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Family Arecaceae
Chinese anahau
Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart.
Pu kui

Scientific names Common names
Chamaerops biroo Sebold ex Mart. Chinese anahau(Engl.)
Latania chinensis Jacq. Chinese fan palm (Engl.)
Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart.. Chinese fountain palm (Engl.)
Livistona japonica Nakai ex Masam. Serdang palm (Engl.)
Livistona oliviformis (Hassk) Mart.  
Livistona sinensis Griff. .[Spelling variant]  
Livistona subglobosa (Hassk.) Mart.  
Saribus chinensis (Jacq.) Blume.  
Saribus oliviformis Hassk. .  
Saribus subglobosus Hassk. .  
Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R.Br. ex Mart. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Pu kui, Shan ye kui.
FRENCH: Palmier evantail de Chine, Palmier fontaine.
GERMAN: Chinesische facherpalme, Chinesische schirmpalme.
MALAY: Serdang cina.
NORWEGIAN: Kinesisk viftepalme.
SPANISH: Livistona de China.
THAI: Paam jin, Paam jeep.

Gen info
- The Arecaceae includes 188 genera and 2585 species of perennial climbers, shrubs, and trees (commonly known as palm trees), The genus Livistona is included in the Coryphoideae subfamily, on of the most ecologically diverse and widespread genera of palms. (6)

Livistona chinensisis a palm that grows 9 to 15 meters high, 20 to 30 centimeters in diameter, rough with leaf scars. Trunk is topped with an evergreen dense crown of palmate or fan-shaped leaves that droop downward creating a fountain-like effect. Petioles are armed with sharp, green or black recurved spines. Spines are denser proximally, fewer distally on petioles. Inflorescences are 1 to 1.2 meters, branched to three orders, with six or seven partial inflorescences. Flowers are hermaphroditic, borne in clusters of 4 to 7, white or yellow, 2 to 2.5 millimeters. Flowers are followed by small, green or blue green, globose to ellipsoid or pear-shaped fruits, 1.5 to 2.6 by 0.9 to 1.8 centimeters, turning dark-blue to blue-gray when ripe. (6) (7)

- Introduced.
- Commercialized as an ornamental palm.
- Native to southern Japan, Taiwan. the Ryuku Islands and the Guangdong region of southern China. (4)
- In some ecosystems, considered invasive.

- Study of ethanol extract of leaves yielded five antioxidant ingredients, namely: orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and tricin. (see study below) (5)
- Study of phytochemical composition of fruits yielded saponins+++, tannins+++, phlobatannins+++, anthraquinones++, alkaloids++, flavonoids++, deoxy-sugars+++, phenols+++, with absence of reducing sugars, terpenes, and cardiac glycosides. (7)
- Quantitative study of nuts for phenolic contents yielded polyphenols 245.0 ± 0.02 mg/g, flavonoids 25.5 ± 0.15 mg/g, and tannins 78.5 ± 0.18 mg/g. (7)
- Study of 70% ethanolic extract of roots yielded two new phen9lics, (2R,3R)-3,5,6,7,3'4'-hexahydroxyflavane (1) and phenanthrene-2,4,9-triol (2), along with six known phenolics (3-8). (see study below) (11)
- Study of leaves yielded kaempferol-4'-methylether (1), vitexin (2), ß-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), and hexacosyl alcohol (5). (12)
- Study of fruits for phenolics isolated four new compounds, 1-{ω-isoferul[6- (4-hydroxybutyl) pentadecanoic acid]}-glycerol (1), E-[6′-(5″-hydroxypentyl)tricosyl]-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (2), 2-(3′-hydroxy-5′-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxylmethyl-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5- carboxylic acid (3), 7-hydroxy-5,4′-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (4), along with eleven known phenolics (5–15), (see study below) (14)
- Study of 70% ethanol extract of roots isolated 18 compounds, including two new 6′- O -acyl- β - d -glucosyl- β -sitosterols, 6′- O -(2″-hydroxyheptadecanoyl)- β - d -glucosyl- β -sitosterol ( 1 ) and 6′- O -(icosa-9″ Z ,12″ Z -dienoyl)- β - d -glucosyl- β -sitosterol ( 2 ), two new keto esters, ethyl 16-(dodeca-4″′ Z ,7″′ Z -dienyl)-29-oxo-15-(tetradeca-5″ Z ,8″ Z ,11″ Z -trienyl) triacontanoate ( 7 ), and 16-hydroxy-8-oxohexadecyl.(17)
- Study of fruits yielded two new depsidones, livistones A (1) and B (2), and a new benzofurane, livistone C (3), along with 11 known compounds including three stilbenes (4-6), four steroids, three flavan-3-ols, and an alkaloid. (see study below) (18)

- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-osteoporotic, anti-angiogenic, cardioprotective, slimming, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, anti-ulcer properties.

Parts used
Fruits, seeds, leaves.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In China, dry fruit used for treatment of various tumors. (3)
- In traditional Chinese medicine, seed extracts use for wide range of cancers, including HCC and colon cancer. (4)

Antitumor / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit:
Study of an ethanolic extract (LCRT) and hot water extract (LCWE) of Livistona chinensis inhibited HL60 growth, with IC50 estimated at a 1/50 dilution for both extracts. Cell-free Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity hydroxyl radical scavenging assay estimated a 1/10 dilution of LCET and LCWE has similar activity, equivalent to 13.0 and 12.7 microM of Trolox activity, respectively. At 1/100 dilution, both extracts reduced IL-1ß mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated cells (p<0.01). A 1/100 dilution of LCET reduced COX-2 mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (p<0.01). (3)
Anti-Angiogenic / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of Livistona chinensis seed on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo, In vitro the effect on proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs was determined by MTT assay, a wound healing assay and a tube formation assay, respectively. EELC significantly decreased the formation of new vessels in CAM assay. It inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs and reduced the extent of tube formation. Results suggest EELC inhibits tumor angiogenesis through inhibition of proliferation and migration of HUVECs, and by downregulating VEGF and VEGFR. (4)
Cardioprotective / Isoorientin / Leaves: Study screened the antioxidant from leaves and evaluated their efficacy in acute myocardial ischemia treatment at the cellular level. DPPH and HPLC screening isolated antioxidants from the ethanol extract of leaves and the antioxidants were tested against hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R), H2O2, or adriamycin (ADM)-induced injury in H9c@ cells to verify their cardioprotective effects in vitro. The leaves yielded five antioxidant ingredients, namely: orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and tricin. Isoorientin showed the strongest antioxidation, equivalent to control vitamin C (IC50 6.99±0.62 µg/mL). Using H/R, H2O2, or ADM-induced injury in H9c2 cell injury models, isoorientin showed strongest protection, probably accounting for the myocardial protection effects of the extract. (5)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Fruits: Study of palm nuts by DPPH assay showed extracts at 0.25-2.0 mg/ml significantly scavenged DPPH radical in a concentration dependent manner. At 2.0 mg/ml dose, L. chinensis inhibited DPPH radical by 87.30%, compared to standard ascorbic acid (92.32%). L. chinensis extract exhibited strong antimicrobial activist against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans (MIC=75-100 µg/ml). (see constituents above) (7)
Lipophilic Fraction / Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Anti-Ulcer / Fruit Pulp Oil: Study evaluated the oil of dried pulps of Livistona chinensis and L. decipiens. GC-MS study yielded palmitic acid (47.4%) as the principal fatty acid of L. chinensis. The pulp oil of L. decipiens showed a better anti-hyperlipidemic profile than L chinensis, in comparison with reference drug simvastatin. Both pulp oils showed high anti-ulcer activity using an indomethacin-induced ulcer model in rats. (8)
Antibacterial / Membrane Damaging Activity / Fruit: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of an aqueous extract of L. chinensis fruits against S. aureus. The antibacterial activity was attributed to DNA, enzyme and protein denaturing properties of phenolic compounds in the extract. There was increased membrane permeability. The membrane damaging activity of phenolic compounds was observed in leucocytes. The antibacterial activity of fruits were attributed to high content of phenolic compounds. (9)
