HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum cainito Linn.

Niu nai guo

Scientific names Common names
Cainito pomiferum Tussac Kaimito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum bicolor Poir. Kayimit (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum caeruleum Jacq. Kaymito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum cainito Linn. Kayumito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum jamaicense Jacq. Caimito (Tag., Span.)
Chrysophyllum maliforme L.. Caymito (Bis.) 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenum Spreng. Breast milk fruit (Engl.)
Cynodendron bicolor (Poir.) Baehni Golden leaf tree (Engl.)
  Milk fruit (Engl.)
  Star apple (Engl.)
  Star plum (Engl.)
Chrysophyllum cainito L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Hnin-thagya.
CAMBODIAN: Plae teuk dos ko.
CHINESE: Niu nai guo.
CZECH: Zlatolis obecny.
DANISH: Stjerneæble.
DUTCH: Apra, Goudblad boom (Surinam), Sterappel.
FRENCH: CaimitIer, Pomme surette, Kaymit, Macoucou, Pomme de lait, Pomme étoilée.
GERMAN: Sternapfel, Sternapfelbaum.
INDONESIA: Sawo ijo, Sawo hejo, Sawo kadu.
JAPANESE: Hoshi ringo, Kaimito, Kainitto, Miruku furuutsu, Suishougaki, Sutaa appuru.
LAOTIAN: Nam nom.
MALAYALAM: Swarnapathry.
MALAYSIAN: Sawu duren, Pepulut.
NIGERIAN: Agbalumo, Udara.
PORTUGUESE: Ajara, Cainito.
RUSSIAN: Zevezdnoe iabloko, Chrizofillum.
SIERRA LEONE: Bobi wata.
xSINGAPORIAN: Chicle durian.
SPANISH: Ablaca, Aguay, Caimitero, Caimito, Guyabillo, Olivoa, Pipa, Sapotillo.
THAI: Sataa appoen.
VIETNAMESE: C[aa]y v[us] s[uwx]a, Vu sura.

Caimito is a tree with a spreading crown, growing to a height of 15 meters. Branches are numerous and slender, the young tips are copper-colored and covered with appressed hairs. Leaves are leathery, ovate or oblong, 7.5 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, blunt or rounded at the base and covered underneath with silky, golden-brown, soft hairs. Flowers are purplish-white, small and clustered in the axils of leaves, with 5 sepals, and a tubular corolla with 5 lobes. Fruit is large and rounded, 6 to 10 centimeters in diameter, shiny and smooth, purplish or light-green skin, with a translucent whitish or purplish, soft pulp surrounding flattened seeds about 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. The flesh, contains a small amount of milky juice, somewhat fibrous, sweet, mild and pleasant tasting.

- Cultivated for its edible fruit and as an ornamental tree.
- Recently introduced from tropical America.

- Seed contains saponin, 0.19%; pouterin, 0.0037%; a bitter principle (lucumin), 1.2%; a fixed oil, 6.6%; and dextrose, 2.4%.
- Leaves contain an amorphous bitter principle, some alkaloids, and no saponin.
- Bark is rich in tannin.
- Analysis for volatile constituents yielded 104 compounds in the aroma concentrate. Major constituents were: (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, limonene, linalool, α-copaene and hexadecanoic acid. (8)
- Various extracts of fresh fruits yielded nine known polyphenolic antioxidants viz. (+)-catechin (1), (−)-epicatechin (2), (+)-gallocatechin (3), (−)-epigallocatechin (4), quercetin (5), quercitrin (6), isoquercitrin (7), myricitrin (8), and gallic acid. (see studies below)
-Study of pulp and seed yielded
varying concentrations of saponin, flavonoids, tannin,steroid and cardiac glycoside. Study also yielded vitamins (vitamin A, 0.027to 0.089 mg; vitamin C 10.00 to 43.54 mg) and minerals (calcium 37.0, magnesium 5.0, phosphorus 8.0, potassium 38.0 and sodium 21.0 mg). Proximate analysis yielded protein 1.96 to 4.63 g, moisture 56.04 to 75.90g, fat 0.88 to 15.81 g, fiber 2.31 go 4.19 g, ash 0.56 to 0.84 g, and carbohydrate 18.39 to 79.90 g. (see study below) (16)
- Phytochemical fractions of leaves yielded (% content): fats and waxes 0.934 ± 0.045, terpenoids and phenolics 4.004 ± 0.122, alkaloids 0.166 ± 0.068, quaternary alkaloids and n-oxides 10.678 ± 0.035, and fibers 71.122 ± 0.136. (18)
- Nutrient analysis per 100 gm of edible portion yielded 2.33 gm, carbohydrates 14.65 gm, water 73.23 gm, fiber 3.30 gm, calories 67.2; vitamins: riboflavin 0.4 mg, thiamine 0.08 mg, niacin 1.340 mg, ascorbic acid 15.2 mg, vitamin B6 0.200 mg; minerals: iron 2.33 mg, calcium 14.65 mg, phosphorus 73.23 mg, magnesium 3.30, potassium 67.2 mg. (21)
- Crude methanolic extract of leaves yielded phytoconstituents such as gallic acid (1), along with six flavonoids: 3'-galloyl myricetrin (2), rutin (3), quercetrin (4), myrecetrin (5), myricetin (6), and quercetin (7), and two triterpenoids, ß-amyrin (8) and lupeol (9). (see study below) (36)

- Seed is tonic, diuretic and febrifuge.
- Pectoral, tonic, stimulant.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, vasorelaxant , analgesic, anti-osteoporosis, antidiabetic, antiprotein glycation, anti-aging, immunosuppressive, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Seeds, leaves, bark, fruit.

• Fruit eaten ripe, with a sweet and flavorful pulp.
• Used as ice cream and sherbet ingredient
• In Jamaica, made into preserves.
Ati Negrito use decoction of leaves as wash or hot compress for postpartum needs. Decoction of leaves drunk for abdominal pain. (26)
• The
Aytas burn dried leaves for insect repellency. (17)
• Used by Ifugao migrants of the Sierra Madre for diarrhea. (30)
• In Mexico, decoction of the bark given for dysentery.
• In Costa Rica, infusion of bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Tonic: Infusion of the bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Latex is used for abscesses.
• Dried latex used as anthelmintic.
• In some countries, the fruit is used for diabetes.
• Bitter seed sometimes used as tonic, for diarrhea and fevers.
• Fruit eaten for inflammation in laryngitis and pneumonia.
• Used for diabetes.
• Decoction used for angina.
• In the Ivory Coast, decoction of leaves used for hypertension. Leaf decoction also used for diabetes.
• In Venezuela, unripe fruit used for intestinal problems.
• In Puerto Rico, fruit used in treatment of diabetes.
• Decoction of bark used as tonic and stimulant; used for diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages and treatment of gonorrhea.
Cubans in Miami reported to use the leaf decoction for cancer treatment.
• In Brazil, bark latex used resolutive on abscesses; and as a potent vermifuge when dried and powdered.

Poultice of grated leaves applied to wounds. Leaf decoction used for hypoglycemia. Fruit used for treating fever and hemorrhage. (13)
Timber: Yields a brown and hard, but no durable wood. Used for indoor construction: planking, light framing, interior trim, shelving, paneling, etc. (13)
Dye: Bark yields tannin and dyestuff. (13)
• Paper:
Good quality paper can be obtained from the wood. (13)

Polyphenolic Antioxidants / Fruits:
Study on various fruit extracts yielded nine known phenolic antioxidants. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, and of the compounds, compound 5 (quercetin) showed the highest antioxidant activity. (see constituents above)

Anthocyanin Antioxidant: Study of extracts of 12 edible fruits showed nine to exhibit high antioxidant activity; C cainito yielded cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside, an anthocyanin antioxidant. (3)
A preliminary study on the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions of the bark of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in isolated rat thoracic aorta: Methanolic bark extract study on rats showed vasorelaxant activity on the smooth muscle. (5)
Lectin Activity:
Plant samples of 178 species and 62 families were studied for lectin activity. Potent lectins possessing more than 100,000 unites per gram were found in the fruits extracts of C arabica and Chrysophyllum cainito. (4)
Antidiabetic Activity / Leaves:
Study of the aqueous decoction of C cainito leaves showed hypoglycemic activity at doses of ≥ 20 g/l. From 30 g/l, the plant would exert a toxic effect. The hypoglycemic effect was mainly attributed to alkaloids, sterols, or triterpenes. (6)
Hypotensive Effect:
Phytochemical study attributes the hypotensive effect flavonoids with vasodilation effect and inhibition of adrenergic receptors. (7)
Glue Effect:
Study explored the potential of star apple extract as glue. Results showed the glue from the star apple extract can be used as a substitute for commercial glue. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Hypersensitivity Effects / Leaves:
Study of crude methanolic extract of leaves demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-hypersensitivity effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema and hypersensitivity. Reduction of hypersensitivity attributed to isolated compound Lup-20(29)-en-3β-O-hexanoate > than 3β-Lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate. (14)
Antimicrobial / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study showed C. cainito has great potential as antimicrobial agent against selected pathogens and use in the treatment of enteric bacterial infections. (see constituents above) (16)
Antihypertensive / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study evaluated pulp extracts and fractions for in vitro (inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme/ACE assay), ex vivo (isolated aorta relaxation assay), and in vivo (salt induced hypertensive rat assay). An ALE-EAF reduced the elevated arterial pressure of salt induced hypertensive rat significantly to the level of normotensive animal group. (19)
Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of environmentally friendly silver nanoparticles using C. cainito leaves. (
• Palladium Nanoparticles / Catalytic Activity / Leaves: Study reports on a simple and green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using a leaf extract of C. cainito. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions. The PdNPs can retain catalytic activity for several months.  (25)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Effects / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of C. cainito fruits against experimentally induced diabetes using alloxan and STZ. Acute toxicity study using the hydroalcoholic extract showed safety at dose of 2000 mg kbw. Results showed a dose dependent significant decrease in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL levels with an increase in HDL. Results were comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. (22)
• Effect on Intestinal Motility / Leaves:Study evaluated a leaf extract of C. cainito on intestinal motility of white mice. Results showed the test drugs were not statistically different from the positive control in terms of antimotility effect but the effective antimotility dose were seen in medium and high doses (p=0.0029 and p=0.0099) respectively. (23)
• Immunosuppressive on Macrophage Functions / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of methanol extract of C. cainito leaves on macrophage functions. Results showed significant dose dependent inhibition of phagocytosis and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α as well as NO and H2O2 release by the macrophages. Study showed an immunosuppressive effect on murine macrophages, without effects on cell viability. GC-MS analysis showed lupeol acetate and alpha-amyrin acetate as principal components. (24)
• Cosmetic Application / Anti-Protein Glycation / Anti-Aging: Patent applied for an invention in the fields of cosmetic, relating to products for controlling skin aging and a cosmetic composition that includes an aqueous fruit extract of C. cainito. The application demonstrated that an extract of CC inhibits the glycation of proteins which protects the functionality of the skin cells. (27)
• Induction of Cell Death In Osteosarcoma Cells / Polyphenolic Fraction: Study evaluated a polyphenolic fraction from C. cainito fruits for its effect on U-2 osteosarcoma (ATCC HTB-96) cell line of human osteosarcoma. The highest effect as increased caspase specific activity was observed at extract concentration of 300 µg GAE/mL. The effect of extract concentration on production of ROS can be related with apoptosis. Study suggested that apoptosis by ROS is the mechanism used by the compounds in the extract. Results suggest C. cainito has great potential and can be source of lead novel molecule for allopathic medicines for the treatment of osteosarcoma. (28)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated C. cainito leaves for wound healing potential in male albino Wistar rats using an excision wound model. Topical application of standardized ethanolic extract on excision wounds showed significant faster reduction in wound area and significant increase in tissue biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, hexosamine and protein compared to untreated control. (29)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer / Fruit: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of peels, seeds, and pulp of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit and fruit flour for gastroprotective potential in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer. All the extracts increased mucin production. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. Supplementation with C. cainito fruit flour displayed gastroprotective potential. Results suggest an antiulcer effect by favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms, together with complementary protective effects of the flour from C. cainito fruit. (31)
• Haemostatic Effect: Study evaluated the haemostatic effect of an aqueous extract of C. cainito on blood of albino rats. The administration of AECc caused a reduction in the time of bleeding. The presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in AECs make the substance antihemorrhagic. (32)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect pf an aqueous decoction of leaves on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Results showed a glucose lowering effect at doses > 10 g/L. It showed to be toxic and lethal at 30 g/L. The hypoglycemic effect was attributed to alkaloids, sterols, and triterpenes. (33)
• Antidiabetic / Glucose Uptake Stimulation / α-Glucosidase Inhibition / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of C. cainito stem bark extract and possible mechanism of activity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Effect on glucose absorption and glucose uptake were conducted using jejunum and abdominal muscle respectively. The extract showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. There was significant reduction of blood glucose in the OGTT in normal mice, and significantly decreased fasting blood glucose in the alloxan diabetic model, similar to glibenclamide. The extract produced stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase activity than acarbose. Results suggest potential use of the plant for the treatment of diabetic patients. (34)
• Anticancer / Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Stem Bark: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of primary liver cancer in humans. Study evaluated the anticancer properties of an aqueous extract of C. cainito stem bark, MTT assay showed CE significantly reduced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell viability with IC50 of 100 µg/mL. CE reduced procaspase-3, suggesting apoptosis by activating caspase-3 cleavage. Study suggests CE induces apoptosis and cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma via generation of intracellular ROS and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. (35)
• Modulatory Effect of Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress / Leaves: Study evaluated crude methanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant compounds and effect on oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation exposure in male rats. Phytochemical study yielded gallic acid, along with six flavonoids and two triterpenoids. The compounds could have been beneficial to the ameiioration of alterations induced by gamma irradiation via antioxidant effects, decreasing MDA level, and improvement in liver and kidney functions and liver profile and reduction of histological alterations of the liver. (see constituents above) (36)
• Antinociceptive / Antihyyperalgesic / Herbal Mix: Study evaluated the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal mixture of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana, Citrus liimonum, Chrysophyllum cainito, and Annona muricata, commonly used in traditional Mayan medicine for treatment of diabetes and pain. The ethanolic extract of PCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1. Results showed dose-dependent systemic antinociceptive effect in rat formalin with a 66% antinociceptive response. In rat capsaicin test there was also a dose dependent antinociceptive effect. The extract also showed antihyperalgesic effect in alloxan diabetic rats. (37)
• Amelioration of Diabetes and Its Complications / Antiglycation Activity / Leaves and Stems: Study evaluated the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiglycation potential of C. cainito. Leaf extract (CCE2) showed highest DPPH scavenging activity, while stem (CSE2) extract showed highest ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. CCE3 showed most effective inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Advanced glycation end products formation was effectively inhibited by CCE2 with myrcetin 3-O-rhamnoside as the main constituent. CCE-3 exhibited highest protection effect against L02 cell line oxidation damage. (38)
