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Family Moraceae
Bo tree
Ficus religiosa Linn.
SACRED FIG TREE

Si wei shu

Scientific names Common names
Ficus caudata Stokes Bo tree (Engl.)
Ficus peepul Griff. Bodhi tree (Engl.)
Ficus religiosa Linn. Buddha tree (India)
Ficus rhynchophylla Steud. Higuera religiosa de la India (Span.)
Ficus superstitiosa Link Peepul tree (Engl.)
Urostigma religiosum (L.) Gasp. Pipal tree (India)
  Po tree (Thai.)
  Sacred fig tree (Engl.)
Ficus religiosa L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Ahant.
BENGALI: Pipal, Pippal.
BURMESE: Bawdi nyaung, Lagat, Mai nyawng, Nyaung bawdi.
CHINESE: Si wei shu, Pu ti shu.
DANISH: Buddhafigen.
FRENCH: Arbre bo de, Figuier de l'Inde, Figuier des banians, Figuier des pagodes, Figuier indien, Figuier sacré, Figuier sacré de Bodh-Gaya.
GERMAN: Bobaum, Bo-Baum, Bodhi-Baum, Heiliger Feigenbaum, Pappelfeige, Pepul-Baum, Pepulbaum der Inder.
GUJARATI: Jari, Pipal, Pipers, Piplo.
HINDI: Pipal, Pipali, Pipli.
JAPANESE: Indo bodaiju.
KANNADA: Arali, Arati, Aswatha.
KASHMIRI: Bad.
KHMER: Pu.
LAOTIAN: Kok pho.
MALAYALAM: Arayal, Arei al, Ashwatham.
MARATHI: Pimpal.
NEPALESE: Peepul, Pipal, Pippal.
ORIYA: Jari.
POLISH: Figowiec swiety
PUNJABI: Pipal, Pippal.
SANSKRIT: Ashvathha, Aswattha, Bodhidruma, Bodhivrska, Peepal, Peepul, Pipala, Shuchidruma, Yajnika.
SERBIAN: Indijska smokva, Gumi-lak smokva.
SINHALESE: Araca maram, Bo, Bodhi..
SPANISH: Arbol sagrado de la India, Higuera de las pagodas, Higuera religiosa de la India, Higuera sagrada de los budistas.
TAMIL: Aracamaram, Arachu, Aracu, Arali, Arasamaram, Arasi maram, Arasu.
TELUGU: Bodhi, Raavi chettu, Ragichettu, Ravi.
THAI: Pho si maha pho, Sali.
URDU: Jori, Peepal, Usto.
VIETNAMESE: Cay de.

Botany
Ficus religiosa is a large tree, growing to a height of 25 meters, with the trunk reaching a diameter of more than one meter. Leaves are alternate, long-petioled, ovate or heart-shaped, the apex tapered to a tail-like tip, up to 15 centimeters long. Blade is dark shiny green above, pale green below, with slightly undulate margins, Fruits are in pairs, 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and dark purple.

Distribution
- Introduced to the Philippines in early times.
- Planted in parks and along roads.
- Native to India.

Constituents
- Plant yields ß-sitosteryl, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, sigmasterol, lupeol.
- Phytochemical studies have isolated phytosterols, amino acids, furanocoumarins, phenolic components, hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, volatile compounds and secondary metabolites.

- Phytochemical study on fruits yielded major constituents of n-Hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid; 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, and Butyl 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoate. (see study below) (17)
- Stem yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and steroids. GC-MS analysis for bioactive components yielded major chemical constituents of 1,2-Benzenediol (9.85%), Caffeine (4.20%) and Stigmasterol,22,23- dihydro (1.81%). (19)
- Physico-chemical compound analysis of bark yielded alcohol soluble extractive 7.21 ± 0.92, water soluble extractive 15.76 ± 0.67, total ash 7.68 ± 0.8, acid insoluble ash 0.41 ± 0.03. Phytochemical screening yielded
tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides.

Properties
- Considered astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, laxative, antiasthmatic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiulcer, antidiabetic.
- Leaves considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, febrifuge, vulnerary.
- Fruit considered digestive.
- Bark considered vulnerary, anti-inflammatory.