Inhibition of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Angiogenesis / Suppression of Notch Pathway / Seeds: Data have suggested that L. chinensis seeds are able to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth in vivo and in vitro via promotion of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. The extract profoundly reduced intratumoral microvessel density (MCD) in HCC xenograft mouse tumors, demonstrating in vivo inhibitory effect on tumor angiogenesis. Results suggest L. chinensis seeds inhibited tumor angiogenesis through suppression of the Notch pathway. (10)
Antioxidative / Osteoblast Differentiation Promoting Activity / Anti-Osteoporosis / Roots: Study evaluated the antioxidative and osteoblast differentiation promoting activity of phenolics isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of roots of L. chinensis. Two new phenolics (1,2), along with six known phenolics 3-8, were isolated. Phenolic 1-3 and 7 showed effects on proliferation of osteoblastic cells and antioxidative activity of 3.125-50 µg/mL. Phenolic 1-3 also increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, and hydroxyproline content in osteoblastic cells. The anti-osteoporosis effects of the phenolics may be linked to a reduction of oxidative stress. The effects of phenolics on bone formation by rat osteoblastic cells suggest potential benefits on bone health. (11)
Hemolytic Activity / Astringent and Membrane Damaging / Fruits: Study reports on the presence of phenolic compounds in L chinensis fruits which show hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of phenolics was limited to an acid-precipitable fraction. Proteins and lipids abrogated the hemolytic activity indicating astringent and membrane damaging activities as mechanisms of hemolysis. (13)
Bioactive Phenolics /Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Fruits: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of phenolics isolated from the fruits of L. chinensis. Study isolated four new compounds, along with eleven known phenolics. Compound 5 (1–4, 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid), caffeic acid (7), and 3-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (8) showed potent antioxidant activity. Compounds 1–5, and 8 showed potent antiproliferative activities with IC50 values of 5–150μM against HepG2 human liver cancer, HL-60 human myeloid leukemia, K562 human myeloid leukemia, and CNE-1 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Results suggest potential for the fruits as source of powerful anticancer and antioxidant agents. (see constituents above) (14)
New Arylbenzofuran Derivative / DNA Damage and Inhibition of PARP Activity / Anti-Tumor: Study evaluated the function and molecular mechanism of HDAB (7-hydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran) purified from L. chinensis. HDAB treatment of cervical cancer resulted in S phase arrest and apoptosis, together with cyclin A2 and CDK2 upregulation. Results indicated that HDAB can function as an anti-cancer agent by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting PARP activity. (15)
Slimming Effects / Fruit: Previous studies reported various effects of ethanol extract of dried fruit o fibroblasts, 3D collagen gel models, and human face skin in vivo, and suggested potential for LC for use in anti-sagging cosmetics. This study investigated the effect of 1,3-butylene glycol extract of dried fruit on fibroblasts, human adipocytes, and skin. The extract showed inhibitory effect on neutral fat accumulation and a reduction in waste size in vivo. Besides its inhibitory effect on neutral fat accumulation in vitro, it showed slimming effects in vivo. Study suggests the possibility of predicting slimming effects by a combination of in vitro tests. (16)
Phenolics / Cell Protective Against H2O2 Induced Cell Damage / Fruit: Study of fruits isolated two new depsidones a new benzofurane, along with 11 known compounds. Compounds 1, 4-6 exhibited remarkable cell protective activities against H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage. (see constituents above) (18)


June 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Livistona chinensis / click on image to go to source page / © GARDENIA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Livistona chineneis / Leaves / Growing Chinese Fan Palm / click on image to go to source page /
© Garden Lovers Club
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Fruit of Syzygium samarangense / Wax apple / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Livistona chinensis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Sorting Livistona names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

n Vitro Studies of the Dry Fruit of Chinese Fan Palm Livistona Chinensis / Susan Cheung, Joseph Tai / Oncol Rep., Nov 2005; 14(5): pp 1331-1336 / PMID: 16211305
Anti-angiogenic effect of Livistona chinensisseed extract in vitro and in vivo / Zhiyun Cao, Liangpu Zheng, Jinyah Zhao, Qunchuan Zhuang, Zhenfeng Hong, and Weil Lin / Oncology Letters, Dec 2017; 14(6): pp 7565-7570 / doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.7075 / PMID: 29250168 / PMCID: PMC5727618
Protective effects of five compounds from Livistona chinensis R. Brown leaves against hypoxia/ reoxygenation, H2O2, or adriamycin-induced injury in H9c2 cells / Li S, Luo S, Chen H, Zheng Y, Lin L, Yao H, Lin X / 8 May 2019; Vol 2019: pp 1555-1566 / DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S201816
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm) / Invasive Species Compendium / CABI
Phytoconstituents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Livistona chinensis (Jacquin), Saribus rotundifolius (Lam.) Blume and Areca catechuLinnaeus Nuts / Emmanuel E. Essien*, Bassey S. Antia, Esangubong I. Etuk / Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal , ISSN: 2582-0540 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20510/ukjpb/5/i1/147026
Chemical Characterization of the Lipophilic Fraction of Livistona decipiens and Livistona chinensis Fruit Pulps (Palmae) and Assessment of their Anti-hyperlipidemic and Anti-ulcer Activities / Hazem Kadry, Soha Shoala, Omayma El Gindi, Amany A. Sleem Salwa Mosharrafa and Mona Kassem / NPC: Natural Product Communications, 2009; 4(2): pp265-270
Antibacterial and membrane damaging activity of Livistona chinensis fruit extract / Gurpreet Kaur, Raman Preet Singh / Food and Chemical Toxicology, July 2008 / DOI :10.1016/j.fct.2008.03.026
Livistona chinensis seeds inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis in vivo via suppression of the Notch pathway. / Lin W, Zhao J, Cao Z, Zhuang Q, Zheng L, Zeng J, Hong Z, Peng J / Oncology Report, 24 Feb 2014; 31(4): pp 1723-1728 / DOI: 10.3892/or.2014.3051 / PMID: 24573440 
The Phenolics from the Roots of Livistona chinensis Show Antioxidative and Obsteoblast Differentiation Promoting Activity / Xiaobin Zeng, Jun Tian, Liao Cui, Yang Wang, Yanjie Su, Xin Zhou, and Xiangjiu He / Molecules, 2014; 19: pp 263-278 / doi:10.3390/molecules19010263
Chemical constituents from leaves of Livistona chinensis / Liu Zhi-Ping, Cui Jian-Guo, Liu Hong-Xing et al / Guihaia, 2007-01
Hemolytic activity of aqueous extract of Livistona chinensis fruits. / Singh R P. Kaur G / Food Chem Toxicol., Feb 2008; 46(2): pp 553-556
Bioactive phenolics from the fruits of Livistona chinensis / Zeng Xiaobin, Wang Yihai et al / Fiteropia, 2012; 83(1): pp 104-109
A new arylbenzofuran derivative functions as an anti-tumour agent by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting PARP activity / Hongbo Chen, Xiaobin Zeng, Chunmei Gao, Pinghong Ming et al / Scientific Reports, 2015; 5, Art no 10893
The possibility of the prediction of slimming by in vitro tests combination
/ Muneo Tsukiyama, Yuko Ito, Noriko Nakashima, Chinami Urata, Masaki Arashima, Hidenobu Okumura and Akiyoshi Takada / AATEX 14, Special Issue: pp 679-683 / Proc. 6th World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences, August 21-25, 2007, Tokyo, Japan
Unusual lipids and acylglucosylsterols from the roots of Livistona chinensis / Xiaobin Zeng, Chen-Yang Li et al / Phytochemistry Letters, 2013: pp 36-40 / 10.1016/j.phytol.2012.10.010
Phenolic compounds with cell protective activity from the fruits of Livistona chinensis / Tao Yuan, Sheng Ping Yang, Hai-Yan Zhang, Shan-Gao Liao, Wei Wang, Yan Wu et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2009; 11(3) / https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020802684631

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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