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Family Arecaceae

Buñga
Areca catechu L.
BETLE NUT PALM
Bin lang

Scientific names   Common names
Areca alba Rumph. Areca nut (Engl.) 
Areca catechu Linn. Boa (Ilk., It., Ign.)  
Areca cathechu Burm. f. Bua (Ibn., Pang.)  
Areca hortensis Lour. Buñga (Tag.)
Bin lang (Chin.) Dapiau (Iv.)  
  Hua (It.)  
  Lugos (Sul.) 
  Luyos (Pamp.)  
  Pasa (Yak.)  
  Takobtob (Bik.) 
  Va (Ital.)  
  Areca nut palm (Engl.)
  Betel nut palm (Engl.)  
  Betel quid (Engl.)  
  Ta Fu-p'i (Chin.)
  Bin lang zi (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Fûfal, Fofal, Kawthal, Tânbûl.
ARMENIAN: Arygn.
BURMESE: Kunthi Pin Kun
CHINESE: Da fu zi
DUTCH: Arecanoot, Arecapalm, Betelnoot, Betelnootpalm, Betelpalm, Pinangboom, Pinangnoot.
FINNISH: Arekapalmu.
FRENCH: Aréquier, Noix D´arec, Noix De Bétel.
GERMAN: Arekanuss, Arekapalme, Betelnüsse, Betelnuß Palme, Betelpalme
GUJARATI: Sopaadii, Topaarii
HINDI: Supaadii, Supaarii, Supari.
INDIA: Supari.
ITALIAN: Areca, Avellana D´india, Noce Del Betel, Noce Di Arec, Noce Di Betel, Palma Arec.
JAPANESE: Areka Yashi, Binrou, Binrouju.
KHMER: Phla, Sa la.
MALAY: Kavugu, Pinang, Pinang Sirih, Pokok Pinang, Pucuk (Indonesia).
NEPALESE: Supaarii
PERSIAN: Popal.
PORTUGUESE: Areca Catecú, Arequeira, Arequiera, Noz De Areca, Noz De Bétele.
RUSSIAN: Areka Katekhu, Arekovaia Pal´ma, Betel´naia Pal´ma, Pal´ma Katekhu.
SINHALESE: Puwak.
SPANISH: Areca, Bonga, Nuez De Areca, Nuez De Betel, Palma Catecu.
SWEDISH: Betelnöt, Betelpalm.
TAMIL: Bakkumaroma, Kamugu, Kathakambu
THAI: Khet, ma, mak, Mak Mia, mak Mu, mak Song.
URDU: Supaadii.

Gen info
Areca nut is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, chewed regularly by at least 10% of the population, with high prevalences in South and Southeast Asia.

Botany
Bunga is an erect, solitary tree growing to 25 meters high, and marked with annular scars. Leaves about 3 to 4 meters long with numerous leaflets, 60 to 90 centimeters long, the upper ones confluent. Spadix is much branched and compressed, with the branches filiform above, bearing very numerous, somewhat distichous male flowers which are yellow and about 5 millimeters long. Female flowers are at the base of the branches and in axils, about 1 centimeter long or more. Fruits are ovoid, smooth, orange or red when ripe; 4 to 6 centimeters long, with a somewhat fleshy pericarp and fibrous mesocarp.

Distribution
- Cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines.
- Spontaneous in some places.

- Possibly native of the Philippines.
- Also occurs in the Old World Tropics generally, and has been introduced into the New World.

Constituents
• First seed analysis was reported to have been performed in 1886 by Bombelon, who isolated a liquid volatile alkaloid given the name arecaine.
• Alkaloids - arecaine, 0.1%, arecoline, 0.2%, arecaidine, arecolidine, guvacoline, guvacine, isoguvacine; tannin, 15%; red fat, 14%; resin; choline; catechu.
• An analysis of Philippine betel nuts reported the tannin to be located almost entirely in the kernel; the husk containing only traces. As the green nut ripens, the amount of tannin in the kernel decreases.
• The kernel yields gallic acid and a gum.
• Fruit flesh on seed contains the alkaloid arecoline with psychoactive properties and chewing produces euphoria, increased alertness, sweating, salivation.
• Contains a large quantity of tannin. Also contains gallic acid, a fixed oil gum, a little volatile oil and lignin.
• Study yielded arecholine, choline, arecaine, aricaidine, catechu, guavacin and a-catechin.
• The tannin is located almost entirely in the kernel which decreases as the nut ripens.
• Four alkaloids: arecoline, arecain, guracaine and another in very small amounts.
• Arecoline resembles pilocarpine and muscarine in its effect.
• Other alkaloids in betel nut are arecaine, guvacoline and guvacine.
• Also contains phenolic compounds: hydroxychavicol and saffrole 12, tannin, resin, cholic and catechu.

