/100. Another source yielded Na 43.2, K 1160, Ca 180, Mg 183, Fe 6.6, Cu 0.61, P 309. (3)
- Study of seeds for bioactive compounds yielded alkaloids, anthocyanin, carbohydrate, catechin, fiber, flavonoids, glycosides, phasine, phytic acid, quercetin, polyphenols saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. (5)

Properties
- Beans considered depurative, resolvent, carminative, diuretic, antidiarrheal, emollient. (3)
- Studies has suggested antioxidant, antidiabetic, osteoprotective properties.

Toxicity
Roots reported to cause dizziness and human beings and animals. Seeds reported to contain trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. Eating of a few raw beans has been reported to cause poisoning, notably sickness and diarrhea, which was attributed to phasin, a toxalbumin destroyed by cooking. (3)

Parts used
Pods, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Immature pods are cooked and eaten as vegetable.
- Immature pods marketed fresh, frozen, or canned.
- Leaves used as pot herb. In Java, young leaves are eaten as salad. (3)
Folkloric
- Beans have been used for acne, burns, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, eczema, sciatica and tenesmus. (3)

Studies
Effect on Collagen Content:
Study investigated the effect of an aqueous pod extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on collagen content and characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The a/ß ratio of acid- and pepsin-soluble collages was significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. Extract treatment significant reduced the accumulation and cross-linking of collagen. Results showed a positive influence of P. vulgaris pods on the content of collagen and its properties in STZ-diabetic rats. (4)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study showed an aqueous extract of leaves possess hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties, ameliorating high levels of marker enzymes. (6)

Antioxidant / Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of P. vulgaris pods in rats with STZ-induced diabetes showed antioxidant activity with a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides and significantly increased the reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase in liver and kidneys of rats with STZ-induced diabetes. (7)
Enhanced Weight Loss: Study evaluated the effect of a dietary supplement containing 1,000 mg of P. vulgaris extract derived from white kidney bean. The extract was previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase and inhibit starch reabsorption with associated weight loss. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study conducted on 101 volunteers with BMIs between 25-40 showed clinically and statistically significant decrements in body weight and waist circumference. (8)
Phytohemagglutinin: Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean can cause malabsorption and diarrhea when fed to rats. Study evaluated the effect of PHA on ion transport in the rabbit ileum in vitro.
Osteoprotective Effect / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing plants are explored for potential use in the treatment of estrogen-related disorders. Study evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effect of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Treatment with P. vulgaris seeds prevented estrogen deficiency-induced osteopenia without affecting the uterine mass. Results suggest a potential candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (9)
In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids: Study evaluated the in vitro binding of bile acids by kidney bean (P. vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolins). All four beans tested showed varying degrees of bile acid binding. Relative bile acid binding on DM was 12%, TDF (total dietary fiber) 12%, and IDF (insoluble dietary fiber) 14%. for kidney bean was 3% and 11%. Results on bile acid binding suggest a potential to be explored for lowering blood lipids, lipoprotein, and atherosclerosis risk. (10)
Antioxidant / Antidiabetic: Study on long-term oral administration of aqueous P. vulgaris pods extract showed, besides a pronounced hypoglycemic effects, a positive influence on liver and kidney function markers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. It also inhibited free radical production and liver peroxidation and activated antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidneys of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. (11)
Catecholamines / L-Dopa and Dopamine: Catecholamines are key metabolites found in the nervous system and endogenous deficiency is associated with patho-physiological disorders. Study investigated the amount of L-DOPA and dopamine in the leaves and roots of three species of legume family viz. Pisum sativum (garden pea), Phaseolus vulgaris (haricot bean) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Results showed all three cultivars accumulated different levels of L-DOPA and dopamine in leaves and roots. (12)
Blocking Carbohydrate Absorption and Weight Loss: A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of P. vulgaris has been shown to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase, possibly preventing or delaying digesting of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. In a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 25 healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a white bean extract vs placebo. The tertile of subjects who consumed the most carbohydrates showed a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to placebo group. (13)

Availability
Cultivated.

July 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Phaseolus vulgaris / Rasbak / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER MAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Blossoms of the common bean / Schnobby / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Phaseolus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(2)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Phaseolus vulgaris L. / James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
(4)
Effect of an aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on the properties of tail tendon collagen of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes / L. Pari and S. Venkateswaran / Braz J Med Biol Res, July 2003, Volume 36(7) 861-870
(5)
Evaluation of bioactive components in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (fabaceae) cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire /
OCHO-ANIN ATCHIBRI A. L*, KOUAKOU T. H., BROU K. D., Kouadio Y. J., Gnakri D. / Journal of Applied Biosciences 31: 1928 - 1934
(6)
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (RED KIDNEY BEANS) ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS / Luka CD*, Olatunde A, Tijjani H and Olisa-Enewe IA / IJSIT, 2013, 2(4),292-301
(7)
Antioxidant effect of Phaseolus vulgaris in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Subramanian Venkateswaran MPhil and Leelavinothan Pari PhD / Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr (2002) 11(3): 206–209
(8)
Enhanced Weight Loss From a Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract in Overweight Men and Women / Xiangming Wu MD, Xiaofeng Xu MS, Jianguo Shen MD, Nicholas V. Perricone, Harry G. Preuss, MD / The Journal of Applied Research • Vol.10, No. 2, 2010
(9)
Osteoprotective effect of Phaseolus vulgaris L in ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats / Shirke SS, Jadhav SR, Jagtap AG. / Menopause. 2009
(10)
In vitro binding of bile acids by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolins) / T.S. Kahlon *, G.E. Smith, Q. Shao / Food Chemistry 90 (2005) 241–246
(11)
Effect of Aqueous Extract from Phaseolus vulgaris Pods on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in the Liver and Kidney of Diabetic Rats / Mariana Yuriivna Kyznetsova, Olha Mycholaivna Makieieva, Dariia Oleksandrivna Lavrovska, Maria Oleksandrivna Tymoshenko, Daryna Pavlivna Sheverova, Tetiana Ivanivna Halenova, Oleksiy Mycholayovych Savchuk, Lyudmila Ivanivna Ostapchenko / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 5 (05), pp. 001-006, May, 2015 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50501
(12)
Catecholamines are active plant-based drug compounds in Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba Species / Mahdi Khozaei*, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Gashtasb Mardani, Rahman Emamzadeh / J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2014; 3(1): 61-65.
(13)
BLOCKING CARBOHYDRATE ABSORPTION AND WEIGHT LOSS: A CLINICAL TRIAL USING A PROPRIETARY FRACTIONATED WHITE BEAN EXTRACT / Jay Udani, MD; Betsy B. Singh, PhD / ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES, jul/aug 2007, VOL. 13, NO. 4
(14)
Acid -Tolerant Rhizobia of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from the Intensively Cropped Soils of La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines / Rosemary M. Gutierrez,* and Wilfredo L. Barraquio / Philippine Journal of Science

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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