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Family Malvaceae
Kulotan / Mangkit
Urena lobata Linn.

Di tao hua

Scientific names  Common names 
Urena americana L. Afulut (Gad.) 
Urena americana L.f.  Anonongkot (Bik.) 
Urena diveersifolia Schumach. Bagouan (If.) 
Urena grandiflora DC.   Baranggot (Bik.) 
Urena lobata L. Batikil (If.) 
Urena lobata var. americana (L.f.) Gürke Dalupang (P. Bis., Tag., Pamp.) 
Urena lobata L. var. lobata Daupang (Sul.)
Urena lobata var. trilobata (Veil.) Gürke Dopong (Sul.) 
Urena monopetala Lour. Kolokot (Ting.) 
Urena reticulata Cav. Kollokollot (Ilk.) 
Urena tomentosa Blume Kulot (Pang.) 
Urena trilobata Vell.   Kulit (Pang.) 
  Kulotan (Tag., Bis.) 
  Kullukullut (Ilk.) 
  Kulut-kulutan (Tag.) 
  Mangkit (Ig.) 
  Molopolo (Tag., Pamp.) 
  Palisin (Tag.) 
  Poot-si-nuang (Is.) 
  Pirikit (Neg.)
  Saligut (Bon.)
  Supang (Sub.)
  Tapanding (Mag.) 
  Caesar weed (Engl.)
  Bur mallow (Engl.)
  Congo jute (Engl.)
Mangkit is a shared common names for (1) Dikit-dikit (Desmodium gangeticum Linn.) and (2) Dalupang (Urena Lobata Linn.) and (3) Tayam (Desmodium heterocarpus Linn) also called mankit-parang.
Urena lobata is the preferred name. BioLib.cz / Tropicos resource / Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life / NCBI
Urena lobata is an accepted name/ The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiao fan tian hua, Ye mian hua, Tian fu rong, Cao mai fan tia hua, Xiao feng cao, Qian chui cao, Di tao hua.
FRENCH: Cousin urène (Caribbean), Grand mahot-cousin (Caribbean), Jute Africain, Jute de Cuba, Jute du Congo, Jute paka, Uréna, Uréna du Brésil.
GERMAN: Kongojute.
HINDI: Bachita, Lapetua, Paka, Pathia, Unga.
KENYA: Mtishiet.
MALAYALAM: Vatturam, Uthiram.
PORTUGUESE: Aguaxima (Brazil), Carrapicho-de-lavadeira (Brazil), Carrapicho-redondo (Brazil), Embira (Brazil), Guaxima, Guaxima-rósea (Brazil), Malvaísco (Brazil), Malva-de-embira (Brazil), Malva-rósea (Brazil), Uaicima.
RUSSIAN: Kongolezskij dzhut, Madagaskarskij dzhut, Urena lopastnaia.
SPANISH: Aramina, Cadillo (Cuba), Malva blanca (Cuba).
VIETNAMESE: Ke hoa dao.

Dalupang erect, branched shrub 0.6 to 2.5 meters high. Plant is exceedingly variable and more or less hairy, stems often with reddish branches. Leaves are pale beneath, ovate to suborbicular, 3 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, more or less toothed or somewhat lobed or angled, the lobes not exceeding beyond the middle of the leaf and the sinuses being usually broad and acute.
Flowers are pink or purplish, about 1.7 millimeters in diameter and borne singly in the axils of the leaves, or somewhat in panicles. Petals are 5, free above, connate below and adnate to staminal tube; staminal tube truncate or minutely toothed, anthers many. Ovary is 5-celled, branches of stigma 10. Fruits are rounded but flattened and about 7 millimeters in diameter, with the 5 carpels covered with short, barbed spines.

- Throughout the Philippines In open places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 meters.

- Polymorphous in vegetative characters.
- Pantropic.

- Nutrient root analysis yielded carbohydrate 33%, protein 1.9%, fat 1.8%, fiber 51.7%, moisture 6.6%, and ash 5%.

