HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Phyllanthaceae
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle

Hong ci cong

Scientific names Common names
Acidoton griseus (Müll.Arg) Kuntze Arusit (Ilk.)
Acidoton obovatus (Willd) Kuntze Barasiksik (Ilk.)
Acidoton virosus (Roxb. ex Willd) Kuntze Barsit (Ig.)
Bessera inermis Spreng Barsik (Ilk.)
Bradleia dioica (Schumach. & Thonn.) Gaertn. ex Vahl Barusik (Ilk.)
Cicca obovata (Willd.) Kurz Bayasit (Tag.)
Cicca pentandra Blanco Boiset (Tag.)
Conami portoricensis (Kuntze) Britton Botolan (Tag.)
Diasperus glaucus (Wall. ex Müll.Arg.) Kuntze Bugbugutut (Ig.)
Diasperus hamrur (Forssk.) Kuntze Kabukabukas (Mag.)
Diasperus portoricensis (Wall. ex Müll.Arg.) Kuntze Magaspang (P. Bis.)
Flueggea abyxssinica (A.Rich.) Baill. Maluuit (Ibn.)
Flueggea angulata (Schumach. & Thornn.) Schrank Tulitañgalong (P. Bis.)
Flueggea obovata (Willd.) Wall Chinese waterberry (Engl.)
Flueggea ovalis Baill. Common bushweed (Engl.)
Flueggea phyllanthoides Baill. Simple leaf bush weed (Engl.)
Flueggea retusa Voigt Snowberry tree (Engl.)
Flueggea sinensis Baill. White berry bush (Engl.)
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle  
Hemicicca glauca (Wall. ex Müll.Arg.) Hurus & Tanaka  
Phyllanthus angulatus Schumach. & Thonn.  
Phyllanthus dioicus Schumach. & Thonn.  
Phyllanthus glaucus Wall.ex Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus hamrur Forssk.  
Phyllanthus leucophyllus Strachey & Winterb. ex Baill.  
Phyllanthus lucidus Steud.  
Phyllanthus obtusus Schrank  
Phyllanthus portoricensis (Kuntze) Urb.  
Phyllanthus virosus Roxb. ex Willd.  
Securinega abyssinica A.Rich.  
Securinega grisea Müll.Arg.  
Securinega leucopyrus Brandis  
Securinega microcarpa Muell.-Arg  
Securinega obovata Muell.-Arg.  
Securinega virosa Roxb. ex Willd  
Xylophylla obovata Willd.  
Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Pax & K. Hoffm. is a synonym of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle. The Plant List
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Bai fan shu, Jin gan teng, Mi hua ye di shu, Bai bei zi, Hong ci cong.
KENYA: Mukwamba, Mteja.
UGANDA: Omukarara.

Botolan is a deciduous, smooth, graceful, small to large much-branched shrub, 1 to 3 meters high, occasionally a tree 7 meters high. Leaves are extremely variable in shape, elliptic-ovate, obovate or orbicular, 2.5 to 10 centimeters in length, rather glaucous beneath, and rounded, obtuse or pointed at the tip. Flowers are usually borne on axillary fascicles. Fruit is mostly small, black or white, dry, and about 3 to 5 millimeters in diameter, edible and sweet.

- In dry thickets at low and medium altitudes.

