HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Myrtaceae

Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn) G. Don ex Loudon

Scientific names Common names
Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn) G. Don ex Loudon Bottlebrush (Engl.)
Melaleuca viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn) Byrnes Red bottlebrush (Engl.)
Metrosideros viminalis Sol. ex Gaertn Red cascade (Engl.)
  Weeping bottlebrush (Engl.)
Callistemon viminalis is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Treur botteborsel.
FINNISH: Norjalamppuharja.
HINDI: Cheel.
MARIPURI: Barap lei.

Gen info
The genus Callistemon belongs to the family Myrtaceae, which consists of about 24 species characterized by cylindrical brush0like flowers resembling the traditional bottlebrush. (26)

Bottle brush is a shrub to a small tree, growing to a height of 5 meters, with numerous, long, slender and drooping branches. Leaves are light green, narrow lanceolate, up to 5 centimeters long. Spikes are 7- 8 centimeters long. Flowers are bright red in dense cylindrical spikes.

- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- Grows well in Baguio City.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Native to Australia.

- A study in India showed the leaves of Callistemon viminalis yielded an oil: 1,8-Cineole (61.7%), -pinene (24.2%) and methyl acetate (5.3%) were the major components.
- Study leaves for essential oil yielded
14 compounds, representing 98.94% of the total oil; the major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). (see study below) (11) 
- GC-MS analysis of n-hexane extract of Callistemon viminalis leaves yielded 40 compounds. Major compounds were 2,5,5,6,8a-pentamethyl-trans-4a,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-gamma-chromene (27.60%), (10E,12E)-10,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (11.62%), Z-7-tetradecenal (4.98%), 1,3-cyclohexadiene (3.97%). (see study below) (9)
- Studies have the plant to be rich in phenolics, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, tannin, carbohydrates, amino acids, and protein compounds. (26)
- Leaf essential oil yields 1,8-cineole (47.9% -82.0%) as the predominant constituent. (26)
- Methanolic extract of leaves isolated sic compounds for the first time, three are new flavonoids namely: 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1->2)-α-L-arabinoyranosyl)]-3'-O-methylquercetin (1), 5,7,3',4' tetrahydroxy isoflavone-7-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl (1'''-6'')-O-ß-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (2) and 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (6) along with three known ones, hyperoside (3), rutin (4) and isoquercitrin (5). (see study below) (30)
- Study of fruits and bark isolated one new compound, 3,4-dihydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)4--methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ol (5) along with known compounds lupeol (1),octacosanol (2), ß-sitosterol (3), betulin (4), betulinic acid (6), ursolic acid (7), corosolic acid (8), ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside (9), methyl gallate (10), gallic acid (11), catechin (12), ellagic acid (13) and 3-O-acetylursolic acid. (14). (see study below) (31)

Considered antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic
, hemostatic, diuretic.
• Studies have shown anthelmintic, anti-quorum sensing, insecticidal, anti-infective, antibacterial, molluscicidal, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation properties.

Parts utilized

- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used as diuretic and for relieving problems of the urinary tract. Used by women as douche to cleanse the genitourinary tract from excessive menstruation or mucosal discharge as leukorrhea. Used for urinary incontinence and bed-wetting in children. (10)
- In Jamaica, decoction used as "hot tea" treatment of gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and skin infections (11)

• Anti-quorum sensing: Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing (QS) is believed to control the pathogenesis of many bacterial organisms. C. viminalis is one of several plants studied that showed to possess anti-QS activity, a potential new direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. (3)Extracts of plants, including C viminalis, caused the inhibition of QS genes and QS-controlled factors with marginal effects on bacterial growth, suggesting the quorum-quenching mechanisms are unrelated to static or cidal effects. (7)
• Anthelmintic activity:
In veterinary studies: The anthelmintic activity of the essential oils of Callistemon viminalis against earthworms and tapeworms has revealed it to exhibit in vitro efficacy better than piperazine phosphate. The activity of these oils against hookworms was comparable to that of hexyl resorcinol (Garg & Kasera, 1982).
Study yielded two novel epimeric compounds, viminadione A and viminadione B, Viminadione A exhibited moderate insecticidal activity. (5)
One of three plants screened for inhibition of opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that showed reduction in toxin production and mortality and suggests a potential for anti-infective development. (6)
Chemical Composition / Antibacterial: Study on chemical composition and antibacterial activity yielded 12 components from the leaves of CV. The major components were 1,8-cineole and a-pinene. The oils exhibited inhibition against S faecalis, S aureus, B cereus, S marcesens.
Antioxidant / Hemolytic Effect / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant potential and oil composition of leaves. A n-hexane extract yielded 40 compounds, with appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27-0.85 GAE mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25-7.96 CE mg/g). A methanolic extract exhibited higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power on DPPH assay. Hemolytic effect of the leaves was found in the range of 1.79-4.95%. (see constituents above) (9)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated water and alcoholic extracts of leaves of C. viminalis in vitro against ten pathogenic bacteria. Results showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytaci, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli). (10)
Essential Oil from Leaves / Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study evaluated leaves for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Essential oil of leaves yielded 14 compounds. Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparable to gallic acid as standard. Essential oil also showed the highest zone of bacterial inhibition compared to standard tetracycline. Crude methanol extract and EA fraction showed significant antibacterial activity. (see constituents above) (11)
Antimicrobial: Various extracts were tested against eight common bacteria and one fungus. All plant extracts sowed antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms; the methanol extract was most effective. The aqueous extract was effective as bactericidal agent against intestinal pathogens.     (12)
Molluscicidal: Methanol extracts of C. viminalis bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. C. viminalis fruit extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. The site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland. (13)
Betulinic Acid / Anti-Platelet Aggregation: Betulinic acid isolated from Callistemon viminalis in combination with oleanolic acid from Syzygium aromaticum showed significant platelet inhibitory activity on epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. (14)
• Molluscicidal Activity / Fruit, Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extracts of C. viminalis fruits, bark and leaves for molluscicidal activity. Fruits, bark, and leaves showed LC50 of 6.2, 32, and 40 ppm, respectively. Fruit extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. (16)
• Anti-Drepanocytosic Activity / Anti-Sickling: In a study of various plants for anti-drepanocytosic, ethyl acetate crude extracts of C. viminalis showed high antisickling activity. The anti-sickling activity of studied extracts was attributed to betulinic acid, betulinic acid acetate, oleanolic acid, and maslinic acid. (17)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer Activity / Leaves: Study identified antioxidant and anticancer compounds in C. viminalis leaf extracts and its anticancer activity against liver cancer cell lines by inhibiting STAT3 protein. (18)
• Silver Dimer Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports on the use of aqueous extract of C. viminalis leaves as bioreductant for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of extract reduced nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against four strains viz. E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia and S. typhimurium. (19)
• Callistemenonone A / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study isolated a new acyphloroglucinol including an unprecedented dearomatic dibenzofuran core, callistemenonone A, from the leaves of C. viminalis. The potent exerted potent bactericidal activity against a panel of methicillin resistance pathogenic microbes. (20)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anticancer / DOR and FT Inhibitors:
DOR (delta-opioid receptors) and FT (farnesyl transferase) inhibitors can obstruct various intracellular pathways affecting inflammation and cell proliferation. Study reports on the in-silico studies of anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties of C. viminalis derived natural compounds viz. α-terpineol, catechin, methyl gallate and ellagic acid. These compounds have shown excellent binding energy and inhibitory constant for DOR and FT. (21)
• Inhibitory Effect on Non-Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma / Leaves: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of C. viminalis crude leaf extract against A549 non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma. All concentrations of the leaf extract inhibited A549 non-small cell lung adenoCA with an IC50 of 23.21 µg/ml with percent inhibition proportional to extract concentration. (22)
• Bunsenite NiO Nanoparticles: Study reports on P-type Bunsenite NiO powders produced via biosynthesis and heat treatment using aqueous extracts from red flowers of C. viminalis. Results suggest a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to preparing Nickel oxide nanosized powders with potential for a variety of energy storage applications. (23)
• NiO Nanoparticles / Pseudocapacitor Applications / Flowers: Study reports on a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of Nickel oxide nanoparticles synthesis using aqueous extracts of flowers from Callistemon viminalis, with potential for a variety of energy storage applications. (24)
• Larvicidal / Repellent / Essential Oil from Leaves: Study evaluated the insecticidal, larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from Callistemon viminalis, M. leucadendron, and H. suaveolenss against Chrysodeixis chalcitesss and compared it to neem oil. The essential oil from leaves showed higher biological activity than neem with 100% larval mortality at 2 µg/ml for 6 h. (25)
• Acylphloroglucinols / Callistenones / Leaves: Study of leaves isolated 11 acylphloroglucinols, including six new ones named callistenones F-K (1-6), along with five known congeners. All isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity and growth inhibitory activity against four tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460. SF-268, and HepG2. (27)
• Anti-Breast Cancer / Antiangiogenic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-breast cancer. antiangiogenic, and antioxidant potential of of methanol extracts of leaves of Cassia occidentalis, Callistemon viminalis, Cleome viscosa, and Mimosa hamata. All the extracts exhibited cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, with C. viminalis IC50 of 44 ± 0.19 µg/ml. In the CAM model, all extracts exhibited significant antiangiogenic activity by inhibiting blood vessel density, with most efficient activity exhibited by C. viminalis (67.76 ± 0.77%). All plants showed considerable antioxidant activity. (28)
• Hematite Iron Oxide Nanoparticles / Biologic Activities: Study reports on the use of aqueous floral extracts for the synthesis of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The magnetic nature of the bioinspired IONPs were revealed by superconducting quantum interference device. Antibacterial potential was evaluated against pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. The IONPs were highly effective against HepG3 cells (IC50=20 µg/mL). There was also moderate antileishmanial activity against promastigote and amastigote cultures. Moderate acetylcholinesterase (AchE), butylchlinesterase (BchE) and a-glucosidase inhibition were reported. Results showed the biogenic and magnetic Fe2O3 can be used for diverse biomedical applications. (29)
• Cytotoxicity / Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Leaves: Study isolated new compounds from methanol extract of leaves and evaluated them for cytotoxic and hepatoprotective potentials. The methanolic extract showed strong cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line) and weak hepatoprotective effect. (see constituents above) (30)
• Antioxidant / Fruits and Bark: Study of fruits and bark isolated one new compound, 3,4-dihydro-2-(hydroxymethyl) 4-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ol (5) along with 13 known compounds. Total extracts, petroleum ether, CH2Cl2 and EtOAc fractions along with compounds 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 showed antioxidant activity comparable with standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. (see constituents above) (31)
• Antidiabetic / Sucrase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of leaves extracts of five Callistemon bottle brush plants i.e. Callistemon lanceolatus, C. rigidus, C. viminalis, C. comboynensis, and C. viridiflorus using Sucrase enzyme inhibitory activity. C. rigidus decreased the activity of sucrase enzyme by 63.05 ±3.43 followed by C. viminalis at 61.21 ± 3.65. Both untreated and heat-treated aqueous bottlebrush extracts significantly inhibited sucrase enzyme. The activity was attributed several factors or mechanisms i.e., fiber or polyphenolic concentration.
The sucrase inhibitory activity may be due to the presence of flavonoid diglycosides hydrolyzable tannins. (32)
• Antifeedant Activity / Flour Beetle Tribolium confusum: Study evaluated the antifeedant activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Callistemon viminais plant essential oil against flour beetle, Tribolium confusum. Results showed the essential oil of E. camaldulensis and C. viminalis may potentially provide novel antifeedant activity to effectively control T. confusum along with minimum hazards for human. (33)

- Cultivated.

Updated January 2021 / March 2018 / October 2014

                                                   PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon viminalis from South Africa / Opeoluwa O Oyedeji et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 1990-1998; doi:10.3390/molecules14061990

Essential oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves from India / S. K. Srivastava, Ateeque Ahmad, K. V. Syamsunder, K. K. Aggarwal, S. P. S. Khanuja
Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by South Florida plant extracts / Allision Adonizio et al / Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 2

Possible Role of Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Use of Botanical Anthelmintics / JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & SOCIAL SCIENCES . 1813–2235/2005/01–2–187–195
New Insecticidal Tetradecahydroxanthenediones from Callistemon viminalis
/ Bhupinder P S Khambay et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1999, 62 (12), pp 1666–1667 / DOI: 10.1021/np990056a
Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by medicinal plants in a Caenorhabditis elegans model system / Allison Adonizio et al / J Med Microbiol, 2008; 57(7): pp 809-813 / DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47802-0
Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida / Allison L. Adonizio, Kelsey Downum, Bradley C. Bennett and Kalai Mathe / Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Vol 105, Issue 3, 24 May 2006, Pages 427-435 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.02 /

Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G.Don ex Loudon / The Plant LIst
Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves / Muhammad Zubair, Sadia Hassan, Komal Rizwan, Nasir Rasool, Muhammad Riaz, M. Zia-Ul-Haq, and Vincenzo De Feo / The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/489071
Studying of antibacterial effect of leaves extract of Callistemon viminalis in vitro and vivo (urinary system) for rabbits / Afrah. J. Abd / Journal of Kerbala University , Vol. 10 No.2 Scientific . 2012
Evaluation of extracts and essential oil from Callistemon viminalis leaves: antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. / Salem MZ, Ali HM, El-Shanhorey NA, Abdel-Megeed A. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013 Oct;6(10):785-91. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60139-X.
Antibacterial and antifungal analysis of crude extracts from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis. / Chenielle Delahaye, Lois Rainford, Alison Nicholson, Sylvia Mitchell, John Lindo, Mohammed Ahmad / Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009
Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails / Ahmed A Gohar *, Galal T Maatooq, Sahar R Gadara, Walaa S Aboelmaaty and Atef M El-Shazly* / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 13 (2): pp 505-514
Platelet-Aggregation Inhibitory Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Ursolic Acid, Betulinic Acid, and Maslinic Acid /
Ibrahim T. Babalola, Francis O. Shode*, E. A Adelakun, Andy R.Opoku, Rebamang A. Mosa /Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Volume 1 Issue 6
Weeping bottle brush / Common names / Flowers of India
Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails / Ahmed A Gohar, Galai T Maatooq, Sahar R Gadara, Walaa Aboelmaaty, and Atef M El-Shazly / Iran J Pharm Res. 2014 Spring; 13(2): pp 505–514.
Phytochemical and anti-drepanocytosis studies of Cajanus cajan, Callistemon viminalis, Melaleuca bracteata var. Revolution Gold and Syzygium guineense. / Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey / Thesis, 2010: Master of Science, Univ of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa / http://hdl.handle.net/10413/8113
Evaluating anti-oxidant potential of Callistemon viminalis leaves extracts and their compounds in STAT 3 pathway in liver cancer / K Ahmad / Annals of Oncology, Volume 28, Issue suppl_10, 1 November 2017 / https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx652.013
Extracellular synthesis of silver dimer nanoparticles using Callistemon viminalis (bottlebrush) extract and evaluation of their antibacterial activity / Rahisuddin, Akrema / Thesis
Callistemenonone A, a novel dearomatic dibenzofuran-type acylphloroglucinol with antimicrobial activity from Callistemon viminalis / Yu-Qinq Xiang, Hong-Xin Liu, Li-Yun Zhao, Zhi-Fang Xu, Hai-Bo Tan & Sheng-Xiang Qiu / Scientific Reports, 2017; Vol 7, Article no 2363 / doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02441-5
Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Callistemon viminalis Derived Natural Compounds as Targeted Inhibitors Against δ -Opioid Receptor and Farnesyl Transferase
/ Ahmad Kamal, Roouf Bhat Abdul, Athar Fareeda Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, Volume 14, Number 4, April 2017, pp. 488-499
The Inhibitory Effect of Callistemon Viminalis (weeping bottle brush) Crude Leaf Extract Against A549 Non-Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma. / Abdusattar T Abduraup, Carmela P Alcos, Chrmia Kim G Balansag, Pearl Niza Angeli A Benigno, Kristine Hope Y Cabigon et al / Thesis, April 2015 / Cebu Institute of Medicine
Physica l & Electrochemical Properties o f Green Synthesized Bun senite NiO Nanoparticles v ia Callistemon Viminalis’’ Extracts / B.T. Sone, X.G. Fuku, M. Maaza** / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 11 ( 2016 ) 8204 – 8220 / doi: 10.20964/2016.10.17
Green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Callistemon viminalis’ extracts & their potential for psuedocapacitor applications / B T Sone, X G Fuku and M Maaza / J Nanomed Nanotechnol / 7th World Nano Conference, June 20-21, 2016 Cape Town, South Africa
Larvicidal activity of Neem oil and three plant essential oils from Senegal against Chrysodeixis chalcites(Esper, 1789) / Saliou Ngom, Raimundo Cabrera Perez, Ma Anta Mbow, Rokhaya Fall, Saliou Niassy, Andreea Cosoveanu, Serigne Mbacke Diop, El Hadji Barka Ndiaye, Moussoukhove Diop, Georges Lognay / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2016); Vol 8, Issue 1: pp 67-72 / DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221140
Medicinal and biological values of Callistemon viminalis extracts: History, current situation and prospects / Mohamed Z M Salem, Hosam O Olansary et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, March 2017; 12(3): pp 229-237 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.03.015
Acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis / Hong-Xin Liu, Sheng-Xiang Qiu et al / Fiteropia, Oct 2016; Vol 114: pp 40-44 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2015.08.010
Evaluation of anti-breast cancer, anti-angiogenic, and antioxidant properties of selected medicinal plants / Sonali S Kamble, Rajesh N Gacche / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, Jan 2019, Vol 25: pp 13-19 / DOII: https://doi.org10.1016/j.eujim.3028.11.006
Biosynthesis of pure hematite phase magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using floral extracts of Callistemon viminalis (bottlebrus): their physiical properties and novel biological applications / Zabta Khan Shinwari , Dilawar Hassan, Ali Talha Khalil, Jabran Saleem, Abdullah Diallo, Saleh Khamlick / Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 2018; 46(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1434534
Phytochemical and Cytotoxicity Studies of Callistemon viminalis Leaves Extract Growing in Egypt / Amal H Ahmed / Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2020; 21(3): pp m210-225 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666191107110341
One new pyrroline compound from Callistemon viminais (Sol. ex. Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon / A A Gohar, G T Maatooq, S R Gadara and W S Aboelmaaty / Natural Products Research, 2013; 27(13) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.718771
In-vitro evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of bottle brush plants / Mohamed I S Abdelhady, Mahmoud Youns / Research & Reviews in Biosciences, 2014; 9(4): pp 134-136 / ISSN: 0974-7532
Chemical composition and antifeedant activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Callistemonm viminalis on Tribolium confusum / H Fatemeh, S Moharramipour / Internatiional Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2017; 13(3): pp 413-424 / ISSN: 2630-0192

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL