"Coriander" is consequential to the Greek word for "bed-bug", as smell of new foliage is said to resemble that of bug plague-ridden bed line. The Egyptians called the herb "spice of happiness", thinking it was an aphrodisiac. The Romans and Greeks used coriander to flavor wine and also as medication. (33)
Uan-suy is an annual, branched, smooth herb,
growing up to 30 centimeters in height. Leaves are pinnately or ternately
decompound; the ultimate segment of the lower leaves is ovate or lanceolate and deeply cut;
the upper leaves are more finely dissected into narrow linear segments.
Flowers are white, formed in umbels. Fruit is somewhat rounded and ribbed.
Seeds are convex-concave, about thrice as broad as they are thick.
- Cultivated in the lowlands,
popular among Chinese gardeners.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.
- Apparently indigenous in the Mediterranean region and the Caucasus.
- Fresh plant contains volatile
- Coriander oil contain: coriandrol, d-ilinalool, licareol,
d-d-pinene, p-cymol, terpinene, dipentene, geraniol, l-borneol, B-phellandrene, terpinolene, n-decylaldehyde, acetic acid, decyl acid.
- Linalool is the main volatile compound in coriander seeds, typically constituting more than 50% of the total essential oil.
(Gil et al., 2002) (33)
The fruit has a volatile oil, 0.25%; pentosan, 10.6%; furfurol, 6%; pectin, 1.1 to 1.7%; vitamin C; fat 19%; protein
11%, starch 10.5%, and potassium maleate 1.8%, fat 0.3%, and vitamin C3.
- Ethanol extract of fresh roots yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, carbohydrates, saponins, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (36)
- Study of seeds for fatty acids yielded main components of petroselinic acid (68%), linoleic acid 16.6%, oleic acid 7.5%, and palmitic acid 3.8%. Minor components were stearic acid, vaccenic acid, and myristic acid. (41)
Study of essential oil in coriander seeds yielded linalool 67.75%, alpha-pinene 10.5%, gamma-terpinene 9.0%, geranyl acetate 4.0%, camphor 3.0%, and geraniol 1.9%.
- Nutrient analysis of raw cilantro leaves per 100 g yielded: (Proximates) water 92.21 g, energy 23 kcal, protein 2.13 g, total lipid 0.52 g, carbohydrate by difference 3.67 g, total dietary fiber 2.8 g, total sugars 0.87 g; (Minerals) calcium 67 mg, iron 1.77 mg, magnesium 26 mg, phosphorus 48 mg, sodium 46 mg, potassium 521 mg, zinc 0.50 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 27.0 mg, thiamin 0.067 mg, riboflavin 0.162 mg, niacin 1.114 mg, vitamin B6 0.149 mg, folate 62 µg, vitamin B12 0, vitamin A 6748 IU, vitamin E 3.50 mg, vitamin D 0, vitamin K 310 µg; (Lipids) total saturated FA 0.014 g, total monosaturated FA 0.275 g, total polyunsaturated FA 0.050 g, trans FA 0, cholesterol 0. (42)
- Essential oils from leaves and fruits were analyzed by GC-MS. Leaf oil yielded 44 compounds, mostly aromatic acids, with major constituents of 2-decenoic acid (30.8%), E-11-tetradecenoic acid (13.4%), capric acid (12.7%) undecyl alcohol (6.4%), tridecanoic acid (5.5%) and undecanoic acid (7.1%). Seed oil yielded 53 compounds, with major constituents of linalool (37.7%), geranyl acetate (17.6%) and
γ-terpinene (14.4%). (51)
- Considered aromatic, anti-halitosis,
carminative, corrective, narcotic, stimulant; stomachic.
- Taste, odor, and medicinal qualities depend on the volatile oil.
- Studies have suggested anti-diabetic, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant, antilithogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic properties.
Oil, seeds, leaves, fruit.
- Seeds and leaves are edible.
- Used as seasoning.
- A component of curry powder.
- Seeds used in confectionery and flavoring of gin and other spirits.
- Leaves are eaten raw with native dishes: kilauin, lumpia, pansit, paksiw
- Infusion of the fruit is used for dyspepsia.
- Pounded seeds inhaled for its odor to counter dizziness.
- Oil useful for flatulence, colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.
- Plant used for ptomaine poisoning.
- Seeds chewed for halitosis.
- Paste of seeds applied for headaches.
- Seeds used in lotions or bruised for poultice in rheumatic pains.
- Juice of fresh plant applied for erythema.
- Decoction of plant in milk (with sugar added to taste) used for bleeding
Cold infusion of seeds or powder made of dried seeds with a little sugar useful for colic in children. Also relieves internal heat and thirst.
- In Iranian folk medicine,
recommended for anxiety and insomnia.
- Perfumery: Used as fragrance component for soaps and cosmetics and flavoring in
- Repellent: Fungicidal and bactericidal. Growing plant repels aphids. A boiled mixture of one part coriander leaves and one part anise seeds
is effective against red spider mites and aphids.
• Anticonvulsant / Seeds: Results of study in mice suggest
extracts of CS seeds may have a beneficial anticonvulsant effect in petit mal and grand
mal seizures. (2)
• Anxiolytic / Sedative / Muscle Relaxant: In an evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, results suggest that the AE of CS has anxiolytic effect and a potential
for sedative and muscle relaxant effects.
• Anti-Diabetes / Insulin Release: Study evaluated the effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on
insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats. Extract exhibited a significant decrease in glucose and
an increase in beta cell activity. (4)
• Anti-Diabetes / Insulin Release: Study incorporated the aqueous
extract of coriander into the diet and drinking water showed reduced
hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Results showed the presence
of hyperglycemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in Coriandrum
• Hypolipidemic / Fruit Powder: Study evaluated the
effect of feeding Coriandrum sativum fruits powder on the plasma lipids
profile in cholesterol fed rats. Results showed a significant decrease
in lipid profile in when given an 8% fruit powder mixed diet for one
• Hypolipidemic / Seed Oil: Study showed Coriander seed oil have hypocholesterolemic properties in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.
• Hypocholesterolemic: Study on CS hypocholeterolemic effects suggests it may be due to the increased activity of plasma LCAT and enhanced degradation of cholesterol to bile acids and neutral sterols.
• Endocrine and Reproductive Organ
Effect : Study did not show negative effects on testosterone
or cholesterol levels, nor on reproductive and endocrine functions. (7)
• Anxiolytic: Study
of the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum showed anxiolytic effects
and may have a potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects. (8) Study evaluated the anxiolytic effect of C. sativum leaf extract by elevated plus maze (EPM) against standard drug diazepam. Results showed statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety effect of C. sativum leaves. (48) The sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seeds in male Swiss albino mice using Dark/Light arena produced anxiolytic activity. (54)
• Essential Oil Collection / Diurnal Changes: Study
showed the collection of essential oil and other volatile compounds,
harvesting must be accomplished at a special hour of the day. (12)
• No Effect in Lead Elimination: Study
results suggest C sativum is NOT effective in lead elimination. The increase lead elimination in the studied groups of children may be due to other factors, ie., nutrition, education. (3)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study of ethanolic extracts of three plants traditionally used in treatment of inflammation – C sativum, D stramonium and A indica, showed all exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats.
• Essential Oil: Study
of the essential oil composition of Coriandrum sativum identified 41 compounds. Essential oil yields showed marked increase during the maturation process. At the final stage of fruit maturity, the main oils were linalool (87.54%) and cis-dihydrocarvone (2.63%).
• Essential Oil: Study showed that for obtaining higher essential oil yields, harvesting of plants must be accomplished at a special hour of the day.
• Antioxidant / Flavonoids: Comparative study on the free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of several plants showed C. sativum to have an IC50 of 58.36. (14)
• Antioxidant / Fresh Juice: Study demonstrated the potential antioxidant activity of the fresh juice of Coriandrum sativum. The presence of flavonoids confirms it antioxidant activity. (15)
• Learning Benefits: Study evaluated the effect of C. sativum seed extract on second-generation mice. Results showed coriander does not improve learning within a short period of time after training; however, learning after coriander administration can be improved in the long term. (17)
• Essential Oil / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of coriander essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results showed the oil has an effective antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested, except for B. cereus and E. faecalis. (18)
• Reversal of Memory Deficits: Study evaluated the effects of fresh C. sativum leaves on cognitive functions, total cholesterol and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. CSL produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores in young and aged mice, with interesting reductions in total cholesterol and brain cholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease. (19)
• Anthelmintic: Study showed C. sativum Linn. demonstrated anthelmintic activity against the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. (20)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study of subchronic administration of CS-extract in rats normalized glycemia and decreased the elevated levels of insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Because of its effects on components of the metabolic syndrome, it is postulated the extract has cardiovascular protective effect. (21)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic: Study of evaluated the antiarthritic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum in adult Wistar rats in experimental models, viz. formaldehyde and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. Results showed a dose-dependent inhibition of joint swelling in both models. The antiarthritic activity might be attributed to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovium. Results suggest a potential for a disease modifying agent in the treatment of RA. (23)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of seed for antidepressant-like mechanism in mice. Results showed an anti-depressant like effect, possibly related to the increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. (24)
• Dual Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol and water extracts of freeze-dried and irradiated parsley and cilantro leaves and stems. Methanol leaf extracts exhibited significantly greater radical scavenging activity, attributed to total phenolic content. Ferrous ion-chelating activity was significant greater in the methanol extracts. There was also greater inhibition of B. subtilis and E. coli, corresponding to ferrous sequestering activity of the methanol-derived stem extracts. (25)
• Appetite Stimulation: Study evaluated the effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract on food intake in male Wistar rats. Results showed coriander had positive effects on appetite in rats.(26)
• Antifungal / Essential Oil / Leaves: Essential oil from leaves inhibited Candida biofilm adherence and decreased the proteolytic activity C. albicans at MIC. (27)
• Neuroprotective Against Neurodegenerative Disorders and Induced Alzheimers: Coriander seed aqueous extract showed protection and improvement on cerebral cortex pyramidal cells against neurodegenerative disorders and Alzheimer's disease induced by aluminum chloride treatment. (28)
• Neuroprotective / Glucose Deprivation Induced Neuronal Death: Study investigated the neuronal protective effect of C. sativum against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed C. sativum bearing water-soluble compounds possess neuroprotective activity. (29)
• Anti-Stress / Anti-Amnesic: Study evaluated the anti-stress and anti-amnesic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. The attenuation of memory deficits induced by scopolamine could be due to its radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity provides mechanistic basis in relieving stress by way of combating oxidative damage. (30)
• Analgesic / Thermal Pain Stimulus / Seeds: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. sativum seeds by thermal pain stimuli in wistar albino rats. Both extracts exhibited and dose-dependent analgesic activity. (31)
• Anti-Anxiety / Effect on Exploratory Behavior and Locomotor Activity: Study evaluated extract of C. sativum on exploratory behavior pattern and locomotor activity in mice. Results showed the leaf extract exhibited anti-anxiety effect on mice in the elevated plus maze and open field test. (32)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic effect of C. sativum in experimental animals. Results showed anti-ulcer activity against stress and aspirin-induced ulcer, the effect probably mediated through an anti-stress mechanism, and as effective as the standard ranitidine. (34)
• Health Benefits of Dietary Supplementation: Study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with coriander seeds on growth performance, hepatic and visceral adipose tissue storage and circulating metabolic substrates in healthy growing rats. While there was no effect on liver lipid content, there was a significant increase in the amount of monosaturated and polysaturated fatty acids in visceral adipose tissue with decreased saturated fatty acid content. There was also increased omega3:omega6 ratio in visceral adipose tissue. (35)
• Antimicrobial / Roots: Study of ethanol extract of fresh roots exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and Candida. (see constituents above) (36)
• Assisted Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study reports on the biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extracts. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis. (37)
• Mitigation of Lipotoxicity and Experimental Atherosclerosis: Study evaluated the efficacy of C. sativum in preventing in vitro LDL oxidation mediated macrophage modification and alleviation of pathophysiologic alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. There was lowered lipid profile following CS treatment. Results showed the CS extract has potential of mitigating in vivo induction of experimental atherosclerosis. (38)
• Immunostimulant Activity/ Fish Cultures: Study showed Coriandrum sativum exhibited potent immunostimulation with induction of the blood parameters in the experimental fish catla. It suggests a potential as a dietary additive or as an adjuvant to heighten the immune response in fish cultures. (39)
• Neuroprotective / Neuronal Damage in PTZ Model of Seizure: Study evaluated the preventive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on neuronal damages in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. All extract doses reduced duration, frequency, and amplitude of burst discharges and prolonged the latency of seizure attacks (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively). There was also reduction in production of dark neurons and apoptotic cells. Neuroprotective activity was attributed to antioxidant properties. (43)
• Decreased Migraine Attacks / Fruits: Study of C. sativum syrup decreased the duration, severity, and frequency of migraine in 74 migraineurs selected through the international headache society diagnostic criteria. The mean migraine duration, severity and frequency in the intervention group were 6.2 hours, 3.82 units, and about 50% less than the control group, respectively. (44)
• Effect on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis / Fruits and Essential Oil: Study evaluated the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Evaluation included histopathological examination and measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity. Results showed alleviation of colitis with treatment of oral extract and essential oil. Effect could be due to both absorption of active ingredients and/or effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. (45)
• Effect on Rat Appetite: Study evaluated the effect of Coriandrum sativus hydroalcoholic extract on food intake in 30 male Wistar rats. Results suggest coriander had positive effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms. (46)
• Protection Against DNA Damage and Cancer Cell Migration / Antioxidant: Study investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum leaf, root, and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration and protection against DNA damage. An ethyl acetate extract of roots showed highest antiproliferative activity on breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 200.0 ± 2.6 µg/mL and the highest phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. The root extract also inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration suggesting potential cancer prevention and inhibition of metastasis. The anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells was attributed to its effect on antioxidant enzymes and its effect on H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. (47)
• Antidiabetic / Limonene / Fruits: Study evaluated the molecular interaction of limonene isolated from the methanol extract of fruit of C. sativum and targeted protein related to type 2 DM. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity was done through an in silico docking approach. The docking study of the ligand limonene with target protein showed it is a good inhibitor and suggest potential for the plant extract as an alternative diabetic treatment. (49)
Gut Modulatory / Blood Pressure Lowering / Diuretic / Toxicity Study / Fruit: Study evaluated a crude extract of fruit for its uses in dyspepsia, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hypertension and as diuretic. Results showed the fruit exhibits gut stimulatory, inhibitory and hypotensive effects possibly through cholinergic, Ca2+ antagonism and combination of mechanisms. The diuretic effect compliments its antihypertensive effect. Acute toxicity study of the crude extract of fruit given orally showed no toxicity up to a dose of 10g/kg. (50)
• Sedative-Hypnotic / Seeds: Study evaluated extracts and essential oil of Coriandrum sativum essential oil of seeds for sedative-hypnotic activity in male albino mice. Results showed prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. The extracts and essential oil produced central nervous depression. The aqueous extract of seeds showed more profound effects than the hydroalcoholic extract or essential oil. (52)
• Anti-Anxiety / Fruit: Study evaluated the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test, and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam was used as standard. Study showed an anti-anxiety effect at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg doses similar to diazepam. Further studies are needed to identify the responsible phytoconstituents. (53)
• Acute and Chronic Toxicological Studies / Seeds: Study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of hydro-methanolic extract of CS seeds using OECD guidelines. In acute toxicity study, LD50 was more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. In sub-chronic toxicity study, the animals were given CS extract in doses of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kbw. Results suggest the CS extract is non-toxic up to 3000 mg/kbw and can be considered safe for consumption. (55)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer Against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of C. sativum leaves for in-vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity against HT-29 Human Colon cancer cell lines. Phytochemical screening yielded significant secondary metabolites. C. sativum reduced the viability of HT-29 cell lines and dead cells were significantly increase with high concentration. Even at low concentration, C. sativum showed high efficacy. (56)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Membrane Stabilization / Seed: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativum seed powder extract using HRBC membrane stabilizing method. Results showed membrane stabilization effect by inhibiting hypotonicity induced lysis of erythrocyte membrane. Diclofenac as synthetic positive control showed more efficient anti-inflammatory effect. (57)
- GRAS (Generally Recognized
As Safe) status.
- Probably safe in amount used with foods.
- Probably safe orally in small amounts for medicinal use.
- Probably effective for dyspeptic complaints and increasing appetite.
- No known interactions with drugs and other herbs.
- Cooking spice.
- Essential oils, seed powder, extracts, tinctures, supplements in the cybermarket.