Properties
• Young seeds are laxative.
• Vermifuge mature seeds for
expelling tapeworms.
• Young nuts astringent from the tannic and gallic acids.
• Fresh nut is somewhat intoxicating and produces giddiness in some
persons. This was reported as early as 1563 in Malacca by Garcia de Orta.
Dried
nut is stimulant, euphoriant, astringent, taeniafuge, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiseptic, wound healing, antifertility, abortifacient, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective.
Increases the flow of saliva, sweetens the breath, strengthens the gums and produces mild exhilaration.
• Aromatic, cooling, emmenagogue, purgative, digestive, diuretic, laxative, astringent, antifungal, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant.
• Considered anticonvulsant, oxytoxic, antifertility, anthelmintic, antiviral, antiulcer.
• Arecholine is a highly toxic substance, and its pharmacologic action resembles that of muscarine, pelletierine and pilocarpine. It violently stimulates the peristaltic movements of the intestine, produces constriction of the bronchial muscles which can be overcome by adrenaline or atropine. It is a
powerful sialagogue and stimulates sweat secretion.
• Arecholine considered to have wound healing activity
; also considered anthelmintic.

Parts used and preparation
Kernel

Uses
Edibility
· Cabbage (ubod) is edible, raw as salad or cooked.
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, the buyo is regarded as tonic and general stimulant, but harmful with excessive use which can cause loss of appetite, salivation, and general degeneration of the organism.
· Fruit in decoction considered abortifacient, the nut as an emmenagogue.
· Tender seeds used as purgative; grated ripened ones as vermifuge. Externally used as astringent.
· Sprains, bruises, contusions - Crush leaves, mix with a little coconut oil, warm and apply on affected area.
· Tooth whitener: Carbonize and powder a kernel and rub on teeth.
· Tapeworm infestation: 1 glassful of 5% decoction as enema to be retained for one hour. Also, decoction of kernels boiled 20-30 minutes; for less than 12 years of age, 6 kernels (30 g); over 12 years old, 10-12 kernels (50-60 g); for adults, 16-18 kernels (80-90 g). The bunga may be mixed with kalabasa, boil for 1 hour, maintaining 2-glass volume for oral intake.
· In excess, nuts can cause vomiting and diarrhea; intoxicating to some.
· Young nut is useful in bowel complaints. Tincture used as astringent gargle, and when diluted with water, useful for bleeding gums and may be used for stopping water discharges from the vagina. It is also used for stopping the pyrosis (heartburn) of pregnancy.
· Dried nut is stimulant, astringent and taeniafuge. It increases the flow of saliva; sweetens the breath, strengthens the gums and produces mild exhilaration.
· Fruit in decoction considered abortifacient.
· In Ayurvedic medicine, the nut is used for headaches, fever and rheumatism.
· In China, used to treat parasitic infection. Also, used for dyspepsia, constipation, beriberi and edema. The bark is used for choleraic affections, for flatulence, dropsical and obstructive diseases of the digestive tract.
· Ointment made from finely powdered catechu and lard used for chronic ulcerations.
· In southern India, dried fruits are powdered and heated with coconut oil and applied topically on burns.
· Fruit mixed with juice of Commelina benghalensis and stem juice of Canna indica and applied topically on wounds
· In Malaya, young green shoots are used as abortifacient in early pregnancy.
· In India, juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used externally for lumbago. Also used for urinary disorders and reported to have aphrodisiac properties.
· In traditional medicine n India, nut used in treating skin ulcers.
· In Keral and Tamil Nadu states of India, nut extract is a popular remedy for migraine headaches.
· In the rural areas of
Dakshima, Kannada, husk fibers are used for cleaning teeth.
· In India and China the areca nut has been used as anthelmintic since time immemorial.

· In the Materia Medica of ancient China, the betel nut is considered masticatory, dentrifice, and vermifuge.
· I
n Indo-China, Punjab, and Cashmere, the kernel of the fruit is one of the constituents of the general masticatory of the East - the "betel" or pan.
Others
· Betel chewing: In the Philippines, as well as in Indo-Malayan and Polynesian regions, the Areca nut is extensively used for chewing with lime and
ikmo leaves (Piper betel) or litlit (Piper retrofactum).
· Poison: In the Dutch East Indies the root is shredded, steeped in water and pounded to extract the juice, and used as poison in food or drink.