- Preliminary phythochemical analysis of methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. (see study below) (18)
- Study of ethyl acetate portion and n-butanol portion of a 95% ethanol extract of branches and leaves yielded ten flavonoid compounds, viz. kaempferol (1), rutin (2), quercetin (3), afzelin (4), astragalin (5), tiliroside (6), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glycopyranoside -7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (8), kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside-4'-O -β-D-glycopyranoside (9) and crenuloside (10). (24)
- Ethyl acetate fraction of leaves yielded three compounds viz. kaempferol, quercetin, and 3-O-ß-D-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-α-L-glucopyranosyl-kaempferol (tiliroside).  (see study below) (2)
- MS and NMR studies of 95% ethanol extract of branches and leaves of Urena lobata yielded 12 compounds viz. syringic acid (1), glucosyringic acid (2), salicylic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (4), protocatechuic acid methyl ester (5), caffeic acid (6), maleic acid (7), hexatriacontanoic acid (8), pentadecanoic acid (9), hexadecanoic acid (10), heptadecanoic acid (11), diisobutyl phthalate(12). (28)
- Spectroscopic study of extracts of dried powdered leaves isolated four compounds viz. quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin 3-0-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-0-ß glucopyranoside. (32)

- Sweet tasting, slightly cooling, mucilaginous.
- Antirheumatic, antipyretic,
stomachic, vermifuge.

- Studies have shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antiproliferative properties.

Parts utilized
· Roots, leaves; preferably fresh.

· In Africa, leaves and flowers are eaten as famine food.
· In the Philippines, root decoction used to relieve colic.
· Infusion of root used internally as emollient and refrigerant, and externally for skin diseases associated with pain and inflammation.
· Decoction of 30-60 gms of dried roots used for enteritis and dysentery, rheumatic pains,
· Boiled and pounded leaves used as poultice for bladder and intestinal inflammations.
· Decoction of roots and leaves used to soften the skin.
· In Tahiti, the plant used as emollient, and the flowers used as expectorant.
· Root used externally for lumbago and rheumatism.
· Decoction of seeds taken internally a vermifuge.
· Poultice of fresh leaves for snake bites, sprains, and bruises.
Flowers used as expectorant; given for dry and inveterate coughs. Roots used as diuretic; also used externally for rheumatism.
· In
Brazil, decoction of stem and root used for severe colic.
· In
Nigeria used to treat diabetes.
· In Malaysia, extracts of leaves and roots used to treat abdominal colic, malaria, gonorrhea, fever, wounds, toothaches and rheumatism.
· In Malaysia, used for intestinal inflammation and as an emollient.
- In Kenya, the Sabaots of Mt. Elgon chew boiled roots to facilitate to ease delivery of afterbirth. (40)
· In the Congo, part of a herbal concoction used for abdominal inflation associated with schistosomiasis, dysentery and diarrhea. For alopecia, skin lesions and dermatoses, rubbed with the ground leaves of Lantana camara on the body.
· Fiber / Paper: Bast fiber of the plant is of the jute type, more easily extracted than jute. Rope made from the fiber is fairly strong. In India, Japan and other countries, it is used as cordage material. It is a favored fiber in the manufacture of
coffee bags because it has does not affect the aroma of the coffee. Aramina fiber and Congo jute are produced in Brazil from the Urena lobata. The fiber also makes a strong paper, and said to be twice as strong as "Bank of England note pulp."

Antioxidant: Effects of Irvingia grandifolia, Urena lobata and Carica papaya on the Oxidative Status of Normal Rabbits: With recognized therapeutic effects, the plants were studied for toxic side-effects. Results showed no evidence of oxidative damage on liver and pancreatic MDA levels on rabbits, and even seemed to provide protection against lipid peroxidation. (1)
Phytochemical / Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: The study of UL leaf extract isolated 3 compounds: kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside which showed strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia. The study supports the traditional use of the plant for treatment of infectious diseases. (2)
Antidiarrheal / Seed Extract: A study reports the antidiarrheal potential of seed extracts of L dealbata and Urena lobata used in the traditional medicine by the Naga tribes of India. Both plants showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and PGE2-induced intrafluid accumulation. Both showed significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility with no signs of toxicity. Results help explain it traditional use as an antidiarrheal agent. (3)
Antibacterial: (1) A study of the methanol extract of UL showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. (2) Comparative study of methanolic extract of UL root and a standard herbal formulation showed UL has antibacterial activity.
Immunomodulatory: A study of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata showed phagocytosis and intracellular killing potency of human neutrophils. Study concludes that U lobata possesses immunomodulatory property.
Furocoumarin / Imperatorin: Studies have previously yielded mangiferin and quercetin from the aerial parts of the plant. This study isolated imperatorin, a furocoumarin, from the roots. (7)
Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study of aqueous extracts of Urena lobata (roots and leaves) in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed recognizable hypoglycemic/anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. (9)
Hypoglycemic / Long-Term Effects of Root Extract: Study in rabbits showed U. lobata aqueous extract of roots significant reduced body weight and fasting glucose. It exerted an initial toxic effect on hepatocytes and also caused bile obstruction. However, the effects were not severe and not sustained. A reduction in dose, frequency, and duration of administration may reduced the side effects observed in the study. (11)
Antioxidant / Roots: Study evaluated the methanolic extract of roots of S. retusa, T. rhomboidea, and Urena lobata for antioxidant activity. The extracts were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. Results showed all three possessed significant antioxidant activity. (14)
Antifertility / Spermatogenesis Effect / Roots: Study evaluated E. axillare leaves and Urena lobata roots for antifertility activity in adult male Wistar albino rats. Results showed E. axillare and Urena lobata reversibly inhibited spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis indicating reversible antifertility activity. (15)

Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. Extract showed potent antioxidant activity with effective scavenging of free radicals and potent cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay. (16)
Liver Effect / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of root on liver of adult Wistar rats. Results show that biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can be significantly altered with continued and increased use of the extract. (17)
Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of leaves showed antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive effects. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins present in the methanolic extract may be responsible for the antinociceptive effect. The extract showed no toxicity when administered to mice at doses up to 3000 mg/kg. (18)
Sperm Abnormality Effects: In a pilot toxicity study in albino rats, Urena lobata caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in headless tail sperm cell abnormality, a primary sperm abnormality caused by a disruption in the course of spermatogenesis. (19)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated a methanolic extract for wound healing activity in albino rats. Results showed significant would healing activity in excision, incision, burn, and dead space wound models, comparable to the Povidone-Iodine formulation. (20) Study for wound healing activity by Scratch assay and Fibroblast proliferation assay. Results showed enhanced cell migration on scratch wound assay and increased proliferation of fibroblast proportional to concentration. (27)
Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal effects of L. dealbata seed extract and U. lobata leaf extract in castor oil induced diarrhea and PGE2-induced intrafluid accumulation in murine models. Both extracts showed significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Acute toxicity tests showed no sign of toxicity in the animals. (21)
Antiproliferative / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extracts of Urena lobata and Viscum album showed significant antiproliferative and antioxidant properties on MB-MDA435 breast cancer cell line. (22)
Analytical Potential of Flower Dye Extract: Study showed the flower extract of U. lobata can be used as acid-base indicator in all types of titration, with potential preference over synthetic indicators because of easy availability, inertness, ease of preparation and cost effectiveness. (23)
• Antidiabetic / Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of leaf extract of U. lobata through dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity. An ethanolic water extract showed stronger FPP-IV inhibition than water water with an IC50 of 1 654.64 and 6 489.88 µg/mL, respectively. Vildagliptin showed an IC50 of 57.44 µg/mL. In silico analysis of mangiferin, stigmasterol, and ß-stitosterol in U. lobata extract showed strong inhibitory activity on DPP-IV. (26)
• Antioxidant: By DPPH assay, extracts showed remarkable ability to scavenge radicals in a dose dependent manner. Study showed significant inhibition of nitric oxide radical generation by extracts of U. lobata. Percent inhibition by extracts were 75.69% ET, 70.43% HA, 66.20% EA, 64.66% CL, and 60.28% PE, and curcumin at 90.34%. All extracts showed dose dependent response. Activity may be due to the presence of sterols, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (27)
• Analgesic / Membrane Stabilizing: Study evaluated two Bangladeshi plants, Uraria lagopodies and Urena lobata. Oral administration of ethanol extract of U. lobata produced significant (p<0.05) pain relieving activity (decreased number of writhing. Both extracts showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing activities. (29)
• Toxicity Study / Spermatogenesis Effects: Pilot toxicity study evaluated three common Nigerian herbs, Hyptis suaveolens, Cleome viscosa and Urena lobata for effects on hematological parameters and sperm count of albino rats. Urena lobata treatment showed significant increase (p<0.05) in neutrophils count of rats. U. lobata showed spermatogenesis effects as evidenced by a significant increase (p<0.05) in headless tail sperm cell abnormality. (30)
• Anxiolytic / Antidepressant / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anxiolytic (elevated plus maze test, dark light transition model), antidepressant (tail suspension method, forced swim test), and anti-inflammatory effects (carrageenan induced paw edema model) of Urena lobata leaf extract in Swiss albino mice and male Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed the leaf extract could be used for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and inflammation. However, exact mechanisms need further elucidation. (31)
• Leaves as Indicator of Roadside Pollution: Urena lobata leaves growing along busy roadsides in Benin City, Nigeria were evaluated vis-a-vis those growing in forest areas for activity of air pollution. Microscopic observations of leaves from polluted microhabitats showed stomatal pores were plugged at both upper and lower surfaces, which was suspected to be the result of cumulative effects of air pollutants that dominated busy roadside where the plant grows. Leave from non-polluted microhabitats showed no plugging of stomatal pores. Results suggest a potential pointer to negative activity of pollution common in busy roads, especially with regards pollutant contamination of raw and processed food items commonly displayed by food vendors. (33)
• CNS Depressant and Sedative Effects: Study evaluated a hydro-methanolic fraction for neuropharmacological activities in Swiss mice. Results showed CNS sedative and depressant effects with profound decrease in exploratory activity, marked sedative effect as evidenced by significant reduction in gross behavior and potentiation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time. (34)
• Antidiabetic Effect: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of hexane, ethanolic, and aqueous leaf extracts of Urena lobata using Sprague Dawley rats. The leaf extracts of three types of solvents all increased serum insulin level and improved ß cell condition, and also decreased the AUC of the OGTT series in diabetic rats. The aqueous leaf extract was best in increasing serum insulin level, recovering islet cell condition, and correlating with blood glucose level. The hexane extract showed poor results. (36)
• Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin / Clematoside-S / Leaves: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated an active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. An 80% ethanol extract of leaves yielded an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Results suggest a potential application for U. lobata as natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation. (37)
• Wound Healing Activity of Ointment Formulation: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of two different ointment formulations, original extract ointment (EO) and nanotised extract ointment ( NO) using incision and excision models in Swiss albino rats. Skin treated with Nano herbal and extracts ointment revealed epithelisation, thin epidermis, mild to moderate degree of fibrosis. along with neovascularization and mild degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the dermis region. Histopathology findings suggest the nanoherbal extract treated group showed better wound healing as evidenced by fibrosis and reduced inflammatory infiltrates. (38)
• Antihyperglycemic Effect / Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of U. lobata leaf extract through DPP-IV inhibition. Both water and ethanolic extracts from U. lobata decreased DPP-IV level and blood glucose AUC with the water extract showing stronger effect. The extracts significantly increased insulin synthesis of diabetic rats. Active compounds such as mangiferin, stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol have strong inhibitory constants and act as good DPP-IV inhibitors. (39)


Updated August 2019 / October 2017 / June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Urena lobata var sinuata W IMG 1353.jpg / J M Garg / 30-08-09 / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Effects of Irvingia grandifolia, Urena lobata and Carica papaya on the Oxidative Status of Normal Rabbits / Akhere A. Omonkhua / The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008 Vol 6 Number 2
Studies on antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Urena lobata Leave extract
/ Adeloye, o. Adewale / Jour of Physical and Natural Sciences / Vol 1, Issue 2, 2007 /
Antidiarrheal Activity of Lithocarpus dealbata and Urena lobata Extracts: Therapeutic Implications / Yadav, Arun K.; Tangpu, Vareishang / Pharmaceutical Biology
, March 2007; Volume 45, Number 3: pp 223-229 / https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200701213153
Urena lobata L. Caesar weed / MALVACEAE / John K. Francis, Research Forester, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Antibacterial activity of Urena lobata root / U K Mazumder, M Gupta et al /Fitoterapia. 01/01/2002; 72(8):927-9
f activity of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata Linn. / Mathappan Rinku et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology™ ISSN: 1531-2976
A furocoumarin, Imperatorin isolated from Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae) / Keshab Ghosh / Molbank 2004, M382
A Study of the Anti-Diabetic Effects of Urena lobata and Sphenostylis stenocarpa in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Onoagbe, I O, Negbenebor E O et al / European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.43 No.1 (2010), pp.6-14
Evaluation of the long-term effects of Urena lobata root extracts on blood glucose and hepatic function of normal rabbits / Akhere A. OMONKHUA and Iyere O. ONOAGBE / Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. August 2011; 3(8): p
p 204-213
Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Urena lobata root and a standard marketed herbal formulation / Rinku Mathappan, Prasanth V.V et al / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 5 (2010)
Sorting Urena names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher
Urena lobata L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, Chiina
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea / K.P. Lissy,* Thara K. Simon,a and M.S. Lathabb / Anc Sci Life. 2006 Jan-Jun; 25(3-4): 10–15.
Preliminary study on antifertility activity of Enicostemma axillare leaves and Urena lobata root used in Indian traditional folk medicine / Ramaiyan Dhanapala, J.Vijaya Ratnab, Malaya Guptac, I. Sarathchandrand / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Aug 2012; Volume 5, Issue 8: pp 616–622
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extract of Urena lobata (L) Leaves / Md. Sekendar Ali*, Kazi Omar Faruq, Md. Aziz Abdur Rahman, Md. Aslam Hossain / THE PHARMA INNOVATION - JOURNAL, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013
Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn) on the Liver of Albino Rat / I.Y. Mshelia, B.M. Dalori, L.L. Hamman and S.H. Garba / Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 5(1): 01-06, 2013
Preliminary antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity studies on leaves of Urena lobata L. / Md. Hasibul Islam, K. M. Hasanur Rahman, Shahnaz Rahman and Mohammed Rahmatullah / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):559-563
Wound Healing Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Urena lobata Linn / Rinku Mathappan*, Sanjay P Umachigi and VV. Prasanth / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol. 2 (2) Apr-Jun 2013
Antidiarrheal Activity of Lithocarpus dealbata. and Urena lobata. Extracts: Therapeutic Implications / Arun K. Yadava & Vareishang Tangpua /
Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 45, Issue 3, 2007 / DOI:10.1080/13880200701213153
In vitro antiproliferative and anti-oxidant activities of methanol extracts of Urena lobata and Viscum album against breast cancer cell lines / Constant Anatole Pieme, Jeanne Ngogang, Marietta Costache / Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry , 2012 / DOI: 10.1080/02772248.2012.674135
Analytical Potentials of Dye Extracts from Urena Lobata (Mgbo) Flowers / Sunday O. Eze, Rose A. Ogbuefi / Communications in Applied Sciences, Vol 2, No 1
Study on Chemical Constituents of Urena lobata L.I.Flavonoid Constituents / JIA Lu, JING Lin-lin, ZHOU Sheng-an, A You-mei, KONG De-yun / Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals, 2009-09
Urena lobata / Synonyms / Tropicos Resource/EOL
Anti-diabetic potential of Urena lobata leaf extract through inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity / Yudi Purnomo, Djoko WahonoSoeatmadji, Sutiman BambangSumitro, Mochamad ArisWidodo /
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, August 2015; Volume 5, Issue 8: pp 645-649
INVITRO ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT Urena lobata: Antioxidant and Wound Healing Studies / Shodhganga
Study on Chemical Constituents of Urena lobata L.Ⅱ.Phenolic Acid Constituents / JIA Lu, GUO Hai-bo, JING Lin-lin, ZHOU Sheng-an, KONG De-yun / Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals 2009-10
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Uraria lagopodies DC. and Urena lobata L. / Md. Torequl Islam, Mohammed Ibrahim, Md. Qamrul Ahsan, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Md. Aslam Hossain and Mohammad A. Rashid / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 11(1): 65-69, June 2012
Anxiolytic Antidepressant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Urena Lobata Leaf / Sipai Babu S ,Bindu Madhuri D ,Subba Reddy D / Int J Pharma Res Health Sci. 2016; 4 (4): pp 1284-1290
Isolation and Characterization of Flavonoids in Urena lobata Leaves / Dixa Singh and V S Singh / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11(1): 1-6, 2016
Study of the Activity of Air Pollution on the Leaves of Urena lobata Growing along Busy Roads / J. E. Otoide / Donnish Journal of Agricultural Research Vol 2(8) pp. 071-076 November, 2015.
NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENINGS OF HYDROALCOHOLIC FRACTIONS OF URENA LOBATA L. / Md. Torequl Islam*, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira,
Bishwajit Guha / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Vol 3, Issue 3, pp 62-71 (2014)
Urena lobata / synonyms / The Plant List
Antidiabetic Effect of Urena lobata: Prelilminary Study on Hexane, Ethanolic, and Aqueous Leaf Extracts / Doti Wagyuningsih, Yudi Purnomo / Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 2018; 30(1): pp 1-6
Discovery of a Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin, Clematoside-S from Urena lobata L. / Xiao-Ling Gao, Ying Liao, Jie Wang et al / International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2915; 16(3): pp 4731-4743 / https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034731
Ointment Formulation in Wound Healing / Shodhganga
Anti-hiperglycemic Effect of Urena lobata Leaf Extract by Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) on Diabetic Rats / Yudi Purnomo, Djoko W Soeatmadji, Sutiman B Sumitro, M Aris Widodo / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2015; 7(5); pp 1073-1079
Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya / S V Okelio, R O Nyunja, G W Netondo, and J C Onyango / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., 2010; 7(1): pp 1–10 / PMID: 21304606

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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