- Bark contains 10% tannic acid and an alkaloid.
- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of leaves yielded reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, resin, tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, glycerin carbohydrate, anthraguine and steroids. (2)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of dried root yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids.
- Study of leaves and twigs isolated friedelin (1), epifriedelanol (3), stigmasterol (4) and betulinic acid (5). (see study below) (17)
- Ethanol extract of root bark yielded polyterpenes, alkaloids. Total aqueous extract yielded polyterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, catechin, tannins, quinone substances and alkaloids. (18)
- Study of leaves and twigs yielded 11-O-acetyl bergenin (1), bergenin (2), virosecurinine (3), ent-phyllanthidine (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), gallic acid (7), daucosterol (8) and β-sitosterol (9). (21)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol leaf extracts yielded tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and cardenolide. (see study below) (27)
- Study of twigs and leaves yielded a new terpenoid, 9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpane, 3β,10α-dihydroxy-12-methoxy-13- methyl-9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraene (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). Also, the structure of dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester was revised as (2S,3R)-4E-dehydrochebulic acid trimethyl ester. (see study below) (28)
- Study of leaves of Securinega virosa isolated two cytotoxic alkaloids, virosecurinine (1) and viroallosecurinine (2) as cytotoxic alkaloids from the leaves of Securinega virosa. Study of compound 1 for cytotoxicity and its derivatives showed an α,β‐ and a γ,δ‐unsaturated lactone located in a strained ring system, such as rings ‐B, ‐C, and ‐D of 1, is structurally required for significant cytotoxicity. (1)

- Bark is astringent and considered poisonous.
- Considered aphrodisiac, antidotal, laxative, wound healing.
- Studies have shown antimalarial, antioxidative, analgesic, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, sedative properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, wood, juice.


- Fruit is edible.
- White fruit reportedly eaten in East Africa.
- In the Rizal Province in the Philippines, charcoal of the wood is powdered and used as cicatrizant of wounds. Decoction of leaves used for cleaning wounds.
- Juice of leaves of paste of leaves with tobacco used to destroy worms in sores.
- Decoction of leaves used as laxative.
- Root, sometimes with the leaves, taken for venereal disease.
- In traditional African medicine, used in the treatment of epilepsy. (26)
- In tropical Africa, used as remedy for diarrhea. Root decoction given as drink to calm children and to help them sleep.
- In Rhodesia, roots used as aphrodisiac.
- In Tanzania, used as aphrodisiac and treatment of impotence. (25)
- In south-central
Zimbabwe, all plant parts used to treat frigidity, liver, bile, kidney, testicular inflammation, sterility, urinary and venereal diseases. Root extract drunk for treatment of pneumonia; drunk as contraceptive before sexual intercourse. Dried root powder applied to snake bites; root powder applied to wounds. (14)
- In West Ashantis, root used for gonorrhea.
- In
Tanzania and West Africa, used for malaria.
- In West
ern Uganda, roots and leaves used for sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction.
- Ewe people of Togoland used decoction of leaves internally for constipation.
- In
Kenya, roots used for malaria; root bark used for chest pains.
- In Northern Nigeria, root decoction used for treatment of mental illness.
- Tanning / Dye: Bark is used for tanning and as a black dye for matting.
Leaves also used for staining.
- Fuel: Makes a good fuel wood.
- Timber: Valued for use in houses and fence posts; as joists, rafters, and tool handles.
- Repellent: Pounded leaves used as insect repellent.