Studies
Antioxidant:
It has been long believed that the areca seed is a carcinogen causing buccal cancer, an effect that comes from N-nitrosoamine from chewing. The study also showed the seed has strong radical-scavenging antioxidant benefit. The water and methanol extracts of the seeds in various ages show a higher % tannin and total phenols than other parts of the tree extracts.
Wound Healing:
Study on different wound models in Wister rats showed the alkaloid and polyphenols could be used to enhance healing of skin graft surgery, leg ulcers and burn wounds.
Anti-Aging:
A study showed that Areca catechu extract (CC-516) had anti-aging effects – improving skin hydration, skin elasticity and skin wrinkles suggesting a potential use for cosmetics.
Anti-Schizophrenic Effects:
(1) Study results indicate that betel chewing may exert a beneficial effect on the primary symptoms of schizophrenia, attributed to the pharmacologic effect of the abundant betel nut alkaloid, arecoline. (2) Study results indicate betel chewing is associated with less severe symptoms of schizophrenia. (3) Male high-consumption betel chewers had
significantly milder positive symptoms than low-consumption chewers over 1 year. Betel chewing was associated with tobacco use but not with cannabis or alcohol. It was not associated with global health, social functioning or movement disorders.
Betel Quid Effects: (1) Areca alkaloids act as competitive inhibitors of g-aminobutyric acid receptors in the brain, cardiovascular system and pancreas, possibly increasing the appetite or altering insulin secretion. (2) BQ components induce keratinocytes to secrete tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 which may provoke chronic inflammation. The muscarinic action of arecoline, the most abundant betel nut alkaloid, is the most promising pharmacologic explanation for the beneficial effect.
Nitrosated Compounds / Arecal Alkaloids / Diabetogenic / Metabolic Effects: Nitrosated derivatives of arecal alkaloid, proven carcinogens in animals, also increase the risk of tumors in man. Nitrosated compounds are also diabetogenic in mice producing type2 diabetes with central obesity with increases in markers of inflammation and cardiovascular damage.
Metabolic Syndrome Association: Report shows BQ chewing has detrimental effects on selected components of the metabolic syndrome and induction of inflammatory cytokines and factors, possibly increasing the risks for the development of the metabolic syndrome. Study showed
a higher incidence of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dysglycemia and metabolic syndrome among betel quid chewers than non-chewers.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study on A. catechu showed an anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced edema in mice and rats. On analgesic activity, the crude extract showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on formalin-induced nociception in mice and acetic acid-induced writhing in rats, similar to aspirin. In DPPH assay, it showed free radical scavenging activity.
Reducing Power / Antiradical Activity: In the study, the methanolic extract of A. catechu exhibited strong antiradical activities and reducing power. The extract yielded a significant amount of phenols and flavonoids.
Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Cancer Risk in Betel Chewers: Study showed an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer among betel chewers free of hepatitis B/C infections. Risks were synergistically additive to those of hepatitis B/C infections.
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study showed aqueous extracts from seeds of A. catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl4.
• Anti-Fatigue Effects: Study showed the water and methanol extracts of A. catechu and betel quid could prolong swimming time of mice, decrease the concentration of serum nitrogen and lactic acid, increase the liver glycogen content of mice after swimming.
• Arecoline / Colonic Motility Effects: Study showed arecoline enhanced the contraction of the longitudinal smooth muscle rat colon in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that arecoline increases colonic motility via the M3 receptor, which depends on the influx of Ca2+.
• Anovulatory / Abortifacient Effect
s: Study of ethanol extract of A. catechu showed a significant decrease in the duration of estrus and a significant increase in proestrus. In the evaluation of its abortifacient effect, the mean percentage of abortion was significantly increased.
Molluscicidal: Studies have shown strong molluscicidal activity against harmful snails for control of fascioliasis.
• Suppression Effects on Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal: Study showed the dichlormethane fraction was effective in alleviating withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice, one of the most common signs used to assess the severity of morphine withdrawal. The fraction also inhibited MAO-A and acted as anti-depressant, increasing bioavailability and enhanced neurotransmission of monoaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the brain. Activation of these systems reduce the severity of opiate withdrawal.