- Studies have suggested anticonvulsant antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, wound-healing, antioxidant, anti-amnesic, and acetylcholinesterase properties.


Parts used
Roots, leaves, seeds, bark, fruit, latex.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Throughout South Asia, ethnomedical uses have been reported for about 50 types of disorders.
- Roots used for gout; chewed to prevent gum disease.
- Leaves used for treating constipation, mumps, abscesses.
- Juice extracted from leaves or powdered leaves used for fevers, wounds, constipation, dysentery, bruises, boils and mumps.
- Paste of leaf applied on wounds and bruises.
- Fruit used as digestive and laxative.
- Leaf decoction used for toothache pains. Infusion or decoction of bark used with honey for treatment of gonorrhea, ulcers, skin diseases, and scabies. Powdered bark used for wound healing. Paste of bark and leaves used for stomatitis. Decoction of root bark mixed with salt and jaggery used for diuresis. (36)
- Roots used to alleviate inflammation. Bark from roots used for low back pain, stomatitis, and ulcers.
- Latex combined with juice of roots to treat various skin diseases, including ringworm, athlete's foot, and other fungal affections.
- In traditional Indian medicine, bark used as antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrheal. Leaves used for ulcers.
- In Bangladesh, used for cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases.
- In Ayurvedic and Malay traditional medicine, used for treatment of gastric ulcers.
- In India, used for bleeding disorders: hematemesis, hemoptysis, hematuria, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, epistaxis, and bleeding hemorrhoids.
Others
- Buddhist Ritual: Considered a sacred tree by the Hindus and Buddhists.
Bodhi Puja, the veneration of the Bodhi-tree has been a popular and widespread ritual in Sri Lanka. Lord Buddha believed people of other faiths who lead meritorious lives would be reborn in low or high spiritual plains. Beings of low spiritual plain take refuge in Bo trees where they may grant relief to those offering Bodhi Puja or accept merit offered to them and get elevated in the spiritual world.
Studies
Phytochemistry / Pharmacology:
Studies have isolated phytosterols, amino acids, furanocoumarins, phenolic components, hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, volatile components and few other classes of secondary metabolites. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and various components showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities - antidiabetic, cognitive enhancement, wound healing, anti-convulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiasthmatic, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiulcer, among many others. (2)
Wound Healing / Roots:
Root extracts of Ficus religiosa in the form of ointment promoted wound-healing activity; a 10% formulation showed better activity than a 5% concentration. (3)
Anti-Ulcer: Study of ethanol extract of stem-bark against in vivo indomethacin- and stress-induced gastric ulcer significantly reduced the ulcer index in all assays used, reduced gastric juice volume, and free and total acidities. (4) Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves in rats against absolute ethanol, aspirin, and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer, with Ranitidine as standard drug. Results showed significant decrease in ulcer index value. (20)
Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Induced Toxicity: Study of methanolic extract of F. religiosa latex against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity showed nephroprotective and curative activity. (5)
Antidiabetic: Study of aqueous extract of bark in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited significant antidiabetic activity. There was significant reduction of blood sugar in all models. There was significant anti-lipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. (6) A methanolic extract of F. religiosa exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced rats. The antidiabetic activity may be due to phenolic compounds and flavonoids. (18) Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FR with its comparison to glibenclamide. Results showed effective and dose dependent curative effect against hyperglycemia and elevated TNF-α in the tested doses. The favorable modulation of cytokine TNF-α may be responsible for the potent anti-diabetic effect. (32) Ethanolic extract of fruit showed pronounced antidiabetic activity at a dosage of 250 mg/kbw. (34)
Anti-Inflammatory / Immunomodulatory: Study of aqueous extract of F. religiosa showed modulation of cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and indicates that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties are related to its potential antidiabetic activity. (10)
Anthelmintic: The latex of three Ficus spp. (F. religiosa, F. elastica, F. bengalensis) were investigated for its anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Metronidazole was used as reference drug. All three possess anthelmintic activity but F. religiosa showed more activity. (7)
Anticonvulsant: Methanolic extract of figs of F. religiosa exhibited dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against MES and picrotoxin-induced convulsions, with no neurotoxic effects. Inhibition of the anticonvulsant effect by cyproheptadine suggests the involvement of serotonergic pathways in the anticonvulsant activity. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Mast Cell Protective Effect: An aqueous extract of the bark showed significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and chronic models of
inflammation. It also showed protection of mast cells from degranulation induced by various degranulators. These effect might explain the beneficial effects observed in kumkum dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions. (9)
Antioxidant: Various extracts showed considerable inhibition of DPPH free radical formation. Results indicate the antioxidant property may be due to phenolic compounds. (11)
Bronchospasm Potentiating Effect: Study results showed F. religiosa fruits was ineffective against histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. In addition, the methanolic extract of fruits was showed potentiation of bronchospasm induced by histamine and acetylcholine on guinea pig tracheal chain preparation.
(12)
Chemopreventive / Cervical Cancer: Study reports the anti-neoplastic potential of aqueous extract of F. religiosa bark in human cervical cancer cell lines. In HeLa. FRaq induced apoptosis through an increase in intracellular Ca2+ leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c and increase in expression of caspase-3. These and other data suggest a chemopreventive potential in cervical cancer. (16)
Phytoconstituents / Fruits: Phytochemical study on fruits yielded major constituents of n-Hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid; 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, and Butyl 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoate. In an earlier study on Vitex altissima, these phytoconstituents were shown to have significant biologic activities. (17)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of leaf extracts of F. religiosa prepared in ointment form on excision and incision wound models on Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant promotion of wound healing activity in all the wound models, with a high rate of wound contraction, decrease in period of epithelisation, high skin breaking strength. The 10% form showed better results than the 5% concentration. (21) Study of aqueous extracts of F. religiosa and F. benghaensis in rats using excision, incision and dead space model showed significant wound healing, comparable to standard drug povidone iodine ointment, in terms of wound contraction, tensile strength, and histopathological parameters. (41)
Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated different solvent extracts of leaf for analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing assay in Swiss albino mice. All the test extracts showed significant analgesic activity, with the methanol extract being most potent. (22)
Anti-Asthmatic / Leaves: An in vivo study evaluated aqueous extracts of leaves for broncho-protective activity in guinea pigs. Administration of AEFRL produced significant effect on latency to develop histamine and acetycholine induced pre-convulsive dyspnea. Results also showed significant increase in the number of intact cells in the mast cell stabilizing model. (23)
Biosorption / Nickel: Study investigated the pollutant binding capacity of acid treated Ficus religiosa leaves. Results showed the biosorbent is an attractive low cost alternative for treatment of wastewater containing lower concentrations of nickel. (24)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anti-Lipid Peroxidation / Stem Bark: Study investigated a methanol extract of stem bark in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice showed anti-inflammatory effect with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema; significant analgesic effect with inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing; and significant anti-lipid peroxidant effects in vitro. (25)
Hepatoprotective / Stem Bark: Stem-bark powder extract was investigated against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity, with the methanolic extract showed greater activity. (26)
Anti-Cancer Effect / Stem Bark: Study investigated the cytotoxic effect of F. religiosa chloroform extract on genes expression in inhibition differentiation pathway on prostate cancer cells resistant to docetaxel (PC3-TxR) in vitro. Results showed an anticancer effect of FR chloroform extract which target Id pathway on PC3-TxR cells. (27)
Adsorption / Chromium / Leaves: Study evaluated the chromium (Cr) removal capacity from aqueous solution using Ficus religiosa leaves. Results showed activated Ficus religiosa leaves can be used as efficient adsorbent for Cr removal from waste water. However, further research is needed for large scale removal. (28)
Hepatoprotective / INH+Rifampin and Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study of a methanolic extract of F. religiosa showed hepatoprotective activity against isoniazid-rifampicin and paracetamol induced oxidative liver injury in rats. (29)
Effect on Glycemic Index / Leaves and Bark: Study showed supportive scientific evidence that Ficus religiosa leaves and bark powder based food products possess significant lowering effect in glucose level, showing low glycemic index and glycemic load. Study speculates that addition of 10% leaves in the recipe may increase the insulin which affects digestion of carbohydrates to produce the hypoglycemic effects. (30)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated leaves for in-vitro antimicrobial activity on two strains of microorganisms: E. coli and S. aureus. The extracts were more potent on S. aureus, and the water extract showed better activity than the methanol extract. (31) Study showed antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether and methanol extracts of bark and leaves of F. religiosa against three bacteria, viz. E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The leaf extracts showed better antimicrobial activity against the test microbes. (42)
Cardioprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated FR in STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Results showed significant improvement in diabetic markers, oxidative stress, inflammatory and cardiac markers, possible mediated through control of diabetes, modulation of oxidative marker and cytokine (TGF-ß1, TNFα). (33)
Hepatoprotective / Cisplatin Induced Liver Injury / Latex: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of F. religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats. Results showed a significant alleviation of cisplatin-induced elevation in ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and hepatocyte cells degeneration inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis. (37)
Eco-Friendly Dye / Bark: Study investigated the dyeing of bleached cotton fabrics with natural dye from the bark of Ficus religiosa. Results showed good washing, light, and rubbing fastness properties and suggests a potential as a dye for coloring textiles with a good scope for commercial dyeing of cotton. (38)
Memory Enhancing / Leaves: Study investigated the memory enhancing activities of ethanolic extract of leaves in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice on five models of learning parameters. Results showed the leaf extract might possess anti-amnesic as well as nootropic properties. Amino acid constituents may be responsibe for the activity. (39)
Heavy Metal Removal / Leaf Ash: Thermodynamics study investigated the sorption of lead (II) and chromium (VI) by F. religiosa leaves ash. Results showed sorption of lead was exothermic and that of chromium was endothermic. The equilibrium sorption data and sorption kinetics correlated with Langmuir model and pseudo second order model, respectively. (40)
Anti-Diarrheal / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal effect of various extracts of stem barks against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rats. A 60% hydroalcoholic extract showed marked reduction in the number of diarrheal stools and total weight of diarrheal feces. (43)
Behavioral Effect of Saponin Fraction: Study evaluated a saponin-rich fraction of adventitious root extract in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Results showed significant decrease in seizure activity and marked protection against kindling-associated depression. It failed to protect against learning and memory impairments. Observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in levels of adrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions. (44)
Laxative / Leaves: Study evaluated the laxative potential of aqueous extracts of F. religiosa leaves in albino Wistar rats. Results showed significant laxative activity and dose dependently reduced loperamide induced constipation. There was significant enteropooling and excretion of Cl, Na, K, and Ca in the intestinal fluid. (45)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Updated December 2015
November 2011

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: TREE / File:A small temple beneath the Bodhi tree, Bodh Gaya, c. 1810.jpg / British Library / Author: Anonymous / c. 1810 / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Ficus Names /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(2)
Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus religiosa: a review. / Singh D, Singh B, Goel RK / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12;134(3):565-83. Epub 2011 Feb 3.
(3)
Exploration of Healing Promoting Potentials of Roots of Ficus religiosa / Krishna Murti, Vijay Lambole, Vipul Gajera and Mayank Panchal / Pharmacologia, Vol 2 No 12, Pp 374-378, 2011 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2011.374.378
(4)
Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa stem bark ethanolic extract in rats / Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Syed Ahmed Hussain, Abdul Manan Mat Jais et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(3), pp. 354-359, 4 February, 2011
(5)
Experimental Studies of Ficus religiosa (L) latex for preventive and curative effect against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats / Yogesh Chang Yadav, D N Srivastava, Vipin Saini et al / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(1):621-627
(6)
Antidiabetic effect of Ficus religiosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
/ Rucha Pandit, Ashish Phadke, Aarti Jagtap / Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2010), Volume: 128, Issue: 2, Pages: 462-466
(7)
COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THE LATEX OF FICUS RELIGINOSA, FICUS ELASTICA AND FICUS BENGALENSIS / B.N. Vedha Hari,, P. Saravana Kumar, D. Ramya Devi / Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(3): 26-30
(8)
Anticonvulsant effect of Ficus religiosa: role of serotonergic pathways / Singh D, Goel RK. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 22;123(2):330-4. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
(9)
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND MAST CELL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FICUS RELIGIOSA / S. Viswanathan, P. Thirugnanasambantham, M Kannappa Reddy et al / Ancient Science of Life, Vol No. X No. 2 October 1990, Pages 122 - 125
(10)
The study of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa Linn. on cytokine TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats / H Kirana, M V Jali, B P Srinivasan / Pharmacognosy research (2011), Vol 3, No 1, Pp: 30-34 /
DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.79112
(11)
COMPARISON OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. STEM BARK EXTRACTS PREPARED BY DIFFERENT METHODS OF EXTRACTION / S. Panchawat and S. S. Sisodia / Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 4 (2) 163-166 (2010)
(12)
Bronchospasm potentiating effect of methanolic extract of Ficus religiosa fruits in guinea pigs. / Ahuja D, Bijjem KR, Kalia AN. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):324-8. Epub 2010 Oct 23.
(13)
Bodhi Tree / Wikipedia
(14)
Sri Lanka Society & Culture : Customs, Rituals & Traditions / Virtual Library Sri Lanka
(15)
Phytopharmacology of Ficus religiosa
/ S. B. Chandrasekar, M. Bhanumathy, and T. Somasundaram / Pharmacogn Rev. 2010, Jul-Dec; 4(8): 195-199
(16)
The Aqueous Extract of Ficus religiosa Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Cervical Cancer Cell Lines SiHa (HPV-16 Positive) and Apoptosis in HeLa (HPV-18 Positive) / Amit S. Choudhari, Snehal A. Suryavanshi, Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar / PLOS/one / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070127
(17)
Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical studies of the fruits of Ficus religiosa / *Sharma R. K., Goyal A. K., Yadav S. K., Bhat R. A. / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., October -December 2013, 5 (4): 211-213
(18)
ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF METHNOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF FICUS RELIGIOSA L. IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Nishant Verma, Dharmendra Kumar, Amrendra Kr Chaudhary, Ranjit Singh, Sachin Tyagi / International Journal of Biopharmaceutical & Toxicological Research,
Vol 2, Issue 1, Jan-2012
(19)
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA (LINN.) STEM / M.S. MANORENJITHA*, A.K. NORITA, S. NORHISHAM AND M.Z. ASMAWI / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2013 Apr; 4(2): (P) 99 - 103
(20)
Study of anti ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa L. on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats
/ Sarmistha Saha, Gagan Goswami / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2010, Pages 791–793 / DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60189-7
(21)
Wound Healing Potential of Leaf Extracts of Ficus Religiosa on Wistar albino strain rats / Kalyon Roy*, H. Shivakumar, Sibaji Sarkar / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.3, pp 506-508 , July-Sept 2009
(22)
Thin layer chromatographic studies and evaluation of analgesic activity of Ficus religiosa leaf extracts in mice
/ Ghosh Raka, Mondal Suvankar, Bhattacharya Sanjib*and Biswas Moulisha / Journal of Pharmaceutical Science (2012), 1(7): 443-445
(23)
Phytopharmacological evaluation and anti-asthmatic activity of Ficus religiosa leaves / Megha Kapoor, Nidhi Jasani, Niyati Acharya, Sanjeev Acharya, Vimal Kumar* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011) 642-644 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)80163-6
(24)
REMOVAL BY BIOSORPTION USING FICUS RELIGIOSA (PEEPAL) LEAVES / MUHAMMAD ZAHEER ASLAM, NAVEED RAMZAN*,SHAHID NAVEED, NADEEM FEROZE / J. Chil. Chem. Soc, 55, N° 1 (2010), pág: 81-84 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072010000100019
(25)
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lipid peroxidation studies on stem bark of Ficus religiosa Linn. / Sreelekshmi, R, Latha, P G, M M Arafat, M M Arafat, Shyamal, S, Shine, V J, Anuja, G I, Suja, S R, Rajasekharan, S / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR), NPR Vol.6(5) September-October 2007
(26)
HEPATO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN IN RATS /
Kavita Suryawanshi, Sanjay Khakre, Ashish Chourasia, P. K. Chaurasiya, R. S. Pawar, Deenanath Jhade / International Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol 2, No 8, 2011 / DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v2i8.128
(27)
The Effect of Ficus Religiosa Chloroform Extract on Suppression of Acquired Docetaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer / Niran A. Ibrahim, Nahi Y. Yaseen, Khulood W. Abbood, Moses S. Chow, Zhijun Wang / Iraqi Journal of Cancer and Medical Genetics, Volume 6 - Number 2 - 2013
(28)
A study on adsorption of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution by Ficus religiosa leaves as adsorbent
/
R. Gayathri*, M. Thirumarimurugan and T. Kannadasan / Pelagia Research Library Der Chemica Sinica, 2013, 4(3):79-87
(29)
Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus religiosa leaves against isoniazid+rifampicin and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity / Sundaramoorthi Angala Parameswari, Challa Madhusudhana Chetty, Kothapalli Bannoth Chandrasekhar / Pharmacognosy Research, 2013, Vol 5, Issue 4, pp 271-276.
(30)
Glycemic Index of Ficus religiosa Based Bakery Products for Healthy Normal Subjects / * Neelam Chaturvedi, Ashwarya Singh, Kalpana Shukla / Food Science, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014
(31)
Standardization and Antimicrobial Activity of Ficus religiosa Linn. / Jagtap Supriya, Gahankari Harshita / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, 4(7).
(32)
An experimental study to evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effect of Ficus religiosa and its comparison with glibenclamide / Rathi Priyanka, Nath Rajendra, Pant, K. K., Natu, S. M., Dixit, R. K., Sachan, A. K. and Katiyar, D. K. / International Journal of Current Research
(33)
Cardioprotective effects of Ficus religiosa in neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats
/ Raman Sharma ⁎ , Ashok Kumar, Bharatur Parthasarathy Srinivasan, Anisha Chauhan, Kiran Dubey /
Biomedicine and Aging Pathology, Volume 4, n° 1, pages 53-58 / DOI : 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.10.008
(34)
Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of leaves and fruits of Ficus religiosa Linn. / Sheetal Choudhary *, Anupam Kumar Pathak, Sonali Khare and Sarita Kushwah / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 2(12): Dec. 2011
(35)
Comparative pharmacognostic studies on the barks of four Ficus species / Koilpillai BABU*, Sabesan GOKUL SHANKAR, Sadananda RAI / Turk J Bot 34 (2010) 215-224 / doi:10.3906/bot-0907-115
(36)
FICUS RELIGIOSA– POTENTIAL ROLE IN PHARMACEUTICALS / Sanskriti Gautam, Anju Meshram, Sameer S. Bhagyawant and Nidhi Srivastava* / IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(5): 1616-1623.
(37)
Hepatoprotective effect of Ficus religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats / Yogesh C. Yadav / Rev. bras. farmacogn. Vol. 25, No. 3 Curitiba May/June 2015 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.03.012
(38)
A Study on Eco-Friendly Natural Dye Obtained from Barks of Ficus religiosa. L on Cotton Fabric / P. Saravanan, G. Chandramohan and S. Saivaraj / World Journal of Applied Environmental Chemistry, Volume 1, Issue 1: 30-34
(39)
Memory Enhancing Activities of Ficus religiosa Leaves in Rodents / Wangkhem Bandana Devi, Sengottuvelu S, Haja Shrief S, Lalitha V, Sivakumar T/ IJRAP 2011, 2(3) 834-838
(40)
Heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions by using Ficus religiosa leaves ash : equilibrium and kinetics study / Suleman Qaiser; Anwar R. Saleemi; Nadeem Feroze / Int. J. of Environment and Waste Management, 2013, 12(1): pp 17-32
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WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF FICUS RELIGIOSA AND FICUS BENGHALENSIS LEAVES IN RATS / Nidhi Chowdhary, Mohanjit Kaur, Amarjeet Singh, Bimlesh Kumar* / Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, 2(2), March-April 2014
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In vitro antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Ficus religiosa (Linn.) / G.Ramakrishnaiah *, T. Hariprasad / INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL & BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH (IJPBR). Vol. 1 (1), March., 2013
(43)
Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus religiosa Prepared by Different Methods of Extraction / Panchawat S*, Sisodia S.S / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(1):218-222
(44)
Effect of saponin fraction from Ficus religiosa on memory deficit, and behavioral and biochemical impairments in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice. / Singh D, Mishra A, Goel RK / Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B 2013, 27(1):206-211 / DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.11.004
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EVALUATION OF LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. (MORACEAE) LEAVES AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS / Dhirendra Singh, Minky Mukhija, Ankush Sundriyal*, Veenu Mangla / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Sundriyal et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 6, 5384-5395.
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Ficus religiosa / Synonyms / The Plant List

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