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Family Asteraceae / Compositae
Adenostemma lavenia (Linn.) O. Kuntze

Ma zhi hu

Scientific names Common names
Adenostemma lavenia (Linn.) O. Kuntze Añgañgit (Ig.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. typicum J.Kost. Boton (Tag.)
Verbesina lavenia Linn. Bulak-manok (Tag., Pamp.)
Infraspecific taxa Boton (Tag.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. angustifolium (Am.) J.Kost. Dolomnena-babaii (If.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. elatum (D.Don) Hochr. Panikit (Bon.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. latifolium (D.Don) Panigrahi. Salindukot (Buk.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. microcephalum (DC.) J.Kost. Ubat-lastung (Sul.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. reticulatum (DC.) Panigrahi Adenostemma (Engl.)
Adenostemma lavenia var. rugosum (DC.) Ram Lal Common medicine plant (Engl.)
  Dung weed (Engl.)
  Sticky daisy (Engl.)
Bulak-manok is a local common name shared by (1) Adenostemma lavenia, boton, dungweed, and (2) Ageratum conyzoides, billy goat weed.
Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze is an accepted name. PLANTS OF THE WORKD ONLINE

Other vernacular names
CHAMORRO: Bulak-manuk, Chaguan-chiba, Chaguan-manuk
CHINESE: Ma zhi hu.
HAWAIIAN: Kamanamana
HINDI: Jangli-jira.
INDONESIAN: Legetan warak, Rumput babi, Udu tai,
KERALA: Karimpata.
KONKANI: Ghanerem.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Tigtoni, Pisirokot.
MANIPURI: Lalulok.
SPANISH: Mama juana, Tia juana
THAI: Yieo muu.
VIETNAMESE: Co mich, Cuc dinh, Cham la lon, Tuyen hung.

Gen info
- Adenostemma is a genus of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, first described in 1775, and widespread in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, Australia, the Americas, and some oceanic islands. As of 2020, Plants of the World lists 23 accepted species. (10)

Boton is an erect, smooth or hairy, annual, slender or rather stout herb 0.3 to 1 meter in height. Leaves are thin, opposite, the upper ones alternate, oblong to broadly ovate, and 5 to 15 centimeters long, with a pointed apex, and entire or scalloped margins. Inflorescence is lax, the heads 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter. Flowers are very small and white, with the corolla hairy near the mouth. Fruit is an achene, rough or covered with wrinkles, crowned by a glandular ring bearing 3 to 5 club-shaped, short lobes.

- In open, wet places along streams, in forests and thickets, from sea level to an altitude of 1,800 meters, in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Quezon and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Culion, Catanduanes, Camiguin de Misamis, and Mindanao.
- Pantropic.
- Also reported in China, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Micronesia, and Polynesia..

- Study of volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts by steam distillation yielded 0.990%. GC-MS identified 35 chemical compounds accounting for 99.56% of the volatile oil. The main components were: α-cubebene (32.62%), caryophyllene (24.97%) and γ-elemen (5.53%). Other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were α-caryophyllene, α-chamigrene, bicyclo [4,3,0]-7-methylene-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-vinyl nonane, γ-terpinene, d-limonene, α-pinene and 2-carene. (1)
- Leaves yield essential oil and alkaloids.
- Proximate analysis of roots, stems, and leaves yielded 8.27% water, 11.52% protein, 5.67% fat, 17.32% ash. (7)
- The diterpenoid ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (11αOH-KA) is a major ingredient. (see studies below)

- Considered stimulant, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, sternutatory.
- Studies have suggested anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, anti-melanogenic, anti-aging properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, juice.


- Leaves are edible, abut bitter. In Bali, combined with other vegetables. (6)
- In the Philippines, leaf preparation used as antispasmodic and the leaf juice as stimulant.
- In La Reunion, leaves are used as antispasmodic; the fresh juice as stimulant and sternutatory.
- The Malays use the plant for poultices to apply to the head and ulcerations of the nose; also used in diarrhea.
- In Malacca, decoction of roots used for stomachaches.
- In the Dutch Indies, lotion of leaves used to arrest baldness; paste of leaves used as poultice for sun-burned skin; scorched leaves are applied to ulcers and to help ripen boils.
- In
Taiwan, whole plant used to treat lung congestion, pneumonia, edema and inflammation.
- Juice of the plant used for dysentery; along with Centella asiatica and Phyllanthus niruri, used for colic.
- Leaf chewed with a little areca nut and some lime to treat coughs.
- Leaves used in washing hair to prevent falling hair.
- In
Kerala, leaves used as antiseptic; fresh juice used as stimulant and sternutatory. (5) The Kunchia tribes of Vythiri talik apply the leaf juice externally for wound healing. (9) The whole plant is ground, mixed with a half-glass of water and drunk for 6 days for treatment of stomach ulcers. (14)
- In Mizoram, India, leaf paste applied to cuts and wounds, insect and caterpillar bites. ()
- Salted leaves used for sore throats.
- Root or the plant is chewed to stop diarrhea.
- In Taiwan folk medicine, used for treating lung congestion, edema, pneumonia, and inflammation.
- In
Malaysia root decoction used for stomach ache. Poultice of crushed leaves and stems applied for headaches and ulcerations of the nose. Boiled leaves rubbed on the skin to relieve itching. (6)
- Decoction of whole plant used as folk remedy for inflammatory disorders, such as hepatitis and pneumonia. (8)
- In Indonesia, used for treating fever, cough, sore throat, and thrush illness. ()
- Dye: A. viscosum used in the preparation of indigo dye.
- Fodder: Leaves used as feed for pigs. (6)

