Damong-mabaho is a hairy or glandular, foetid herb, erect, simple or branched, very leafy, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are obovate or oblanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide, smaller towards the top, stalked, and toothed or rarely lobulated at the margins. Flowering heads are about 8 millimeters across, borne on short axillary cymes, and collected in terminal, spikelike panicles. Involucre-bracts are narrow and hairy. Corolla is yellow and the pappus is white. Fruits are achenes, not ribbed, somewhat 4-angled and smooth.
Widely distributed in open waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Also occurs in Tropical Africa, and in India to China and Malaya.
- Study isolated two new glycosides, the triterpenoid glycoside 19α-hydroxyurs-12-ene-24,28-dioate and the phenol glycoside 2-isoprenyl-5-isopropylphenol from the whole plant of B. lacera.
- Essential oil contains cineol, fenchone.
- Leaves yield coniferyl alcohol derivatives, campesterol, and flavones.
- Ethanolic extract of aerial parts yields hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, α-amyrin, lupeol, and ß-sitosterol.
- Root and root bark yield triterpenes and sterols.
- Essential oil of leaves yielded thymoquinol dimethyl ether as main constituent, together with β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and E-β-farnesene.
- Phytochemical characterization of the plant yielded alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (21)
- Astringent, anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, febrifuge.
- Essential oil considered analgesic, hypothermic and tranquilizing.
- In Ayurveda, considered bitter, astriingent, acrid, thermogenic, errhine, anti-inflammatory, styptic, ophthalmic, digestive, anthelmintic, tonic, expectorant, diuretic, deobstruent and stimulant.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-leukemic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Leaves cooked and eaten as vegetable.
- In the Philippines, a decoction of fresh flowers is given before meals for bronchitis - 30 gm in 1 liter of water, boiled to half of its volume.
- Expressed juice of leaves used as anthelmintic, especially in cases of threadworm, either internally or applied locally. Used as a invaluable remedy for Tinea Tarsi.
- Expressed juice of leaves, mixed with black pepper, given for bleeding piles. Also, used as febrifuge and astringent.
- Dried herb used as febrifuge; as astringent in hemorrhages; as deobstruent and stimulant.
- Astringent eye lotion prepared from the leaves.
- Plant used as diuretic.
- Useful for catarrhal affections, wound healing.
- In West Africa, plant prescribed as antiscorbutic.
- In India, root kept in the mouth used for buccal diseases. Tincture used for bleeding piles.
- In Uttar Pradesh, India, fresh leaf juice used twice daily for a week to treat threadworms. (22)
- Repellant: In the Konkan region of India, plant used to drive away fleas and other insects.
• Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial: Study of extract of air-dried leaves of Blumea lacera yielded α-pinene-7β-O-β-d-2,6-diacetylglucopyranoside, 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone, and 3,5,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against Candida albicans, low activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (2)
• Cytotoxicity: Study of 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were studied for its cytotoxic effects. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines, including three human cancer-cell lines (gastric, colon and breast). (3)
• Antibacterial: Study on the antibacterial activity of 5 indigenous plant species showed greater inhibitory effect against Gram-positive bacteria. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded against Bacillus subtilis with the leaf extract of Blumea lacera. (4)
• Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity: A methanolic extract of B. lacera showed very good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase inhibitors may provide clues for the development of new insect control agents, food additives and whitening agents. (8)
• Antidiarrheal: Study in experimental rats showed an ethanolic extract of root of B. lacera had more antidiarrheal activity than B. eriantha, although less effective compared with atropine sulfate. (10)
• Antioxidant: Study of methanol extracts of four Bangladesh medicinal plants, including B. lacera, showed antioxidant activity. BL also showed toxic action in the cytotoxicity assay against MDCK cell line. (11)
• Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Blumea lacera against Ascaris lumbricoides and Pheretima posthuma with piperazine citrate as standard. Results showed good dose dependent anthelmintic activity. (12)
• Hypoglycemic: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of B. lacera leaves on Swiss albino mice, with glibenclamide as standard. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity supporting its traditional use. (13)
• Antioxidant / Toxicological Study: Bangladesh study evaluated four plants--A. capillus-veneris, Blumea lacera, C. alata, and Cissus quadrangularis for antibacterial and antioxidant (DPPH assay) potentials, together with toxicological profile. Plants showed no antibacterial activity against test isolates. Significant antioxidant activity was demonstrated by the methanol extracts. Only C. quadrangularis was devoid of toxic action in the cytotoxicity assay. (14)
• Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antispasmodic activity of leaves by contractile activity on guinea pig ileum. Results showed the hexane extract possessed antispasmodic activity. (15)
• Cytotoxic Effects: Study evaluated 16 Bangladesh medicinal plants for cytotoxic effects against various human cancer cell lines (gastric, colon and breast). The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines. (16)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Bradykinin Activity: Study evaluated alcoholic extract of B. lacera on acute and chronic models of inflammation. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory effect against bradykinin induced edema, significant effect against carrageenan induced edema, and significant effect against granuloma pouch and cotton pellet implantation, although less potent than phenylbutazone and betamethasone. The anti-bradykinin activity may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. (17)
• Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the repellent activity of B. lacera against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, with DEET as positive control. Results showed a potential as an effective mosquito repellent, with the a direct relationship with extract concentration and repellent activity. (18)
• Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of a methanolic extract of B. lacera leaves on albino rats on a pyrexia induced Brewer's yeast model. Results showed an antipyretic effect at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. (19)
• Antimicrobial: Crude extract of B. lacera was evaluated for antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, steroids, gums, and reducing sugar. Petroleum ether and methanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against two bacteria and a fungus. (20)
• Pharmacologic Activities: Study evaluated a crude methanol extract of whole plant for antidiarrheal using castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion method, anxiolytic activity using hold board and open field tests,membrane stabilizing activity by hypotonic solution induced hemolysis of human RBCs, antitherothrombosis using standard streptokinase, and antidiabetic activity using in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity. The crude extract showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity. Antimicrobial assay showed better activity against tested fungi compared to bacteria. The plant exhibited significant anxiolytic activity. In vitro anti-atherothrombosis test exhibited 46.71% clot lysis. Membrane stabilizing evaluation showed inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis of RBCs. Study also showed dose dependent digestion of carybohydrates by a-amylase inhibition. Results suggest potential for many pharmaceutical applications. (23)