• Cytotoxicity by Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of C. cainito leaves using Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24h exposure. All prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showing greater activities compared to the decoction. (39)
• Effect in Increasing Vertebral Trabecular Bone Density / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of 79% ethanol extract of leaves on a model of dexamethasone induced osteoporosis in mice. Alendronate was used as positive control. Results showed increased trabecular vertebral bone density in female mice. Optimum dose was 400 mg/kbw per day. Results suggest phytoestrogens content in the 70% ethanol extract of leaves may replace the function of estrogen in its bond with ER. (40)
• Anti-Hypersensitivity Effects / Pre-Clinical Chronic Pain Model / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-hypersensitivity effects of a crude methanol extract (CME), CHCl3, fraction, and isolated compounds from C. cainito. Study isolated two triterpenes: 3ß-Lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate (1) and Lup-20(29)-en-3ß-O- hexanoate (2), which were evaluated fr effects using clinical pain models, such as postoperative pain, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The CME enhanced the mechanical withdrawal threshold of mice in the post-operative pain model. The CHCl3 fraction showed anti-hypersensitivity effect against epinephrine- or LPS-induced hypersensitivity, with more prominent effect in neuropathic pain models. The CME effect seems involved in interference in production, release, or action of some chemical mediators, such as PGE2m sympathetic amines, cytokines, etc. The CME effects may all be due, in part to the presence of triterpenes 1 and 2, or other compounds acting in synergism. (41)
• Anti-Osteoporosis / Increase in Vertebrae Trabecular Osteoblast Cell Number / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-osteoporosis effect of a 96% ethanol extract from C. cainito leaves in trabecular vertebra bone of dexamethasone induced male mice. Results showed significant increase of osteoblast number in trabecular vertebrae bone of male mice. The effective dose (ED50) was 9.5 mg/20g BB mice/day. Effect may be due to phytoestrogen content, which can also act as phytotestosterone in 96% ethanol extract of C. cainito. (42)
• Anti-Inflammatory / LPS-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages / Fruits: Study evaluated the invitro and invivo anti-inflammatory effects of a methanolic extract (ME) and fraction E (FE) found in fruits and lupeol acetate (LA) from FE on LPS=stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Results showed the ME, FE, and LA were able to trigger inhibition of NO and H2O2 levels, as well as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α released by macrophages in a concentration dependent manner. The LA was able to to significantly attenuate carrageenan-induced paw edema and TPA-induced ear edema Results suggest anti-inflammatory effects without affecting cell viability. (43)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of ethyl acetate extract of leaves in decreasing blood sugar level in alloxan-induced male wistar rats. Metformin was used as positive control. Results showed significant decrease (p<0.05). The optimum dose in decreasing blood sugar was 75 mg/kbw. (44)
• Prediction of Compounds with Anti-Osteoporotic Activities / In Silico Study / Leaves: Estrogen deficiency is a cause of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Study evaluated the metabolite profiling results of various extract of C. cainito leaves, which contain phytoestrogen, through in silico study against 3OLS protein, an X-ray protein of ERß to predict types of phytoestrogen contents with antiosteoporotic property. In silico studies have shown 11 compounds in C. cainito leaves predicted as phytoestrogens with ERß agonist properties against 3OLS protein. The ERß agonist compound has parameters similar to 17ß-estradiol int its interaction with 2OLS protein.
• CDK-1 Inhibitors / Anticancer / Leaves: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the 6th most common cancer, associated with high mortality and low 5-year survival rate. Dysregulation of CDK1 is frequently observed in many cancers, including OSCC patients. Data shows that molecules such as 8-(dimethylamino)-7-(3-(4-ethylphenoxy)-2d, ethyl 6-oxo-5-propylheptanoate, 2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4h-pyran-4-one, 1,2,3- benzenetriol and 1,4-benzenediol 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) identified in methanol extract of C. cainito leaves have binding features with CDK1. (46)
• Corrosion Inhibition of Pipeline Steel / Cotyledon: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition characteristics of Chrysophyllum cainito aqueous extract on corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M HCl. Scanning electron micrograph showed a smoother corrosion surface morphology. Data showed corrosion inhibition mechanism to be through adsorption. (47)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated for its edible fruit.
- Seasonal market produce.
- Tinctures of bark, leaves and fruits in the cybermarket.

Updated Sept 2021 / February 2018 / March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS / Public Domain / File:Chrysophyllum cainito seeds.jpg / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 7 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Star Apple / Chrysophyllum cainito L. / Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavon
Polyphenolic Antioxidants from the Fruits of Chrysophyllum cainito
/ Xiao-Dong Luo, Margaret J. Basile and Edward J. Kennelly / DOI: 10.1021/jf011178n / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (6), pp 1379–1382

Anthocyanin antioxidants from edible fruits / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00162-6 / Linda S Einbond et al / Food Chemistry Vol 84, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 23-28
Studies on Lectins from Thai Plants / J. Sci.Soc.Thailang, 24,. (1995)27-36

A preliminary study on the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions of the bark of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in isolated rat thoracic aorta / Quentela, Albert et al / Acta Manilana • 2001,vol./issue 49
Effect of aqueous extract of Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on the glycaemia of diabetic rabbits / N'giessan Koffi et al / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(10) pp. 501-506, October 2009
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Arterial Hypertension, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffii / European Journal of Scientific ResearchISSN 1450-216X Vol.35 No.1 (2009), pp 85-98
Volatile constituents of star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.) from Cuba / Jorge Pino, Rolando Marbot, Aristides Rosado / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 17, Issue 5, pages 401–403, September/October 2002 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1116
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Diabetes, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou People of Agboville (Côte-d'Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi / American Journal of Scientific Research, No 4 (2009), pp45-58
Chrysophyllum cainito L. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Sorting Chrysophyllum names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
Production of white glue out of star apple (Chrysophyllum Cainito) extract
/ Mecua, John Michael O. / 2011 DOST Region 9, SCHOOL Don Pablo Lorenzo Memorial High School / DOST SciNET-PHIL
Chrysophyllum cainito / WorldAgroForestry

