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Family Amaranthaceae
Botonsilyong gapang
Gomphrena celosioides C. Mart.
GOMPHRENA WEED
Ji guan qian ri hong

Scientific names Common names
Gomphrena alba Peter Botonsilyong-gapang (Tag.)
Gomphrena celosioides C. Mart. Bachelor's button (Engl.)
Gomphrena decumbens var. albiflora (Chodat) Stuchlik Globe amaranth (Engl.)
Gomphrena globosa L. subsp. africana Stuchlik Gomphrena weed (Engl.)
Gomphrena lutea Rusby Khaki weed (Engl.)
  Prostrate globe amaranth (Engl.)
  Soft khaki weed (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ji guan qian ri hong, Yin hua xian.

Botany
Botonsilyong-gapang is a prostrate or sprawling annual plant about 20 to 60 centimeters long, with fleshy taproots. Stems are striate and hairy, the older ones smooth. Leaves are simple, and opposite, 2 to 4 centimeters long and tapering on both ends. Flower stalk bears white globose, ovoid, or cylindrical heads, densely covered with persistent white bracts giving the entire cluster an elongated look.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in waste places, along roadsides, and in moist grassland areas of Luzon.
- Introduced after World War II.
- Native of Brazil.
- Note: As a weed, it has already infested wide areas in Luzon. In seed production, the herb creeper compares to Cyathula prostata which produces 2000 sounds per plant at seeding time.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, and tannins.
- EA and methanol extracts yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylpropenoate. (see study below) (9)
- Study of EA and ME yielded secondary metabolites which included alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides, and reducing sugars. (16)
- Study of dried whole plants extracted by Soxhlet with n-hexane isolated aurantiamide and auratiamide acetate. (see study below) (4)
- In a study of primary metabolites, the maximum levels of soluble sugars, lipids, and phenols were found higher in the stem, starch and proteins in roots. (see study below) (5)

- Study for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins steroids, glycosides, and reducing sugars.
- Fractionation of methanol extract yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylpropenoate. (see studies below) (9)
- Study for proximate composition and vitamins content of various parts showed moisture, ash and crude fiber as highest in the stem (64.20±0.14, 8.26±0.00 and 18.66±0.01) respectively. Total protein and fat contents were highest in the leaf (0.44±0.00 and 0.52±0.00) respectively. Carbohydrate was highest in the root (33.21±0.63). Vitamins A and C were highest in the leaf (1.96±0.01 and 1.68±0.01) respectively. (14)

Properties
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-urolithiatic properties.

Parts used
Whole plant.

Uses

Edibility
- Study for proximate composition and vitamin content of various parts suggest they are very nutritious and can contribute significantly to human health requirements. (see constituents above) (14)
Folkloric
- No reported medicinal used in the Philippines.
- In southern
Nigeria, used for treatment of skin diseases, worm infections and infectious diseases.
- In
South America, plant is utilized as abortifacient. Decoction of whole plant, together with G. globosa, applied to gangrenous wounds.
- In
Trinidad and Tobago, plant used to treat diabetes, hypertension, kidney problems, and as heart tonic. (3)
- In
Africa, used for treatment of jaundice and malaria.
- Whole plant juice along with Piper nigrum and lemon juice taken twice daily for 10 days to cure urolithiasis. (15)


Studies
Anthelmintic / Antibacterial:
Study evaluated EA and methanol extracts for anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic activities against Pheretima posthuma, Fasciola gigantica, and Taenia solium, comparable to reference compound piperazine citrate. Extracts also showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited higher anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. (2)
Aurantiamide / Antibacterial: Study of dried whole plants extracted by Soxhlet with n-hexane isolated aurantiamide and its acetate. The compounds were active against microorganisms even at very low concentrations. (4)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the primary metabolites and antimicrobial activities of G. celosioides against clinical isolates E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. A methanolic extract of leaf, stem, and root were most effective against the three test bacteria; the root showed significant activity against P. aeruginosa, and stem and leaves were maximum against E coli.(See constituents above) (5)
concentrations. (5)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study showed hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats. Possible mechanism of hepatoprotection could be due to antioxidant action in flavonoids. (6)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of aqueous leaf extract of Gomphrena celosioides showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rat and mice, using the hot plate latency test and acetic acid induced writhing for analgesic evaluation and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema for anti-inflammatory evaluation. (8)
Antimicrobial / Anthelmintic / 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) Methylpropenoate: An EAE and ME showed inhibitory activity on S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. typhi. ME was active against C. albicans, A. niger and Trichophyton spp. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed activity against Fasciola gigantica, Taenia solium, and Pheretima posthuma. Fractionation of the ME yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) methylpropenoate which showed mild antimicrobial activity against test organisms. (9)
Antioxidant / Acute Toxicity Testing: In vitro study showed an aqueous extract of Gc to possess strong free radical scavenging activity, low reducing power, and strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In vivo, the extract showed strong reducing power similar to vitamin C. The value of 1000 mg/kg as a slightly toxic substance shows the EA extract orally is almost not toxic. Intraperitoneally, it is slightly toxic. (10)
Antifungal: Various extracts of G. celosioides were evaluated at different concentrations on Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. A methanol extract had fungicidal effect on the selected fungal isolates at concentration of 2000 µg/mL. Results suggest a potential natural source for the treatment of fungal diseases. (11)
• Extraction of Essential Oil by Green Extraction Technique: Study reports on super critical fluid extraction process which yielded a pure product with no need of additional solvent to extract bioactive ingredients from the herbs. Highest yield of essential oil was equal to 4.21gm/100gm. Results suggest a potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries to obtain highly pure essential oil using optimized conditions. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides, terpenes and reducing sugars provides good anti-fungal and antibacterial activity. (13)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of ME of G. celosioides leaves in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in male Wistar rats. Results showed dose-dependent gastroprotective activity which was attributed possibly to the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. (17)
• Phytoremediative Potential / Heavy Metals: In a study of 12 plant species growing around the tailing dam of a gold mine, Gomphrena celosioides was one of five plants with BAF (Bioaccumulation Factor) and TF (Translocation Factor) >1 that showed applicability in extraction of studied heavy metal-polluted soils. (18)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of G. celosioides utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema and CRP concentration in rat. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 200 mg/kbw of both extracts, comparable to Diclofenac 10mg/kg. There was increased CRP concentration (p<0.05). The ethanol extract showed more activity than the aqueous extract. (19)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated May 2017 / November 2014
March 2013


IMAGE SOURCE: Gomphrena celosioides / File:Gomphrena celosioidesRHu3.jpg / File:Amanita muscaria After Rain.jpg / Meneerke bloem / 16 November 2009 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Gomphrena celosioides C. Mart. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China

(2)
Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Gomphrena celosioides (C. Mart.) Extracts / Onocha P A, Ajaiyeoba E O, Dosumu O O, and Ekundayo O / NISEB Journal 5(2):61-67
(3)
Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus
/ Cheryl A Lans / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2:45 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-45
(4)
Isolation of Aurantiamides from Gomphrena Celosioides C. Mart
/ Omotayo Olutola Dosumu, Patricia Onocha, [...], and Muhammad Ali / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research : IJPR, 2014 Winter; 13(1): 143-147
(5)
STUDY OF PRIMARY METABOLITES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GOMPHRENA CELOSIOIDES MART. / NEHA SHARMA* AND REKHA VIJAYVERGIA / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2011
(6)
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of Gomphrena celosioides (amaranthaceae) on wistar rats intoxicated with tetrachloride carbon / Maxime Machioud SANGARE; Jean Robert KLOTOE; Victorien DOUGNON; Jean-Marc ATEGBO; Anatole LALEYE; Patrick EDORH; Lauris FAH; Maximin SENOU; Frédéric LOKO; Karim Laye DRAMANE / International Journal of Current Research
(7)
Biological Potential and Phytopharmacological Screening of Gomphrena Species / Y Arsia Tarnam, *M H Muhammad Ilyas, T Nargis Begum / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Jan 2014; 3(1):58-66
(8)
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF Gomphrena celosioides AND Momordica charantia / G. M. OLADELE, M. O. ABATAN, J. O OLUKUNLE, B. S. OKEDIRAN / ASSET, An International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Sciences, Environment and Technology, Vol 8, No 2 (2009)
(9)
Isolation of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylpropenoate and bioactivity evaluation of Gomphrena celosioides extracts / Dosumu, O. O., Ekundayo, O., Idowu, P. A., Onocha, P. A. /
EXCLI Journal 2010;9:173-180
(10)
ANTIOXIDANT IN VIVO, IN VITRO ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT AND ACUTE TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GOMPHRENA CELOSIOIDES (AMARANTHACEAE) / Meite Souleymane et al / The Experiment, 2014, Vol.23 (3)1601-1610
(11)
Antifungal Activity of Gomphrena celosioides (Soft Khaki Weed) on Selected Fungal Isolates / Abalaka ME,Adeyemo SO,Okolo MO,Damisa D /
Journal of Current Research in Science 2013
(12)
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
Extraction of Essential Oil from Gomphrena Celosioides by Green Separation Technology / A. K. Tiwari, S.R. Geed, R.S. Singh, B.N. Rai / International Journal of Basic and Applied Biology, Volume. 2 No. 2, November 2014. pp. 18 – 22
(14)
Proximate Composition, Vitamin and Anatomical Studies on Gomphrena celosioides / C. V. Ilodibia*, F. U. Ewere, E. E. Akachukwu, R. N. Adimonyemma, N. A. Igboabuchi and N. F. Okeke / ARRB, 10(3): 1-6, 2016 / DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25546
(15)
Medicinal plants of Muzaffarnagar district used in treatment of urinary tract and kidney stones / Prachi, N Chauhan, D Kumar & MS Kasana* / Indian Journal Of Traditional Knowledge, Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 191-195
(16)
Biological Potential and Phytopharmacological Screening of Gomphrena Species / Y Arsia Tarnam, *M H Muhammad Ilyas, T Nargis Begum / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Jan 2014; 3(1): pp 58-66
(17)
Gastroprotective Effect of Garlic in Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats / Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Eman G. Khedr, Hoda A. El-Bahrawy, Hend M. Selim / International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research (2015) Vol 5, Issue 1; pp 41-45.
(18)
The Potential of Bioaccumulation and Translocation of Heavy Metals in Plant Species Growing around the Tailing Dam in Tanzania / Mganga, Nyatwere D. / University of Dar es Salaam Research Repository / URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1602
(19)
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Gomphrena celosioides Linn. / Konan, Gogahy; Edwige, Aka Ayebe; Dodehe, Yeo; Allico, J Djaman; Adou, F Yapo; Jean, D N’guessan; Houphouet, F Yapi / International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 2015 5(2): 127-134.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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