Kaurane-type Diterpenes / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded ten 11-oxygenated kauran-19-oic acids and their nine glycosides, paniculosides II and III and adenostemmosides A-G. ent-11α-Hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and adenostemmoic acid B showed cytotoxic activity against L-5178Y cultured cell and prolonged the survival of mice. (2)
Anti-Melanogenic / 11αOH-KA / Leaves: Adenostemma lavenia has been reported to contain
OH-KA. Study evaluated the anti-melanogenic activities of water extracts of A. lavenia leaves and Pteris dispar leaves and compared in mouse B15F10 melanoma cells. C57BL/6J mice were treated with A. lavenia leaf extract. While plant extracts showed high anti-melanogenic activities, only A. lavenia contained high amount of 11αOH-KA, approximately 2.5% of dry leaf weight. Treatment of mice with the water extract suppressed pigmentation in their hairs. The activity was attributed to 11αOH-KA., a new material in oral cosmetics. Results potential in the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Amelioration of Acute Lung Injury / p-Coumaric: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate fractions (EAAL) in vitro and in models stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and lung injury in mice. EAAL reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses. Preoral EAAL alleviated LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissue and inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and protein concentrations in BALF. EAAL prevented expression of inducible iNOS and COX-2, activated anti-oxidant enzymes in LPS-stimulated cells and lung tissues. HPLC showed p-coumaric acid to be a major constituent. Results suggest EAAL is a potential therapeutic agent to treat inflammatory disorders. (12)
Anti-Aging Effect / 11αOH-KA: 11αOH-KA is known for a wide spectrum of biologic activities, such as antitumor, antimelanogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Study evaluated the anti-aging and antioxidative signals in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (yeast) and mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Water and chloroform extracts showed antioxidant properties in vitro. Extracts and 11αOH-KA conferred resistance to H2O2 to S. pombe and B16F10 cells and extended yeast lifespan in a concentration dependent manner. Results suggest 11αOH-KA and extracts may protect yeast and mammalian cells from oxidative stress and aging. Study suggests possibility that the materials may be of benefit in treating COVID19 patients because A. lavenia extracts and NRF2 activators have been reported to alleviate symptoms of pneumonia in model animals. (13)


Updated March 2021 / June 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Adenostemma viscosum / Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, Compose?es, vol. 189(1): p. 203 (1960) [n.d.] / Illustration contributed by the Misouri Botanical Garden / Plant Illustrations
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Adenostemma viscosum auct. non R.E. Fr. [as Ageratum strictum Sims] / Curtis�s Botanical Magazine, vol. 50: t. 2410 (1823) [J. Curtis] / Plant Illustrations

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil in Adenostemma lavenia (L.) O. Ktze. / Yang Yong-li, Guo Shon-jun et al / Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 2007-04 / DOi: CNKI:SUN:RYZB.0.2007-04-014
Kaurane-Type Diterpenes from Adenostemma lavenia O. KUNTZE /
Adenostemma viscosum / GLOBinMED
Adenostemma platyphyllum / Common names / PIER
BOTANICAL STUDIES IN THE MEDICINAL PLANT CONSERVATION AREAS IN KERALA / N. Sasidharan S. Chand Bhasha C. Renuka / KFRI Research Report 99, Sept 1004
Adenostemma viscosum / PROSEA
Characterization of the chemical composition of Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze and Adenostemma platyphyllum Cass / A Fauzan, D Praseptiangga et al / IOP Conference Series, Eartth and Enviromental Science, 2018; Vol 102, 012029
The High Content of Ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic Acid in Adenostemma lavenia (L.) O. Kuntze Leaf Extract: With Preliminary In Vivo Assays / Akie Hamamoto, Ryosuke Isogai, Miwa Maeda, Shigeo Takashima, Hiroshi Takemori et al / Foods, 2020; 9(1) / https://dpo.prg/10.3390/foods9010073
Medicinal plants used by the tribes of Vythiri taluk, Wayanad district (Kerala state) for treatment of human and domestic animal ailments / A G Devi Prasad, T B Shyma / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, May 2013; 7(20): pp 1439-1451 / ISSN: 1006-0875 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.841
Adenostemma / Wikipedia
Adenostemma lavenia / Synonyms / Plants of the World Online
p-Coumaric Acid Containing Adenostemma lavenia Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury by Activating AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling and Improving the Antioxidant Response / Jian-Jung Chen, Jeng-Shyan Deng, Chung-Chun Huang, Pei-Ying Li, Guan-Jhong Huang et al / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2019; 47(7): pp 1483-1506 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X19500769
The Antiaging Effect of Active Fractions and Ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid Isolated from Adenostemma lavenia (L.) O.Kuntze at the Cellular Level / Irmanida Batubara, Rika Indri Astuti, Muhammad Eka Prastya, Auliya Limiawati, Hiroshi Takemori et al / Antioxidants, 2020; 9(8) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080719
Plants used by the tribes for the treatment of digestive system disorders in Wayanad district, Kerala / A G Devi Prasad, T B Shyma, M P Raghavendra / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, Aug 2013; 3(8): pp 171-175 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.3830

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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