Cytotoxic Alkaloids / Leaves:
Study of leaves of Securinega virosa isolated two cytotoxic alkaloids, virosecurinine and viroallosecurinine as cytotoxic alkaloids from the leaves of Securinega virosa. (see constituents above) (1)
Anti-Diabetic / Leaves / Roots: Study of a methanol extract of Securinega virosa leaves on streptozocin-induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions of blood glucose levels on three different extract doses. (see constituents above) (2) An aqueous extract of roots of Securinega virosa lowered the area under the OGTT curve dose dependently at doses between 0.1 and 1.0 g/kbw. It did not lower blood glucose below fasting levels in both fed and
fasted state. (25)
Antidiarrheal: Study investigating the antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Securinega virosa on a castor oil-induced diarrheal model showed the leaves and root bark extract to possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea.
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study showed the methanol leaf extract had significant analgesic effect and moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemical screening revealed alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and resins. (4)
Behavioral Effects / Sedative / Sleep-Inducing: Study of methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent reduction of the onset and prolonged the duration of sleep. It also produced significant and dose-dependent motor coordination deficit in mice. Results suggest the root bark extract contains biologically active principles that are sedative.
Sedative Activity: Fractions from a methanolic bark extract exhibited sedative activity. Sedative properties could be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and other phytochemical constituents. (6)
Antioxidant / New Phenolic Glycosides: Study of leaves isolated one new flavonoid glycoside, 3-O-kaemferol 4-O-(galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside, a new bergenin derivative, 11-0-caffeoylbergenin, along with known flavonoids and phenolic derivatives. The isolated compounds showed quenching activity of DPPH radicals and a direct scavenging activity on superoxide anion. (7)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Toxicity Study: An aqueous extract of dried root showed significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg. Toxicity testing showed safety up to 10,000 mg/kg dose with no death in rats. (9)
Analgesic / Toxicity Testing / Roots: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of roots for acute toxicity and analgesic activity in Wistar rats. Acute toxicity tests showed it is generally safe. It showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of pain in the formalin test. (10)
Flueggines / Cytotoxicity: Study of twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa yielded fleuggines A and B, two dimeric indolizidine alkaloids. Flueggine B exhibited growth inhibitory activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. (11)
Hepatic Fibrosis Inhibition / Hepatoprotective: Study of an aqueous extractive from F. virosa on serologic markers in rats with hepatic fibrosis showed hepatoprotection, with reduction of enzyme levels, improvement of proteolipid, and inhibition of hepatic fibrosis. (13)
Antioxidative / Radical Scavenging Activity: In a study of South African plants for antioxidative activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay, acetone extracts of F. virosa showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 of 30 µg/ml closely matching ascorbic acid. (15)
Anti-Hepatitis C Dinorditerpenes / Roots: Study of roots yielded four known terpenoids and eight new dinorditerpenes (5-12). Compounds 1, 3, 11, and 12 exhibited significant anti-HCV activity. (16)
Antiproliferative / Triterpenoids: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of five purified compounds isolated from F. virosa. Bioassays were done on two cancer cell lines: adriamycin-sensitive erythroleukemia cells (K562) and adriamycin-resistant erythroleukemia cells (K562/Adr). Compound 5, betulinic acid, showed high cytotoxicity, with an antiproliferative activity independent of multidrug resistance phenotype exhibited by the K562/Adr cell line. (17)
Antifungal / Roots Bark: Study evaluated solvent extracts of Securinega virosa and A. leiocarpa for antifungal activity. S. virosa yielded polyterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, catechin, tannins, quinone substances and alkaloids. Results showed both plants possess compounds with good anticandical properties. (see constituents above) (18)
Bergenin / Sleep Promoting Effect / Root Bark: Phytochemical evaluation isolated bergenin from the root. It significantly decreased the mean onset of sleep without affecting the total duration of sleep. Results suggest sleep inducing property which could be partly responsible for the sedative potential of the root. (19)