Antioxidant: Study showed the antioxidant activities of water and methanolic extracts of seeds using DPPH assay showed greater inhibition than root and adventitious root. The methanolic extract of unripe seeds showed higher phenolic and total flavonoid content than other parts. Results showed areca nut extracts to have the potential to prevent oxidative damage in normal cells.
Memory and Learning Benefits / Arecoline: Study evaluated the effect of wet and dry A. catechu extracts on learning and memory in rats. Wet A. catechu extract showed greater increase in spatial memory and learning. The effect was attributed to a higher amount of arecoline in the wet extract.
Wound Healing: An ethanolic extract of kernel was prepared into a 2% ointment form and evaluated in a rat model with induced burn wounds. Results showed significant increase in wound contraction rate.
Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated the antifertility effect of an alcoholic A. catechu in male albino rats. Results showed dose-dependent 50% to 100% reduction in fertility at 300 to 600 mg/kg bw doses respectively.. Testes histology showed reduction in secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, reduction in Leydig cells and increase in diameter of seminiferous tubules.
Antifungal: Study evaluated husk fibres for antimicrobial properties. An alcoholic extract of husk fibers showed dose-dependent inhibitory effect against Candia albicans. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts did not show significant antibacterial activity. The practice of using husk for routine oral care probably improves oral health through mechanical cleansing rather than an antimicrobial effect.
Anti-Migraine Potential: Study showed a nut extract exhibited significant inhibition of iNOS, possibly the mechanism for its anti-migraine activity, giving some support for its folkloric use.
Antidepressant Activity: Study evaluated the antidepressant activity of A. catechu nut ethanol extra ct. The nut extract and aqueous fractions exhibited antidepressant activity in both acute and sub-chronic forced swim tests. Saponins of the areca nut was considered the active component for the antidepressant action. Sub-chronic treatment with extract caused toxic effects, whereas active aqueous fractions causes no toxicity, Results conclude the nut possesses potential antidepressant effect through elevation of serotonin and adrenaline.
Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study evaluated several extracts of A. catechu leaf in Wister rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. All the extracts significant exhibited anti-diabetic activity; the methanol extract was the most active.
Airborne Areca Catechu Pollen and Asthma: Study showed A. catechu pollen to be a significant contributor to the aeroallergen load in India. Its partially purified IgE-reactive fraction could be useful in treatment. The nut extract showed remarkable cross-reactivity with the pollen.
Long-Term GI Effects: Study in rats showed prolonged chewing of areca nut caused significant alterations in intestinal epithelial cell line functions and could lead to malabsorption of nutrients.
Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of various parts of medicinal plants using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Results showed the methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxics.

Concerns
Cancer
- Risks of mouth cancer in chronic chewers.
- Studies have suggested concerns for the development of OSF (oral submucous fibrosis) and oral submucous cell carcinoma.
Pregnancy
- Not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Risk of spontaneous abortion.



Availability
Wildcrafted.


Last Update February 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE Areca catechu / File:Areca catechu Blanco2.350.png / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.)/ 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Areca catechu / Betel nut palm
(2)
The study of antioxidant capacity of various parts of Areca catechu L. / Penpun Wetwitayaklung et al / Naresuan University Journal 2006; 14(1):1-14
(3)
Wound Healing Profile of Areca Catechu Extracts on Different Wound Models in Wistar Rats / Shamina Azeez et al / Kuwait Medical Journal 2007, 39 (1): 48-52
(4)
The Effects of Areca Catechu L Extract on Anti-Aging / Kun Kook Lee and Jung-Do Choi / International Journal of Cosmetic Science • Volume 21 Issue 4, Pages 285 - 295
(5)
Effects of cheweing betel nut on the symptoms of people with schizophrenia in Palau, Micronesia / Roger J Sullivan et al / British Journ of Psychiatry, 2000, 177, 174-178

(6)
Areca Nut Chewing Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome / Fu-Mei Chung, Dao-Ming Chang et al / DOI: 10.2337/dc06-0628
(7)
Free Radical Scavenging Effect ofEthanol Extract from Areca catechu / Byung-Yong Ahn / J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 52(1), 92-95 (2009)
(8)
Metabolic effects of the consumption of Areca catechu / B J Boucher and N Mannan / Addiction Biology (2002) 7, 103± 110 / DOI: 10.1080/13556210120091464
(9)
Contents of Phenolics and Alkaloids in Areca catechu Linn. during Maturation / Chin-Kun Wang et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45 (4), pp 1185–1188 / DOI: 10.1021/jf960547q
(10)
Studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of betel nut in rodents / Khan S, Mehmood MH, Ali AN, Ahmed FS, Dar A, Gilani AH. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 9.
(11)
Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences / Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products
Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-42, Sep-Oct 2009
(12)
The Effects of an Indigenous Muscarinic Drug, Betel Nut (Areca catechu), on the Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Study in Palau, Micronesia / Roger J. Sullivan, Ph.D., Sylvia Andres et al / Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:670–673
(13)
Impact of chewing betel-nut (Areca catechu) on liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma-: a population-based study from an area with a high prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections / Grace Hui-Min Wu, Barbara J Boucher et al / Public Health Nutrition: 12(1), 129–135 doi:10.1017/S1368980008002073
(14)
Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria / Pimolpan Pithayanukul, Saruth Nithitanakool and Rapepol Bavovada / Molecules 2009, 14, 4987-5000; doi:10.3390/molecules14124987
(15)
Study on anti-fatigue effects of areca catechu extracts in mice / HE Shuang LI Zhong-hai ZHONG Hai-yan XIONG Guo-hong / Food & Machinery, 2009-02 / DOI CNKI:SUN:SPJX.0.2009-02-022
(16)
Effects of Arecoline on Colonic Motility in Male Rats / Dong-Ping Xie, Mei-Chih Chen et al / Clinical Molecular Medicine 1(1): 24-29, 2008
(17)
Antiovulatory and Abortifacient Effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in Female Rats / Jyoti Shrestha, Tara Shanbhag, Smita Shenoy et al / Indian Journ of Pharmacol, Oct 2010, Vol 42, No 5, Pp 306-311.
(18)
Suppressive effects of dichloromethane fraction from the Areca catechu nut on naloxone-precipitated
morphine withdrawal in mice
/ Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Niwat Keawpradub et al / Fitoterapia 76 (2005) 534–539

