Botoncillo is an erect, branched, pubescent annual,
the branches more or less thickened and often purplish at the
nodes. Leaves are opposite, petioled, oblong acute or obtuse,
7 to 11 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, densely crowded in globose heads,
the heads are white, pink or purple, solitary, peduncled, 1.5
to 2 centimeters in diameter, subtended by 2 bracts. Bracteoles are 8
to 10 millimeters long, enclosing the flowers, lateral, keeled. Sepals,
pubescent, 5, lanceolate, cleft at the tip, usually without staminodes.
Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style short or long, stigmas 2. Fruits are utricles, compressed, and indehiscent.
- In settled areas throughout
- Plant yield flavones and flavonoid glycosides, gomphrenol.
- Flower yields ß-cyanins, gomphrenin I, II, and III.
- Leaves yield methylenedioxyflavonol-gomphrenol.
Study yielded a triterpenoid saponin (gomphrenoside-1), an new hopane
derivative along with known compounds.
- Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars and coumarins. (7)
- Phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts yielded one new triterpenoid saponin (gomphrenoside) and one new hopane derivative (hopan-7ß-ol) along with known compounds, ß-sitosterol-ß-D-glucoside and 1-triacontanol. (11)
- Sweet tasting, antitussive, antiasthmatic.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anticancer, cytotoxic properties.
· Collect the head inflorescence during May to October, during
the flowering season.
- Flowers mixed with various kinds of tea or steeped alone.
- Knob petals can be eaten as vegetable.
- Decoction of dried material or 10 inflorescences used for bronchial asthma, acute and chronic
bronchitis, whooping cough.
- Decoction of fresh plant used to wash sores.
- Flower decoction used for inflammation of the eyes, difficulty urinating, headaches, and dysentery.
- In Trinidad and Tobago,
used for diabetes and for high blood pressure, jaundice, oliguria and
other kidney problems and as heart tonic. (3)
- In Myanmar, decoction
of plant used for cough.
- In the Guianas, whole plant infusion of the white-flowered variant used as diabetes remedy. Warm infusion of leaf used as sudorific.
• Betacyanins: Rapid Identification
of Betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus
polyrhizus: Natural betacyanins are studied for its
potential as food colorants and antioxidants. Fourteen free and acetylated
betacyanins were identified. (1)
• Antihypertensive / Low Cytotoxicity: Study of ethanol extract of leaves showed low cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp bioassay and no antimicrobial activity. It promoted a hypotensive effect by significant reduction in arterial blood pressure without change in heart rate. (7)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Crude methanol extract of G. globosa showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Its hexane soluble fraction showed highest activity. On brine shrimp lethality assay, the chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanol extract showed highest lethality. (8)
• Hypoglycemic / Cytotoxicity: In a study of various fractions, an n-hexane soluble fraction showed significant lowering of blood glucose level in a mice model. Glibenclammide was used as standard drug. (9)
• Antioxidant / Flowers: In a study of various extracts of flowers, a methanol extract showed a high content of phenols and flavonoids. It showed potent free radical scavenging activity in the H2O2 and DPPH assays. (10)
• Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma / Aerial Parts: Study investigated the anticancer activity of chloroform extract of aerial parts of GG against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) induced solid tumor. Results showed a significant anti-cancer activity restoring hematological and biochemical parameters toward normal, with histological evidence of significant reduction of tumor volume. Acute toxicity study showed the extract was non-toxic up to 2000 mg/kbw. (13)
• Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated a methanolic extract for anti-diarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice. Results showed statistically significnt anti-diarrheal activity at a dose of 400 mg/kbw. Loperamide was the standard anti-diarrheal drug. (14)
- Supplements and tea in the cybermarket.