Anti-inflammatory and anti-hypersensitive effects of the crude extract, fractions and triterpenes obtained from Chrysophyllum cainito leaves in mice. / Meira NA, Klein LC Jr, Rocha LW, Quintal ZM, Monache FD, Cechinel Filho V, Quintão NL / J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Feb 3;151(2):975-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.014. Epub 2013 Dec 14.
Chrysophyllum cainito / Synonyms / The Plant List
Antimicrobial activities and chemical compositions of Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple) fruit / S. U. Oranusi, W. Braide* and R. U. Umeze / Microbiology Research International, Vol. 3(3), pp. 41-50, August 2015
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014
Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Chrysophyllum cainito Linn. Leaves
/ Sunita Shailajan*, Deepti Gurjar / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 26(1), May – Jun 2014; Article No. 17, Pages: 106-111
In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo anti-hypertensive activity of Chrysophyllum cainito L. extract / Li-Mei Mao, Xue-Wen Qi, Ji-Heng Hao, Hai-Feng Liu, Qing-Hua Xu, Pei-Li Bu / Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8(10):17912-17921 www.ijcem.com / ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0013433
GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING Chrysophyllum canito LEAF EXTRACT / Antony Prabhu Y. and Shamina S.* / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 4, Issue 9, 1751-1760.
Nutrient analysis / Fruits Info
An evaluation of the effect of chrysophyllum cainito on intestinal motility through charcoal tracing method.
/ Catherine H Tuazon, Nellie Magsakay, Elizabeth Reyes / Philippine Scientific Journal, Vol 33, Issue 2; July-December 2000: pp 21-35
IMMUNOSUPPRESIVE EFFECTS OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO LEAVES ON MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS / Victor Ermilo Arana-Argaez, Ivan Chan-Zapata, Jacqueline Canul-Canche et al / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017; 14(1): 179–186.  / doi:  10.21010/ajtcam.v14i1.20
Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito (Star apple) and their applications as efficient catalyst for C–C coupling and reduction reactions / Rakhi Majumdar• Supawan Tantayanon • Braja Gopal Bag / Int Nano Lett (2017) 7:267–274 / https://doi.org/10.1007/s40089-017-0220-4
Ati Negrito Medicinal Plants / Hindawi
Cosmetic composition comprising an aqueous extract of chrysophyllum cainito 
/ Inventor: Olivier Courtin / US20110151037A1: US Application
Poly-phenolic fraction of Chrysophyllum cainito extract induces cell death in osteosarcoma cells / Liu-Bing Li, Subin Lin, Jun Yan, Qian-Liang Wang, Zhi-Ying Fan, Qi-Rong Dong, Jian-Zhong Qin and Zong-Gang Xie / Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2015; 10: 972-979 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v10i4.24576
Wound healing activity of Chrysophyllum cainito L. leaves: Evaluation in rats using excision wound model / Shailajan Sunita, Gurjar Deepti / Journal of Young Pharmacists, Apr-Jun 2016; Vol. 8 Issue 2: p 96-103. / DOI: 10.5530/jyp.2016.2.7
The use of medicinal plants by Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range. / Jasper Wester
Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models
/ Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade / Inflammopharmacology 
Haemostatic Properties of Chrysophyllum Caïnito L. (Sapotaceae) in Wistar Rats / Arsene Mea, Rodrigue Treya Yao, Jean-Claude Abo Kouakou / Asian Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (2016) Vol 26, No 2: pp 140-153
Effect of aqiepis extract pf Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on the glycaemia of diabetic rabbits / N'guessan Kofill, Amoikon Kouakou Ernest, Zirihi Guede Noell et al / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011; 5(2): pp 501-506 / ISSN: 1996-0816 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP.9000104
Antidiabetic activity, glucose uptake stimulation and a-glucosidase inhibitory effect of Chrysophyllum cainito L. stem bark extract / Hau Van Doan, Siriporn Riyajan, Nuannoi Chudapongse et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; 18: Art No 267 /
Chrysophyllum cainito stem bark extract induces apoptosis in Human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway / Hau V Doan, Pishyaporn Sritangos, Roongtip Iyara, Nuannoi Chudapongse / 2020 / PeerJ 8:e10168 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10168
Modulatory effects of Chrysophyllum cainito L. extract on gamma radiation induced oxidative stress / D F Sayed, A S Nada, M Abd El Hameed Mohamed, MT Ibrahim / Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, March 2019; Vol 111: pp 613-623 /DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.137
Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria campechiana, Chrysophyllum cainito, Citrus limonum, and Annona muricata / Myrna Deciga-Campos, Rolffy Irtuz-Andradem Mario A Ramirez Camacho et al / Drug Devekionebt Researcgm 2017, 81: pp 91-97
Chrysophyllum cainito L. alleviates diabetic and complications by playing antioxidant, antiglycation, hypoglycemic roles and the chemical profile analysis / Yajie Wang, Yue Chen, Haixia Chen et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Dec 2021, Vol 281: 114569 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114569
Evaluation of the cytotoxicity potential of ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum cainito using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay / LL P Lumogdang, L Q Bullong, O M Nuñeza, M M Uy / Journal of Experimental Research, March 2021; 9(1)
Activity of 70% ethanol extract of Chrysophyllum cainito in increasing vertebrae trabecular bone density in female mice / Utaminingtyas, Nur Imamah and Ma'arif, Burhan and Megawati, Dewi Sinta and Atmaja, Ria Ramadhani Dwi / Traditional Medicine Journal, 23(3): pp 119-123 / ISSN: 2406-9086
Chrysophyllum cainito leaves are effective against pre-clinical chronic pain models: Analysis of crude extract, fraction and isolated compounds in mice / Nicole Anzanelo Meira, Lilian W Rocha, Gislaine F da Silva, Nara Lins Meira Quintao et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2016; Vol 184: pp 30-41 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.046
Activity of 96% ethanol extract of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in increasing vertebrae trabecular osteoblast cell number in male mice / Ma'arif Burhan and Aditama, Agnis Pondinekaria / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 12(1): pp 286-288 / ISSN: 0974-2441
Anti-inflammatory effects of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages / Victor Ermilo Arana-Argaez, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejon, Ruben M Carballo / Inflammopharmacology, 2021; 29: pp 513-524 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00795-x
Activity of ethyl acetate extract from Chrysophyllum cainito L. leaves in decreasing blood sugar level in male wistar rats / Imam Malikul Hadi Arrijal, Ma'arif Burhan, Suryadinata Arief / Journal of Islamic Pharmacy, 2018; 3(1): pp 31-38 / ISSN: 2527-6123
Prediction of compounds with antiosteoporosis activity in Chrysophyllum cainito L. leaves through in silico approach / Burhan Ma'arif, Hilwa Fitri, Nisfatul Lailatus Saidah, Luqman Alfani Najob / J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol., 2021; 32(4): pp 803-808 / DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2020-0393
Molecular docking analysis of CFK-1 inhibitors from Chrysophyllum cainito leaves / Yesudass Antony Prabhu, Praveen Kumar Kumar, Shanmughavel Piramanayagam, Muthu Vijaya Sarathy, Samiappan Kavitha / Bioinformation, 2021; 17(5): pp 550-556 / eISSN:0973-2063 / pISSN: 0973-8894
Corrosion Inhibition of Pipeline Steel in 0.5 M HCl Using Cotyledon of Chrysophyllum cainito / E P Othaki, N C Ngobiri / Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 2020: pp 38-45 /
DOI: 10.9734/aiacr/2020/v5i230131

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL