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Family Elaeocarpaceae
Blue marble tree
Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
Yuan guo du ying

Scientific names Common names
Aceratium ganitrum (Roxb. ex G.Don) Bosse Ash quandong (Engl.)
Ayparia crenata Raf. Bead tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume Blue marble tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus baclayanensis Elmer Bead olive tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus crenatus (Raf.) Merr. Blue fig (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus cyanocarpus Maingay ex Mast. Blue olive berry (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus dolichopetalus Merr. Blue quandong (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus fauroensis Hemsl. Fairy petticoats (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G.Don Fringe bells (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus hebridarum R.Knuth Indian bead tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus major (Hochr.) R.Knuth Indian oil fruit (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus muellerianus Schltr. Lily of the valley tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus novoguineensis Warb. Native olive (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus parkinsonii Warb. Slver quandong (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus polyschistus Schltr. Snowdrop tree (Enhl.)
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) Ettingsh. White boree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus sphaericus var. major Hochr. Ultrasum bean tree (Eng)
Elaeocarpus subglobosus Merr. Woodenbegar (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus wenzelii Merr.  
Ganitrus sphaerica Gaertn.  
Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Rudrakya.
FIJI: Sapatua, Siapoatua.
HINDI: Rudraki.
INDONESIA: Genitri, Ambit, Jenitri, Rijaksa.
KANNDA: Rudrakshi.
MALAYSIA: Changkan, Geniteri.
SANSKRIT: Rudraksh.
SRI LANKA: Woodenbegar
TAMIL: Akkamrudrakai.
TELUGU: Rudraksha halu.
THAILAND: Mamun dong, Mun dong, Mun khon.
OTHERS: Quandong, Geniteri.

Gen info
- In India, according to Hindu religion, Rudraksha is considered a holy tree belonging to Lord Shiva.
- In Hindi mythology, Rudraksha is considered a link between heaven and earth, that it contains the secrets of evolution of the cosmos. (10)
- The Rudraksha is believed to have originated from tear drops fallen from the three eyes of Rudra (Lord Shiva), the eyes representing the sun, moon, and fire.
- Fruits of E. ganitrus are worn by Hindu mystics as necklaces in their daily worship for purpose of counting prayers and for the magical properties attributed to them. (6)
- Etymology: The genus name derives from Greek words elaia meaning "olive", and karpos meaning "fruit".  The species epithet angustifolius means "narrow-leafed". (17)

Elaeocarpus angustifolius is a tree to 30 m tall, to 1.7 m d.b.h. Branches brown-gray; branchlets yellowish brown villous. Petiole 1-1.5 cm, villous, glabrescent; leaf blade obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 9-14 × 3-4.5 cm, papery or membranous, both surfaces villous when young, glabrescent when mature, lateral veins 10-13 per side, slightly prominent abaxially, impressed adaxially, base broadly cuneate, margin serrate, apex acute or obtuse. Racemes in axils of current and fallen leaves, 2-4 cm; peduncles villous. Pedicel ca. 5 mm. Sepals 5, lanceolate, ca. 5 × 1.5 mm, both surfaces villous. Petals 5, ca. as long as sepals, laciniate to 1/2 their length, lower 1/2 villous. Stamens 25; anthers setose at apices. Ovary 5-loculed, densely tomentose; style ca. 5 mm. Drupe globose, 1.7-2 cm in diam., 5-loculed. Seed 1 per locule; endocarp hard, rugulose. (Flora of China)

Elaeocarpus angustifolius is a fast-growing large tree with buttresses, able to grow up to about 30 - 40 m tall in its natural habitat. Crown is spreading, conical-shaped. Bark is light grey to brown and fissured. Leaves are dark green, obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, margins serrate, measuring about 8 - 15 cm long and 2.5 - 4.5 cm wide, petiole about 1 - 1.5 cm long, old leaves become red before falling off. Flowers are white, 5-petaled, borne on an axillary raceme inflorescence about 2 - 4 cm long, petals divided at the tip into 4 or 5 lobes, stamens 25 - 50 present, ovary hairy. Fruit is a blue to purplish-blue globose fleshy drupe about 1.5 - 3 cm wide, contains 2 - 5 seeds. (17)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.
- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.
-  Lowland to montane forests, 100-1850 m.

- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of fruit pulp extract yielded carbohydrates +++. reducing sugar +++, gum +, steroids +, saponin glycosides ++, flavonoids +++. tannins and phenolic compounds ++, with absence of monosaccharides, non-reducing sugar, protein, and alkaloids. (4)
- Proximate composition of pulp (%) yielded moisture 4.2, protein 4.28, fat 1.9, ash 1.55, carbohydrate 81.8 and TEV (total energetic value) 362.05 Kcal/g. (4)
- LC-MS study of E. sphaericus seeds yielded several alkaloids with different compositions, namely: Elaeokanine C 0.90%, (+)-elaeocarpine 1.59%, elaeocarpenine 1.88%, isoelaeocarpine 1.36%, grandisine B 0.86%, isoelaeocarpiline 1.14%, grandisine D 1.51%, elaeocarpidine 1.03%, isoelaeocarpicine 1.89%, grandisine F 1.39%, grandisine A 0.89%, grandisine C 0.98%, grandisine E 1.14%, habbemine B 1.46%, habbemine A 1.24%, grandisine G 0.85%. (7)
- Study of ethanolic fruit extract of E. ganitrus showed yield extraction value of 28.65%. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates and fixed oils, with absence of protein and amino acids. Total phenolic content was 232.24 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) /gm. Total flavonoid concentration was 91.42 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g. (9)
- Study of leaves for alkaloids yielded 12 alkaloids, nine of which are new. Seven of the nine new compounds obtained were indolizidine alkaloids: carpusinine A (5), carpusinine B (6), carpusinine C (7a), epicarpusinine C (7b), carpusinine D (8), carpusinine E (9) and carpusidine (14), while the two remaining new compounds are pyrrolidine alkaloids, namely, carpusinine F (10a) and epicarpusinine F (10b).
The three known alkaloids were identified as elaeokanine A (11), elaeokanine C (12) and
elaeokanine D (13). (12)

- Studies suggest anxiolytic, immune stimulatory, sun protective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antiproliferative, contraceptive properties.

Parts used
Fruits, seeds, leaves, bark, sap.


- Fruits are edible, raw. Thin layer of pulp around seeds of ripe fruit is edible.

- In the Philippines, bark used for treatment of enlarged spleen.
- Seeds used for hypertension and heart ailments. Fruits used for epileptic fits. Leaf sap used for stomach aches, chest and shoulder pains.
- In the Indian subcontinent, used as anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial,, antidiabetic, antidepressant, analgesic.
- Used in folk medicine for treatment of stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, nerve pain, epilepsy, migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, arthritis and liver disease. (6)
- In Ayurveda,
it is considered guru (heavy), snigdha (unctuous) in native, madhura (sweet) in taste, madhura in vipaka (sweet in post-digestive taste and sheet virya (cooling potency), attributes that has vata-pitta pacifying action on the body. (10)
- Rudraksha beads are believed to have electromagnetic properties that are beneficial to health and many bodily functions related to the heart and circulatory system. (10)

- Crafts: Seeds use for making buttons, hatpins, rosary beads.
(2) In India, the cleaned pits of the fruit, known as rudraksha, are widely used as prayer beads. Also used for making mala (garlands).(3)
- Wood: Soft to moderately hard; light in weight to moderately heavy; not very durable. Used for general planking, shuttering, boxes, crates, wooden pallets, oars, match splints, veneer and plywood. (2)
- Mythology / Rituals: In Hindu mythology, considered a sacred tree. The wearing of Rudraksha beads is believed to grant mental and physical prowess to achieve spiritual enlightenment. Hindu mystics wear the fruits as necklaces for purposes of prayers and magical belief. Wearing the rosary of beads around the wrist, arm, neck or head provides protection to fearlessly roam the world. (6) (10)
- Rudraksha beads / Commerce: The use of fruits and beads in Hindu rituals along with its magical attributions and many health benefits has spawned a commerce of artificial beads for which tests have been advised to check for purity and authenticity: cut test, copper coin test,  water test, and electromagnetic properties. (10)

Toxicity Studies / Seed and Leaves:
An aqueous extract of E. ganitrus seed was found to be nontoxic up to a dose of 5.0 g/kbw in Swiss albino mice model. An aqueous extract of leaves did not show hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes up to 1000 µg/ml. (5)
Anxiolytic / Fruits: Study of methanolic extract of E. sphaericus fruits at dose of 200 mg/kg increase the percentage of time-spent and percentage of arm entries in open arms of elevated plus-maze (EPM) and decrease percentage of time spent in closed arms of EPM. It also prolonged ketamine-induced latency to sleep with no significant effect on total sleeping time induced by ketamine. Locomotor activity was affected but less than that observed with diazepam. Anxiolytic effect was attributed to flavonoids. (8)
Stimulation of Immune Mediators / Seeds: Study evaluated alkaloidal fraction of Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds showed in vitro stimulation of immune mediators from  PEC (peritoneal exudate cells)
and proliferation of immune cells. (11) .
Sun Protective Activity /of Immune Mediators / Seeds: Study evaluated a cream formulation of ethanol extract of E. angustifolius leaves for sun protective activity in parameters of appearance, pH, spreadability, viscosity, and washability. Results suggest the leaf extract can be used as additives to improve the SPF of other sunscreen formulas. It can enhance the UV absorption qualities of
traditional sunscreen composition and increase the sunscreen capacity to block UV rays.(13)
Anxiolytic / Quercetin / Dried Fruits: Study isolated the anxiolytic constituent of E. ganitrus using bioactive guided fractionation. Dried extracts in doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety activity in mice. On acute toxicity testing, no mortality was reported even after 14 days up to a single dose of 5000 mg/kg. Bioassay fractionation isolated 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, which at 25 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant anxiolytic activity in mice using
EPM (elevated plus maze), light/dark chamber, and double mirrored chamber model of anxiety. (14)
Immunomodulatory Effects / Seeds: Study evaluated a methanol extract of E. ganitrus seeds for in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. The extract showed significant stimulation of release of nitric oxide, superoxide, and lysosomal enzyme. On in vivo phagocytic activity by carbon clearance assay in mice, it showed significant increase in phagocytic index at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose. In delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody titer assay in ovalbumin immunized mice the extract showed significant stimulation of DTH response at 200 mg/kg dose and antibody titer at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose. Results suggest the EG extract influences both non-specific (phagocytosis) and specific
(cell mediated and humoral) arms of the immune  system.(15)
OM / Morphological Studies: Om is a spiritual symbol referred to as Atman (soul) and Brahman (reality, entirety of the universe, truth, divine, supreme spirit, cosmic principles and knowledge). It is regarded as one of the most important symbols in universal religion, found in Vedas, Upanishads, and other ancient texts. It is a sacred spiritual chanting made in recitations of spiritual texts, puja, prayers, ceremonies, weddings, meditations, and yoga. The morphological study evaluated the surface of rudraksha (E. ganitrus) which indicates the presence of the universal symbol as a common site in divine beads of rudraksha. Microscopical studies observe the presence of the Om symbol on the surface of various cells of rudraksha indication the existence of Om at cellular level, further strengthening the
belief in the in the Universal presence of the symbol Om.
Weak Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Alkaloids / Branches and Leaves: Study of branches and leaves of E. angustifolius isolated nine new alkaloids, (+)-1, (−)-12, (+)-3, (−)-3, and 47, along with five known compounds (812). (±)-8,9-Dehydroelaeocarpine (5), (±)-9-epielaeocarpine cis-N-oxide trifluoroacetate (6), and (±)-elaeocarpine trifluoroacetate (9) exerted weak inhibitory activities against butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 39, 29, and 35 μM, respectively; tacrine, the positive
control, was 0.07 ± 0.01 μM. (18)

Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Antiproliferative / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Rudraksha . The nanoconjugates exhibited significant antibacterial activity against five clinical isolates, namely: B. cereus, E. coli, K. pneumonia P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and antifungal activity against A. niger, A. flavus, P. notatum, and T. roseum. On MTT assay, the NPs showed potential anticancer activity with IC50 of 361.49 µg/ml against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Molecular docking study demonstrated favorable set of interactions for
selected cancer receptors and phytochemicals of E. sphearicus identified from GC-MS analysis. (19)
Antihypertensive / Renal Artery Occluded Model / Seeds: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of E. ganitrus seeds powder for antihypertensive activity in renal artery occluded hypertensive rats. Elevated blood pressure was significantly decreased at dose levels of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, I.V. captopril, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-1) at dose of 1 mg/kg IV (p<0.05).  The antihypertensive activity may be due to the action on the renin-angiotensin system. (20)
Alternative Oral Contraception / Seeds: Study evaluated the potential of ganitri seed extract as an alternative to oral contraception in female wistar rats. The seed extract at dose of 400 mg/g for 14 consecutive days increased the levels of estradiol hormone. The dose was almost close or same
as contraceptive pills in increasing the levels of estradiol hormone. (21)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

May 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Blue marble tree (Elaeocarpus angustifolius) / Drew Avery / CC Attribution 2.0 Generic / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Elaeocarpus angustifolius fruits / Jan Smith / CC Attribution 2.0 Generic / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Elaeocarpus angustifolius - Fairy petticoats / © TopTropicals / Non Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Top Tropicals
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Elaeocarpus angustifolius - Closeup of flower / © TopTropicals / Non Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Top Tropicals

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Elaeocarpus angustifolius / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Elaeocarpus angustifolius / Ken Fern, Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants

Elaeocarpus angustifolius / Wikipedia
Pharmacognostic Studies on Rudraksh (Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume) Fruit / Sunil Jawla, Durg Vijay Rai / Advances in Biological Research, 2016; 10(6): pp 382-387 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.abr.2016.382.387 / IDDN: 1992-0067

A Review on Medicinal Properties of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.ex G. Don. (Elaeocarpaceae) / Gaurav Kumar, Loganathan Karthik, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao / RJPT: Research J Pharm and Tech., 2014; 7(10): pp 11884-1186 / ISSN: 0974-3618
Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha): A Reservoir Plant with their Pharmacological Effects / Swati Hardainiyan, Bankim Chandra Nandy, Krishnan Kumar / Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res., 2015;p 34(1): pp 55-64 / ISSN: 0976-044X
Bioactive Compounds Profile of Alkaloid on Elaeocarpus sphaericus Schum Seeds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / Cicilia Novi Primiani, Pujiati, Mohammad Arfi Setiawan / 2nd International Conference on Education and Technology (ICETECH 2021) / Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, Volume 630
Anxiolytic effects of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice /  Shah Gagan, Shri Richa, Mann Avinder, Rahar Sandeep, Panchal Vivek / International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2010; 2(3): pp 1781-1786 / ISSN: 0974-4304 / Record No: 20103248543
/ Kumar Naresh, Dubey Mukesh, Agarwal Vivek / Global J Res Med Plants & Indigen Med., 2013; 2(1): pp 65-72 / ISSN: 2277-4289
Effect of alkaloidal fraction of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. seeds on murine in vitro immune parameters / A K Hule, A R Juvekar / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2009; 2(8): pp 1261-1265 / ISSN: 0974-6943 /
Record No: 20103126859
Phytochemical Investigation of Alkaloids from the Leaves of Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. and Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume / Margret Chinonso Ezeoke / Thesis, 2019 / Univerisity of Nottingham
Formulation & Evaluation of Sun Protective Activity of Elaeocarpus angustifolia Blume / Tina Negi, Bhawana Bhatt, Sudhakar Kaushik /  ISSN: 0044-0477 / YMER. 2022; 21(10)
Bioactivity Guided Isolation of Quercetin as Anxiolytic Compound from Elaeocarpus ganitrus Beads / Balbir Singh, Vishal Sharma, Mohan Pal Singh Ishar, Anupam Sharma / The Natural Products Journal, 2013; 3(3): pp 224-229
Evaluation of immunomodulatory effects of methanol extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds / A K Hule, A R Juvekar / Journal of Natural Remedies, 2010; 10(1): pp 1-10 / ISSN: 0972-5547 /
Record No: 20103124851
The Study of Rudraksha Bead Showing a Symbol of OM / Durg V Rai, MTech, PhD, Sunil Jawla MPharm, PhD, Saurabh Bajpai / Interdisciplinary International Journal, 8: pp 8-13 /
DOI: 10.36018/dsiij.v8i0.82
Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Alkaloids from the Branches and Leaves of Elaeocarpus angustifolius / Wei Hong, Yu Zhhang, Jun Yang, Meng-Yuan Xia, Ji-Feng Luo, Xiao-Nian Li, Yue-Hu Wang, Jun-Song Wang et al / J Nat Prod., 2019; 18(12): pp 3221-3226 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b01027
Nanoconjugate Synthesis of Elaeocarpus ganitrus and the Assessment of Its Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Properties / Arpitha Badarinath Mahajanakatti, Telugu Seetharam Deepak, Raghu Ram Achar et al / Molecules, 2022; 27(8): 2442 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules27082442 / PMID: 35458641
Antihypertensive effect of aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. seeds in renal artery occluded hypertensive rats / SS Sakat, SS Wankhede, AR Juvekar, VR Mali, SL Boodhankar /  International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2009; 1(3): pp 779-782 / ISSN: 0974-4304 / Record No: 20103054083
Potential of ganitri seed extract (elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb) as an alternative of oral contraception (experimental study in female wistar rats) / Lusi Afriyani, Supriyana, Suhartono

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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