(19)
Areca catechu L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(20)
Areca catechu (Areca Palm) / Common names / Zipcodezoo
(21)
Areca catechu L.: A Valuable Herbal Medicine Against Different Health Problems / Preetee Jaiswal, Pradeep Kumar, V.K. Singh and D.K. Singh / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5: 145-152. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2011.145.152
(22)
Betel nut (Areca catechu) consumption and the induction of glucose intolerance in adult CD1 mice and in their F1 and F2 offspring. / Boucher BJ, Ewen SW, Stowers JM. / Diabetologia. 1994 Jan;37(1):49-55.
(23)
Antioxidant activity and the effect of different parts of areca catechu extracts on Glutathione-S-Transferase activity in vitro / doi:10.5530/ax.2011.1.6
(24)
Pharmacological investigation of Areca catechu extracts for evaluation of learning, memory and behavior in rats / *Madhusudan Joshi, Kavita Gaonkar, Sneha Mangoankar, Sneha Satarkar / International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 2012, 1(6): 128-132
(25)
Areca catechu: Effect of topical ethanolic extract on burn wound healing in albino rats / Deepak Kumar Verma, Masuram Bharat, Deepak Nayak, Tara Shanbhag*, Venkatesh Shanbhag, Ravindra Singh Rajput / International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences September 2012 Vol.1 Issue 3 74-78
(26)
ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU IN MALE ALBINO RATS / Sajala Kafl1, Tara Shanbhag,* Smita Shenoy, Arul Amuthan, Krishnananda Prabhu, Sheethal Mohan, Somayaji SN, Jyoti Shrestha / nternational Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 10, Issue 1, September – October 2011
(27)
Antimicrobial Properties of Areca catechu (areca nut) Husk Extracts against Common Oral Pathogens
/ Maji Jose et al / ijrap 3(1), Jan-Feb 2012
(28)
Evaluation of anti-migraine potential of Areca catechu to preventnitroglycerin-induced delayed inflammation in rat meninges: Possibleinvolvement of NOS inhibition / Amol Bhandare et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 136 (2011) 267–270
(29)
Potential antidepressant activity of Areca catechu nut via elevation of serotonin and noradrenaline in the hippocampus of rats / Abbas G, Naqvi S, Erum S, Ahmed S, Atta-ur-Rahman, Dar A. / Phytother Res. 2013 Jan;27(1):39-45. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4674. Epub 2012 Mar 23.
(30)
Antidiabetic activity of Areca catechu leaf extracts against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
/ Suvankar Mondal, Sanjib Bhattacharya*and Moulisha Biswas / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2 (1) 10-17 (2012).
(31)
Clinico-immunochemical studies on airborne Areca catechu L. Pollen, a probable risk factor in emergency asthma hospitalization from Eastern India / Chakraborty P, Mandal J, Sarkar E, Chowdhury I, Gupta-Bhattacharya S. / Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149(4):305-14. doi: 10.1159/000205576. Epub 2009 Mar 17.
(32)
Effect of betel/areca nut (Areca catechu) extracts on intestinal epithelial cell lining / Kumar M, Kannan A, Upreti RK. / Vet Hum Toxicol. 2000 Oct;42(5):257-60.
(33)
In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line. / Anajwala CC, Patel RM, Dakhara SL, Jariwala JK. / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Apr;1(2):245-52.


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