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Family Cleomaceae
Cleome spinosa Jacq.

Xi yang bai hua cai

Scientific names  Common names
Cleome heptaphylla L. Botete (Ig.)
Cleome pubescens Sims Grandfather's whiskers (Engl.)
Cleome pungens Willd. Spiny spider flower (Engl.)
Cleome sandwicensis A. Gray Spider legs (Engl.)
Cleome spinosa Jacq. Spider plant (Engl.)
Cleome spinosa Sw.                                                 [Illegitimate] Violet queen (Engl.)
Cleome tonduzii Briq.  
Neocleome spinosa (Jacq.) Small  
Tarenaya spinosa (Jacq.) Raf.  
Cleome spinosa Jacq. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL:Mussambe-de-espino, Sete-marias.
CHINESE: Zui die huo, Zi long xu, Xi yang bai hua cai.
GERMAN: Kleopatra nadel.
ZANZIBAR: Mvunjakhondo.

Gen info
- Cleome is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cleomaceae, commonly referred to as spider flowers, spider plants, spider weed or bee plants.
- It was previously placed in the family Capparaceae, until DNA studies  found the genera more closely related to the Brassicaceae than Capparaceae.
- Cleome contains about 275 species, the vast majority of Cleomaceeae.  (17)

7Botete is an annual, hairy, strongly-scented herb. Stems are erect, 30 to 90 centimeters in height, simple or branched. Leaves are alternate, palmately compound with 5- to 7-foliate, on petioles longer than the leaflets, commonly with stipular spines. Leaflets are entire, elliptic to obovate or rarely oblanceolate, 2 to 10 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Racemes are 10 to 30 centimeters long. Sepals are linear-lanceolate and 5 to 10 millimeters long. Petals are clawed, purple or rarely white, oval or rounded, 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters long. Fruit is a narrow capsule, 6 to 10 centimeters long, with pale and finely reticulated seeds.

- Originally Introduced in Baguio as an ornamental, now thoroughly naturalized.
- Wild and abundant along streams in Baguio.
- Used for bedding in gardens.

- Native of tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

- Oil of grains rich in glucosinolates.
- Yields flavone, flindulatin, and five novel diterpene cembranes, called cleospinol A, B, C, D and the 3'-hydroxy-isopentan-10-oate ester of cleospinol A. (5)
- Methanol extract of leaves yielded flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. (see study below) (9)
- Cleome spinosa was studied for essential oil. The chemical profile yielded a dominance of oxygenated sesqui- and di-terpenes, except the fruit oil with its high content of fatty acids. Most abundant compounds of whole aerial parts (fruits, leaves, and stems) were abundant in (Z)-phytol (31.3%), integerrimine (5.5%), and incensole (4.0%). Flower oil yielded main components of 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (23.8%), incensole (9.2%), and sclareool (8.7%). Chief constituents of fruit oil were tetradecanoic acid (40.6%), (Z)-phytol (6.58%) and sclareol (4.5%). Dominant compounds in the leaf oil were (Z)-phytol (19.5%), 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (6.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (4.36%). (see study below) (7) =
- Ethanolic and aqueous extracts yielded terpenes, steroids, nitrogen compounds, sugars, phenolic co,pounds (simple phenylpropanoids and coumarins), flavonoids and chalcones.   The polyphenolic profile showed caffeic acid to be the major compound of both extracts.  (see study below) study below) (15)

- Stomachic and vulnerary.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, and hair-promoting properties.  

Parts utilized

- Bruised leaves applied to the head for headaches.
- Plant is a stomachic; in Brazil, used as an vulnerary.

- In Northeastern Brazil, used for treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract. Syrups and infusions of leaf and flower used for fever, influenza, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Whole plant used for digestive and cicatrizant effects. (6)
- Oil of grains used for earaches.

Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Compositions / Hair Growth: Patent application made for Cleome spinosa extract use in pharmaceutical preparation and cosmetic composition. (2) Invention uses a Cleome spinosa extract as an active ingredient for extending the growth of hair follicles. (3)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive: Methanol extracts were evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced writhing animal models. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. No toxicity was noted by Artemia salina bioassay. (6)
Essential Oil / Antimicrobial / Aerial Parts: Major compounds from the aerial portion without flowers were caryophyllene oxide, (-)-spathulenol and Z-phytol; In the flower oil, the main components were 7-alpha-hydroxy manool, incensole and sclareol; in fruit oil, tetradecanoic acid, (Z)-phytol and sclareol; In leaf oil, (Z)-phytol, 7-alpha-hydroxy manool and caryophyllene oxide. The volatile oil showed moderate action against seven of the eight bacteria strains used. The oils showed moderate insecticidal activity against Cylas formicarius elegantalus. (7)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of leaves showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and fungus (C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei). (see constituents above) (9)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated the in-vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of roots and leaves extracts. All extracts inhibited the test bacteria and yeasts. Activity was attributed to flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Chloroform and chlorhexane extracts were the most active with MIC < 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, B. subtilis and M. luteus. (10)
• Anti-Candid Potential // Fungistatic: Study  evaluated  The the phytochemical composition and anti-candida potential of extract of Tarenaya spinosa. Caffeic acid was the major compound of the extracts tested. The aqueous extract showed synergism against Candida albicans. Antagonistic effect was seen with the aqueous extract against Candida krusei. The combination of the extract with fluconazole were more significant  activity than the products tested alone. (12)
• Antibacterial / Neuroprotective: Study  evaluated  the antibacterial activity and neuroprotective capacity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Taraneya spinosa. HPLC-DAD yielded caffeic acid as the major compound of the ethanolic extract of T. spinosa. While T. spinosa does not present antimicrobial activity, its extracts possess drug modulating activity. The species which is rich in  phenolic substances, possess neuroprotective action.  (13)
• Synergistic Antibacterial Effect  with Oxacillin against S. aureus / Leaves and Roots: Study showed that chloroform and cyclohexane extracts from leaves and roots of Cleome spinosa were able to increase the action of oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus. (14)
• Cytotoxic / Antiprotozoal /  Antioxidant: Study evaluated the leishmancidal and trypanocidal  activities and cytotoxic potential of Tarenaya spinosa.  The ethanol extract showed significant  antileishmanial activity against L.  brasiliensis (LC50 81.75 µg/mL) and L. infantum (LC50 141.6 µg/mL). Both extracts showed LC50s of >1000 µg/mL against T. cruzi. The extracts showed  high antioxidant
activity by DPPH assay.. The ethanol extract was toxic to fibroblasts, while the aqueous extract showed no cytotoxicity. With the absence of cytotoxicity, the aqueous extract presents as a promising source of antioxidant compounds.  (see constituents above) (15)
• Antimicrobial Against  Fusarium oxysporum / Cucumber Wilt: Cucumber Fusarium wilt is an important soil-borne disease that restricts cucumber production in all areas of the world. Study evaluated the preventive effect of Cleome spinosa on cucumber Fusarium wilt using various doses of powder formulation. Results showed as the concentration of the C. spinosa extract increased, the inhibitory  on diameters and dry weight of mycelium also increased. GC-MS study identified 21 volatile constituents, including  heterocyclic compounds, alcohol,  chromene,  ester, acid, and long-chain alkanes.
Results suggest components of Cleome spinosa powder could effectively restrain cucumber Fusarium wilt. (16)


- Wildcrafted.

Update February 2022 / November 2017 / December 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Line Drawing / Cleome spinosa Jacq. - spiny spiderflower / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 197. / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Acylated anthocyanins in inflorescence of spider flower (Cleome hassleriana) / Jordheim Monica et al /
Phytochemistry 2009;70(6):740-5 / 2009
Cleome spinosa extract used in pharmaceutical preparations and cosmetic compositions / Fresh Patents
Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) Iltis (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
New cembranes from Cleome spinosa. / Collins DO, Reynolds WF, Reese PB. / J Nat Prod. 2004, Feb;67(2):179-83.
Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of field- growth plants and tissue culture of Cleome spinosa (Jacq.) in mice / Norma Albarello*, Claudia Simões-Gurgel, Tatiana Carvalho de Castro, Carlos Roberto M. Gayer, Marsen Garcia Pinto Coelho, Roberto Soares de Moura and Elisabeth Mansur / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 7(16): pp 1043-1049, 25 April, 2013/ DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.153
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Cleome spinosa. / McNeil MJ, Porter RB, Williams LA, Rainford L / Natural Product Communications, 2010, 5(8): pp c1301-1306
Cleome spinosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXTRACT OF LEAVES FROM Cleome spinosa JACQ. / Silva, A. P. S.; Carvalho, V. C.; Silva, C. A.; Ara ̇jo, J. M ; Silva, N. H.; Cavalcanti, M. S.; Lima, V. L. M. / Brazilian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc. / Ana P. Sant'Anna da Silva, Luis C. Nascimento da Silva, Caique S. Martins da Fonseca, Janete M. de Araujo, Maria T. dos Santos Correia, Marilene da Silva Cavalcanti, and Vera L. de Menezes Lima / Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 963.  / doi:  10.3389/fmicb.2016.00963
[Dermatitis as occupational disease, caused by "Kleopatra-Nadel" (Cleome spinosa)]. / Szego L, Maacz J / Dermatologische Wochenschrift 154:3 1968 Jan 20 pg 49-56 (No abstract available)
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI-CANDIDA POTENTIAL OF THE EXTRACTS OF TARENAYA SPINOSA (JACQ.) RAF. (CLEOMACEAE) /   Felicidade Caroline Rodrigues, Antonia Thassya. Luiz Marivando Barros et al / Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, June 2019; Vol 64: pp 14-19
Polyphenolic composition, antibacterial, modulator and neuroprotective activity of Tarenaya spinosa (Jacq.) Raf. (Cleomaceae) / Francisca Samara Muniz dos Santos, Jpse Edilson Gongalves dos Santos et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine,   2019; 9(1): pp 12-17 /
SOI:  10.4103/2221-1691.250264
Comparative  analysis of combinatory effects of organic extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc and oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus /  AP Sant'Anna da Silva, VL de  Menezes Lima et al / Planta Med 2016; 82(S01): S1-S381 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1596470
Evaluation of antiparasitary, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of Tarenaya spinosa (Jacq.) Raf. (Cleomaceae) / J W A Bezerra, M F B  Morais-Braga et al /  South African Journal of Botany,  Aug 2019;  Vol 124: pp 546-555 /  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.05.025
Antimicrobial activity and component analysis of Cleome spinosa against Fusarium oxysporum / X Z Zhang,  C L Wang, Y J Zhang et al / Journal of Animal and Plant Scienced, Oct 2021; 31(5): pp 1427-1438
Cleome / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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