Neuropharmacological Effects / Sedative and Anticonvulsant / Root Bark: Study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of an EA fraction of methanol root bark using in vivo animal models. Results showed the root bark contains bioactive principles with sedative and anticonvulsant activities. (20) Study showed a n-butanol fraction of root bark contained bioactive principle/s that possess anticonvulsant activities that may be beneficial against absence seizure. (26)
Behavioural Effects / Sedative / Root Bark: Study of methanol leaf extract possess biologically active principles that are sedative in nature. The leaf extract at highest dose tested (100 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) prolonged the duration of diazepam induced sleep. (22)
Antipsychotic and Sedative Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipsychotic potential of a methanol leaf extract using apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing behavior and swim-induced grooming tests in mice. CNS depressant effect was evaluated using ketamine-induced sleep test in mice. Results suggest the extract possesses antipsychotic and sedative potentials. (23)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant potentials of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic leaf extracts of Securinega virosa using DPPH radical scavenging assay. While all the extracts showed very good antioxidant activities, the ethanolic extract exhibited the best activity. (see constituents above) (27)
• Anti-Hepatitis C Virus / Twigs and Leaves: Study of twigs and leaves yielded a new terpenoid, 9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpane, 3β,10α-dihydroxy-12-methoxy-13- methyl-9(10→20)-abeo-ent-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraene (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). Compounds 1-6 were assessed for anti-HCV activity using cell-based HCV cell culture. Compounds 3-5 showed petter potencies than honokiol, a natural anti-HCV agent from Magnolia officinalis, with TI values of 6.8, 9.2, and 2.9, respectively. (28)
Antimalarial / Leaves: A methanol extract showed high antiplasmodial activity against both D6 and W2 Plasmodium falcifarum strains. (•) In Kenya, aqueous and methanol extracts from leaves of Securinega virosa showed antimalarial activity using CQ-resistant strain with IC50 of 25.52 µg/mL and 2.28 µg/mL, respectively. (29)
• Antimalarial / Bergenin / Leaves: Study evaluated leaves of Flueggea virosa for antimalarial efficacy and active principles. Crude hydroethanolic extract and solvent fractions were tested in vitro against Plasmodium falcifarum CQ sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) strains. All fractions exhibited potential activity (IC50s <10 µg/mL) against both strains. Bioactivity guided fractionation isolated bergenin as a major and active constituent (IC50 8.07 ± 2.05 µM) from the ethyl acetate fraction with inhibition of heme polymerization pathway of the malarial parasite as a possible chemotherapeutic target. (30)
• Simultaneous Quantification of Biomarkers Bergenin and Menisdaurin / Aerial Parts: Study reported on the simple, sensitive HPTLC method for simultaneous quantification of biomarkers bergenin and menisdaurin from aerial parts of Flueggea virosa. Percent recoveries for bergenin and menisdaurin were 98.7-99.4 and 99.5-99.9%, respectively and in FVME, percentage was 15.25 and 4.22% (w/w), respectively. The method suggests potential for standardization of herbal formulations as well as bulk drugs for bergenin and menisdaurin. (31)
• Flueggether and Virosinine / Anti-HIV Alkaloids: Study isolated two new alkaloids, flueggether A (1) and virosinine A (2) from Flueggea virosa. Both alkaloids showed mild in vitro anti-HIV activity. (32)
• Anthelmintic / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated leaf and bark extracts of Flueggea virosa for anthelmintic activity against Heamonchous contortous. Extracts showed the presence of reducing sugars, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. All extracts showed significant dose dependent anthelmintic potential. (see constituents above) (33)
• Antipsychotic / Root Bark: Study of residual aqueous fraction of methanol root bark extract using two experimental models (apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behavior and swim induced grooming) in mice showed antipsychotic potential attributed to the presence of biologically active principle. (34)
• Flueggethers B-D / Anti-HIV / Twigs and Leaves: Study isolated three new Securinega alkaloids, flueggethers B and C (1 and 1) as dimers and flueggethers D (3) as trimer, from the twigs and leaves of F. virosa. An invitro anti-HIV bioassay revealed moderate activity for flueggether D (3). (35)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated August 2018 / October 2015

IMAGE SOURCES: (1) File:Starr 020108-0011 Flueggea virosa.jpg / Flueggea virosa (habit thicket) / Forest & Kim Stasrr / 8 Jan 2002 / Creastive Commons/ Wikimedia Commons (3)Public Domain / File:Flueggea leucopyrus Bra54.png / D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874 / published by Kurt Stüber, http://www.biolib.de / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER MAGE SOURCES: (2) File:Starr 070111-3246 Flueggea virosa.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 11 January 2007 / Creastive Commons / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER MAGE SOURCES (3)Public Domain / File:Flueggea leucopyrus Bra54.png / D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874 / published by Kurt Stüber, http://www.biolib.de / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cytotoxic principles of Securinega virosa: Virosecurinine and viroallosecurinine and related derivatives / Hiroshi Tatematsu, Masami Mori et la / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 80, Issue 4, pages 325–327, April 1991 / Publ on Line 17 Sept 2006 / DOI: 10.1002/jps.2600800408
Anti-diabetic properties of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract / Y. Tanko, M A Okasha, G M Magaji et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (1), pp. 022-024, 4 January, 2008
Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) / Magaji MG, Yaro A H, Mohammed A et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (24), pp. 2752-2757, 17 December, 2007
Behavioural Effects of the Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega Virosa in Rodents / M G Magaji, J A Anuka, Abdu-Aguye et al / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008; 5(2): 147–153.
New phenolic glycosides from Securinega virosa and their antioxidant activity / Rokia Sanogo, Antonio Vassallo, Nicola Malafronte et al / Nat Prod Commun 4(12):1645-50 (2009) PMID 20120099

Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and anti- pyretic studies of aqueous extract of the root of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) in rats / J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu* et al / Int J Pharm Biomed Sci 2012, 3(3), 128-135
Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity and Analgesic Properties of Aqueous Extract of Flueggea virosa's Root in Rats / Joseph Obiezu Chukwujekwu et al / Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 5, No 1, 2013.
Flueggines A and B, Two New Dimeric Indolizidine Alkaloids from Flueggea virosa. /Organic Letters / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol201410z
Traditional herbal antimalarial therapy in Kilifi district, Kenya / J.W. Gathirwaa,b,∗, G.M. Rukungaa, P.G. Mwitaria, N.M. Mwikwabea, C.W. Kimania, C.N. Muthauraa, D.M. Kiboia, R.M. Nyangachaa, S.A. Omara / ournal of Ethnopharmacology 134 (2011) 434–442

Effects of Aqueous Extractive from Flueggea virosa(Roxb.ex Willd.) voigt.on Serological Markers in Rats with Hepatic Fibrosis / TANG Zhe,WEI Shao-xuan,LIAO Hou-zhi / Evaluation and Analysis of Drug-Use in Hospitals of China, 2011-07
Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives / Alfred Maroyi / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2013, 9:31 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-31
Radical Scavenging Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants From Limpopo Province of South Africa
/ AM Chauke, LJ Shai, PM Mphahlele, and MA Mogale / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012; 9(3): 426–430.
Anti-hepatitis C virus dinorditerpenes from the roots of Flueggea virosa. / Chao CH, Cheng JC, Shen DY, Wu TS. / J Nat Prod. 2014 Jan 24;77(1):22-8. / doi: 10.1021/np400528h. Epub 2014 Jan 8.
Identification and Antiproliferative Activity Evaluation of a Series of Triterpenoids Isolated from Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) / Sod Monkodkaew, Chatchanok Loetchutinat, Narong Nuntasaen and Wilart Pompimon / American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (10): 1800-1806, 2009
Antifungal Activity of Roots Barks Extract of Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill and Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr, Two Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Candidiasis in Northern Côte d'Ivoire / Kouangbé Mani Adrien*, Bahi Calixte, Tia Honoré, Boga Gogo Lucien, Edoh Vincent, Djaman Allico Joseph and N'Guessan Jean David / International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 8(1): 1-11, 2015
Isolation of bergenin from the root bark of Securinega virosa and evaluation of its potential sleep promoting effect / Mohammad Magaji; Aliyu Muhammad Musa; Musa Abdullahi; Jamilu Ya'u, Isa Marte Hussaini / Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Neuropharmacological studies on ethyl acetate fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract / Magaji Mohammed Garba*, Yaro Abdullahi Hamza, Musa Aliyu Muhammad, Anuka Joseph Akpojo, Abdu-Aguye Ibrahim and Hussaini Isa Marte / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 7(6), pp. 275-279, 15 February, 2013
Chemical Constituents from Flueggea virosa / WANG Guo-Cai, LIANG Jie-Ping, WANG Ying, LI Qian. YE Wen-Cai / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 2008/ 6:4, pp 251-253 / DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1009.2008.00251
Behavioural studies on the methanol leaf extract of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) in mice
/ O. M. Aiyelero*, S. N. Abdu-Aguye, A. H. Yaro and M. G. Magaji / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Vol. 4(2), pp. 12-15, March 2012
Psychopharmacological Potentials of Methanol Leaf Extract of Securinega virosa Roxb (Ex Willd) Baill. in Mice / M.G. Magaji, Y. Yakubu, R.A. Magaji, A.M. Musa, A.H. Yaro and I.M. Hussaini / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: pp 855-859 / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.855.859 
Flueggea virosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
Some Pharmacological Properties of An Aqueous Extract of Securinega Virosa Roots
/ Mainen J. Moshi, Modest C. Kapingu, Febronia C. Uiso, Zakaria H. Mbwambo & Rogasian L.A. Mahunnah / Pharmaceutical Biology, 38(3): pp 214-221 / DOI: 10.1076/1388-0209(200007)3831-SFT214
Anticonvulsant activity of butanol fraction of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa Roxb (ex Willd) Baill. in laboratory animals / M. G. Magaji, A. H. Yaro, A. M. Musa, J. A. Anuka, I. Abdu-Aguye and I. M. Hussaini / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, July 2013; 7(28): pp 2128-2135 / https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.1209
The Antioxidant Potentials and Phytochemical Properties of the Hexane, Ethyl acetate and Ethanolic Extracts of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves / Uzama Danlami, Bwai Machan David, Orijajogun Omohu Joyce, Olajide Olutayo and Sunday Asuquo Thomas / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, May, 2013; 3(05): pp 131-133 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.3525
Chemical Constituents from Flueggea virosa and the Structural Revision of Dehydrochebulic Acid Trimethyl Ester / Chih-Hua Chao, Ying-Ju Lin, Ju-Chien Cheng, Hui-Chi Huang, Yung-Ju Yeh, Tian-Shung Wu, Syh-Yuan Hwang and Yang-Chang Wu / Molecules 2016, 21, 1239 / doi:10.3390/molecules21091239
In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plants from western Burkina Faso / Souleymane Sanon, Adama Gansane, Lamoussa P Ouattara et al / African Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 2013; 2(1): 81 / doi:  10.4102/ajlm.v2i1.81
Antimalarial activity and safety assessment of Flueggea virosa leaves and its major constituent with special emphasis on their mode of action. / Singh SV, Manhas A, Kumar Y, Mishra S, Shanker K, Khan F, Srivastava K, Pal A / Biomed Pharmacother., May 2017; 89: pp 761-771 / doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.02.056
Simultaneous Quantification of Biomarkers Bergenin and Menisdaurin in the Methanol Extract of Aerial Parts of Flueggea virosa by Validated HPTLC Densitometric Method / Nasir A. Siddiqui, Perwez Alam,  Adnan J. Al-Rehaily, Mai M. Al-Oqail, Mohammad Khalid Parvez / Journal of Chromatographic Science, 1 May 2015; Volume 53, Issue 5: pp 824–829 / https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmu231
Flueggether A and Virosinine A, Anti-HIV Alkaloids from Flueggea virosa / Hua Zhang, Kong-Kai Zhu, Ying-Shan Han, Cheng Luo, Mark A Wainberg, and Jian-Min Yue / Org. Lett., 2015, 17(24): pp 6274–6277 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b03320
Phytochemical Screening and Anthelmintic Activity of Flueggea virosa / Muhammad Ajaib, Samdah Qayyum Wahla, Usman Ghani Wahla, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shahnaz Perveen and Shazia Shah / J.Chem.Soc.Pak., 2018; Vol 40, No 04
Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice / Magaji M, Mohammed M, Magaji R, Musa A, Abdu-Aguya I, Hussaini I / Metabolic Brain Disease, March 2014; Vol 29, Issue 1: pp 161-165 / DOI: 10.1007/s11011-014-9483-x
Flueggethers B–D, Securinega alkaloids with rare oligomerizing pattern from Flueggea virosa / Hua Zhang, Ying-Shan Han, Mark A Wainberg, Jan-Min Yue / Tetrahedron Letters, 2016; 57(16): pp 1798-1800

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT