Damoro is an erect, annual herb growing from 30 to 90 centimeters high. Leaves are rather distant, 2- or 3-pinnate; the ultimate segments are linear; and 1.2 to 2.5 centimeters long. Flowers are white and grow in compound umbels. Fruit is very small, ovoid, hispid and ribbed.
- Occasionally cultivated in Batangas and neighboring provinces and in Manila.
- Native of India.
- Plant yields a volatile oil, 0.12%; some phellandrene; about 1 % thymol.
- Fruit contains a volatile oil, 3 to 4 %; with 45 to 55 percent thymol; p-cymol, 1%.
- Seeds contain an aromatic volatile essential oil and crystalline substance called stearoptene, a crude thymol.
- Seed analysis yielded fiber 11.9%, carbohydrates 38.6%, tannins, glycosides, moisture 8.9%, protein 15.4%, fat 18.1%, saponins, flavone and mineral matter 7.1% containing calcium, phosphorus, iron and nicotonic acid. (21)
- Fruits yield 2% to 4% brownish essential oil, with thymol as the major constituent (35% to 60%). The non-thymol fraction (thymene) contains prar-cymene, y-terpenine, α-and ß--pinenes,dipentene, α-terpenine and carvacrol. (21)
- Study of seed essential oil by hydrodistillation by GC and GC/MS analysis yielded total volatiles (2.3% w/w) with 44 compounds representing 91.6% of aerial parts oil identified. Oil main components were hexadecanoic acid (27.5%), ethyl linoleate (8.5%), 6-methyl-α-ionone (8.0%), isobutyl phthalate (5.8%), α -cadinol (4.7%), germacrene D (4.3%), and δ -cadinene3 (3.5%). (see study below) (26)
- Seeds are considered antispasmodic, bactericidal, anticholinergic, stimulant, tonic, carminative.
- Considered antiseptic.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antifungal, antihypertensive, hypolipidemmic, antispasmodic, bronchodilatory, diuretic, abortifacient, antitussive, anthelmintic, nematicidal, antifilarial properties.
- Fruit used with "buyo" for chewing for a carminative effect.
Seeds used for flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea; often recommended for cholera, usually used with asafoetida, myrobalans and rock salt.
- Decoction used for discharges, sometimes used as a lotion.
- Decoction of seeds a common ingredient of cough mixtures.
- As topical remedy, used with astringents for sore throats.
- During the 1st World War, sought after for its thymol content, which is considered antiseptic.
- In India, used for flatulence, dyspepsia, intestinal colic. Also, used to stimulate the appetite, for diarrhea, and as a gargle for laryngitis.
- In southern parts of India, seeds are powdered and soaked in milk, filtered and fed to babies for colic and to help digestion.
- Used by nursing mothers to increase milk flow. Antispasmodic use of the seeds for menstrual cramps.
- In Ayurvedic medicine used as antiseptic, as well as for respiratory and GI ailments. In Unani medicine, used as enhancer of body's resistance. (21)
• Antimicrobial: In a screening of plants used in the Ayurvedic system in India to treat enteric diseases, the methanol extract of Carum copticum showed moderate antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. (1)
• Antihypertensive / Antispasmodic / Bronchodilator / Hepatoprotective: Study of seed extract of Carum copticum caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. It showed a calcium channel blocking effect confirming the presence of calcium antagonists. In Isolated guinea-pig tracheal preparations, it caused inhibition of induced-bronchoconstriction. It prevented CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time confirming hepatoprotectivity. (2)
• Antinociceptive: Study showed CC fruit extract had antinociceptive effects, more on the late phase than early phase. (3)
• Analgesic: Study Study showed clear-cut analgesic effect. The positive results in analgesiometric testing indicate the antinociceptive action of Carum copticum may be of the opioid type.
• Protease Activity: As digestive aid to humans, study showed Carum copticum was effective in the stomach and small intestine, while Allium sepa was effective only in the small intestine (4).
• Fumigant Activity: In a study comparing the fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from C. copticum and Vitex pseudo-negundo tested against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus, CC was almost more toxic than VPN on all growth stages of C maculatus. Results suggest the essential oils may be potential grain protectants as botanical alternative fumigants. (5)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study showed the total alcoholic extract and total aqueous extract of the seeds of Carum copticum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in both rat models of carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma. (6)
• Anti-Tussive Effect: Study showed antitussive effects of Carum copticum to be even greater than that of codeine at concentrations used. The effect was not due to its main constituent, carvacrol. (8)
• Bronchodilator Effect: Study of boiled extract from Caricum copticum showed a bronchodilator effect on asthmatic airways which was comparable to the effect of theophylline. (10)
• Cholinomimetic Effect: Study of aqueous extract from roasted seeds of Carum copticum showed cholinomimetic effects, with muscarinic effects on rabbit duodenum, guinea-pig ileum and rat jejunum, and on blood pressure of rat and cat. Chromatography studies showed the presence of acetylcholine and choline in the roasted seed extract. (11)
• Inhibition of Acetylcholine-Induced Ileal Contraction: Study showed an aqueous extract of Carum copticum reduces basal contractile activity of rat's ileum, reduced acetylcholine induced contraction. (13)
• Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effect: Study of Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowain) extracts in albino rats showed the methanol and petroleum ether extracts to have a hypolipidemic effect in albino rabbits, with the PEE showing greater potency than the methanol extract with also greater reduction of atherogenic index. (14)
• Anti-Fertility Effects: Study of ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi fruits showed significant dose-dependent anti-fertility effects in male rats. Results suggest a potential for a male contraceptive formulation. (15)
• Antifungal / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil from fruits of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited cidal toxicity against Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Thymol and p-cymene were isolated as antifungal principles. (16)
• Antidiarrheal / Seeds: Study investigated a 95% total alcoholic extract and total aqueous extract of seeds for antidiarrheal activity in experimentally in male Wistar rats. Results showed significant decrease in diarrheal droppings in castor oil diarrhea, decreased in transit of charcoal meal, and reduction in enteropooling. Results suggest seed extracts could be used for diarrhea treatment. (18)
• Essential Oil as Natural Antioxidant in Dressings: Study showed all concentrations of essential oils were suitable antioxidants for preserving of dressing against oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants like BHA and BHT can be substituted with EO if used in higher concentrations. (19)
• Anti-Giardia Activity: Giardiasis, a widespread small intestine parasitic infection, is one of the main causes of human diarrhea. Study evaluated the in vitro effects of an alcoholic extract of essential oil on Giardia lamblia. Results showed C. copticum is effective in vitro against Giardia lamblia cysts. (20)
• Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation: In vitro study with human platelets showed inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation by bishop's weed extract. The activity was attributed to redirection of arachidonic acid from the cyclooxygenase to the lipooxygenase pathway, with reduction of thromboxane B2 formation. (21) (22)
• Antihelminthic / Seeds: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activities of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of seeds against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. All extracts showed anthelmintic activity at all concentrations, comparable to standard drug albendazole. (23)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Seeds / Collagen Induced Arthritis: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of T. ammi seeds on collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Treatment with T. ammi reversed all parameters suggesting either termination of cellular infiltration or limitation of oxidant generation following CIA in rats and potential in the treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases. (24)
• Antiepileptic / Seeds: Study evaluated a methanol extract of T. ammi as antiepileptic agent in a strychnine-induced seizure model for epilepsy. Results showed a potential anti-epileptic effect that may be due to the presence of thymol, acting through a mechanism similar to benzodiazepines. (25)
• Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of seed extracts by radical scavenging activity of antioxidants against DPPH method. Results showed the IC50 of the seed extracts are higher than the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid, and gallic acid. (see constituents above) (26)
• Anti-Spasmodic / Spasmolytic / Anticholinergic / Essence: Study evaluated the effect of T. ammi essence on acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated rat's ileum. Essence distillate yielded thymol as the main constituent. Results showed different concentrations of TAE exhibited potent spasmolytic and anti-spasmodic effect on isolated rat's ileum. (27)
• Antiviral Against Japanese Encephalitis Virus / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil showed potential in vitro antiviral activity against JEV. Results suggest purification of active biomolecule and in vivo trial to evaluated its efficacy for future use. (28)
• Larvicidal / Essential Oil / Aedes aegypti: Study showed the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae. (29)
• Antibacterial / Fruit Essential Oil / Food Borne and Spoilage Bacteria: Study evaluated the anti-bacterial potential of essential oil and extracts of T. ammi fruits against food borne and spoilage bacteria. The oil and extract of T. ammi displayed remarkable anti-bacterial effects against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, E. aerogenes, and S. aureus. (30)
Drug Interaction Concerns
- In vivo animal studies showed hypotensive and bradycardic effects. In vitro studies show inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. (21)
Seeds and extracts in the cybermarket.