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Family Capparaceae
Halubagat-baging
Capparis horrida Linn.
CAPER BERRY
Niu yan jing

Scientific names  Common names 
Capparis aeylanica Roxb. Baralauik (Ibn.)
Capparis aurantioides C.Presl  Dauag (Tag.)
Capparis crassifolia Kurz  Dawag (Tag.) 
Capparis dealbata DC.  Halubagat-baging (Tag.)
Capparis erythrodasys Miq.  Laginau (Bis.)
Capparis hastigera Hance  Talaktak (Ilk.)
Capparis horrida L. f.  Tarabtab (Ilk.)
Capparis latifolia Craib Ceylon Caper (Engl.)
Capparis polymorpha Kurz Caper berry (Engl.)
Capparis quadriflora DC. Indian caper (Engl.)
Capparis rufescens Turcz.  
Capparis subhorrida Craib.   
Capparis swinhoii Hance   
Capparis terniflora DC.  
Capparis xanthophylla Collett & Hensl.  
Capparis zeylanica L.  
Dauag or Dawag is a shared common name for: (1) Halubagat-baging, Capparis horrida (2) Sapnit, Mezoneurum latisiliquum and (3) Atangen, Toddalia asiatica
Capparis horrida L.f. is a synonym of Capparis zeylanica L. The Plant List
Capparis zeylanica L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Chui guo teng, Niu yan jing.
HINDI: Ardanda.
TAMIL: Adondai, Tondai, Kathotti.
TELUGU: Adonda.
SANSKRIT: Vyakhranakhi, Kinkani, Tapasapriya, Grant- hila, Karambha.

Botany
Halubagat-baging is a climbing and spiny shrub, growing to a height of 3 or more meters. Leaves and branches are hairy. Spines are short, sharp, recurved and subtending each leaf or branch. Leaves are oblong to oblong-ovate, 8 to 17 centimeters long, leathery, shiny, with a rounded base, pointed at the tip. Flowers are seriately arranged in vertical lines above the axils, usually 3 to each axil, pedicels 2 to 3 cm long. Sepals are pale green, 1 centimeter long. Petals are pink turning to purple, oblong to ovate, 1.5 centimeter long. Fruit is fleshy, ovoid or rounded, smooth, bright red when ripe, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, with a thin, somewhat stony rind. Pulp is whitish, transparent, sweet, with a fairly good flavor, and with numerous seeds.

Distribution
- Common in thickets, secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Burma, Thailand, and Indo-China to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening of C. zeylanica yielded saponins, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vanillic, ferrulic, and p-coumanic acids. Leaves and seeds have yielded b-carotene, thioglycoside, glycocapparin, n-tricortane, a-amyrin and fixed oil.
- Root bark yielded an alkaloid, a phytosterol, and a mucilaginous substance.

- Preliminary phytochemical screening of an alcoholic extract yielded sterols, alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, and flavonoids. (see study below) (16)
- Root extract yielded phenolic compounds (43.625 ± 1.45 mg/g of dry extract), total tannins (24.75 ± 1.23 mg/g DE), total flavonols (1.653 ± 1.41 rutin equivalents/g DE), total flavonoids (0.876 ± 0.26 mg/g rutin/g of DE), saponins (1.22 ± 1.35 mg/g DE) and fatty acids (0.0867 ± 0.01 mg/g of dry extract). (see study below)
(18)
- Ethanol and water extracts of roots yielded phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonols, alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids. (see study below) (
22)

Properties
- Leaves are counter-irritant and slightly stomachic.
- Root-bark is considered analgesic, anthelmintic, aperient, depurative, diuretic, sedative, stomachic, antihidrotic.
- Plant is used as stimulant and antiscorbutic.

- Fruit considered rubifacient.

Parts utilized
Leaves, root and bark.

Uses
Edibility
- Pulp is edible.
- Fruit and immature flower buds are pickled.
- Tender young shots and immature leaves eaten as vegetable.

Folkloric
- In the Philippines' Rizal Province, decoction of roots used in gastralgia and as uterine tonic after childbirth.
- Decoction of root-bark used for vomiting, abdominal pain, gastric irritation, and for improving the appetite.
- Used for treatment of asthma and breast pains.
- Also used for excessive perspiration.
- Leaves also used to improve the appetite.
- Leaves used as cataplasm for boils, swelling and hemorrhoids.
- In Cambodia, roots and bark considered diuretic.
- Wood used for bronchitis and ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose.
- In India, traditionally used as antidote for snake bites, for testicular swellings, small pox, boils, cholera, colic, neuralgia, sores, pneumonia, and pleurisy.
- In Madras, decoction of leaves used for syphilis.
- Root-bark used as sedative, stomachic, and antihidrotic; leaves are slightly stomachic.
- In Nagpur, bark mixed with native spirits used for cholera.
- Plant decoction used for vaginal thrush.
- Poultice of leaves used externally for gout.

- In India, leaves are used as counter-irritant, febrifuge, and as cataplasm in swellings, boils, and piles.
- In Tamil Nadu,India, root bark is ground with water, boiled, and drunk to treat indigestion. (27)


Studies
Immunomodulatory Effects: A study to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of C zeylanica showed a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers and an augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep RBC evidenced by a dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titers in mice. Extracts also prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with with cyclophosphamide. (2)
Immunomodulatory Effects: Oral administration of an ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction of Capparis zeylanica showed an ability to modulate both cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system.(6)
Analgesic / Antipyretic / Phytochemicals: A study showed dose-dependent and significant increases in pain threshold in the tail-immersion test. Both extracts showed a dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test. Phytochemical testing yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, proteins and carbohydrates. (3)
Antimicrobial / Roots: Study of various extracts of roots showed antimicrobial activity against B subtilis, S aureus, B pumilus, E coli, P vulgaris. None of the extracts showed antifungal activity. (4)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant Potential: Study of in vitro antioxidant potential of fractions of the methanolic extract of aerial parts of C zeylanica showed the butanol fraction with more scavenging activity than other fractions, comparable to ascorbic acid. (5)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study of the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of leaves of C. zeylanica on aspirin- plus pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl-ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats showed a significant anti-ulcer activity in all models. (7)
Antipyretic: Methanolic extract of C. zeylanica showed significant dose-dependent antipyretic activity in rats. (8)
Anti-Aggressive Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of root for circumvention of aggression in an animal model. Aggression can occur when a disturbance occurs in the fine balance of neurotransmitters such as 5-HT, GABA, dopamine,, and receptor subtypes. Results showed the extract minimized aggression dose-dependently in validated models of aggression. There was promising anti-aggressive activity qualitatively comparable to that of diazepam. (11)
Anticonvulsant Activity / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of root in animal models of epilepsy. The extract was found to be non-toxic up to the recommended dose of 2000 mg KBW. In various induced-seizure models the extract exhibited anticonvulsant effect comparable to antiepileptic drugs Diazepam and Phenytoin. (12)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the methanolic extract of leaves for antidiarrheal activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestine transit method on mice. Results showed a significant dose dependent decrease in severity of diarrhea. Loperamide was used as standard. (13)
Nootropic / Effect on Spatial Learning and Memory: Study evaluated petroleum ether and methanol extract of leaves for effect on spatial learning and memory in rats. Results showed nootropic activity. The antioxidant property may contribute to the memory enhancement effect. (14)
Neuropharmacological Depressant Effects: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of C. zeylanica for neuropharmacological activities. The extract significantly and dose dependently decreased exploratory activity, spontaneous motor activity and swimming, climbing behavior in forced swimming test. At doses tested, it was devoid of memory impairment and neurotoxicity. (16)
Sedative / Anxiolytic / Roots: Study confirmed the presence of stigmasterol and stachydrine in an ethanolic root extract. The root extract showed sedative and anxiolytic effects which may be due to constituents present and present a potential safe alternative in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. (17)
Antioxidant / Roots: Study of Capparis zeylanica extract in an in vivo study in rats showed significant dose dependent antioxidant activity in the DPPH test. The antioxidant activity of the extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg were comparable to that of α-tocopherol (10 mg/kg). (see constituents above). (18) Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried root powder of C. zeylanica using DPPH and reducing power assays. Both extracts showed strong antioxidant activity, with the ethanolic extract showing better activity than the methanolic extract. (24)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of Capparis zeylanica for antimicrobial activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed maximum inhibition against Vibrio fischeri and Salmonella paratyphi. An aqueous extract inhibited the growth of Tricophyton rubrum. (19)
Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated different root extracts of C. zeylanic for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma as test worms. Crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts showed significant paralysis and death of worms in a dose dependent manner. Reference drug was albendazole. (20)
Wound Healing / Roots: Study evaluated a methanol extract of roots for wound healing potential in excision and incision wound models. In the incision model, 200 mg/kg showed pronounced healing properties in tested paratmeters, tensile strength and DNA content. In the excision model, a 2% concentration showed better healing when compared with povidone iodine ointment. (21)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Roots: Study evaluated ethanolic and water extracts in acute and chronic models of rats and mice. The extracts showed dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) increases in pain threshold in tail-immersion testing. It showed dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and significant inhibition (p<0.05) of both phases of formalin induced pain. The alcoholic extract significantly (p<0.05) reversed yeast-induced fever. (22)
E-Octadec-7-en-5-ynoic Acid / Subacute Toxicity Testing / Roots: Study of roots isolated a novel compound E-Octadec-7-en-5-ynoic acid from the chloroform extract of the roots. Subacute toxicity study in rats showed no adverse effect. (23)
Anthelmintic / Comparative Activity of Seeds and Leaves: Study evaluated the comparative anthlemintic activity of crude hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and seeds of C. zeylanica and its different fractions against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed seeds crude hydroalcoholic extracts and chloroform and methanol fractions significantly showed paralysis and death of worms compared to standard reference Albendazole. (25)
AChE Inhibitory Activity / Memory Enhancing Effect: Study evaluated the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and memory enhancing activities of Capparis zeylanica in in vitro and ex vivo models. Results showed methanolic and aqueous extracts of CZ improved scopolamine-induced memory deficits through inhibition of AChE activity, but not by direct MAO inhibition. (26)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / FLOWERS / File:Capparis zeylanica.jpg / Lalithamba from India / 11 March 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Varshney, S. K., C. S. Barsaul, et al. (1990). Nutritional evaluation of heens (Capparis horrida) plant for goats. Indian Journal Of Animal Nutrition 7(2): 157-158.
(2)
Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves / B V Ghule et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 108, Issue 2, 24 November 2006, Pages 311-315 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.041
(3)
Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Capparis zeylanica leaves / B V Ghule et al / Fitoterapia
Volume 78, Issue 5, July 2007, Pages 365-369 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.02.003
(4)
Antimicrobial activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn . roots.(Research Article) / V Chopade, A Tankar et al / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, January 1, 2008
(5)
Free radical scavenging activity of Capparis zeylanica / Agrawal Surendra and Talele Gokul / International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2009, Volume : 1, Issue : 2
(6)
Studies on Immunomodulatory Activity of Capparis zeylanica Leaf Extracts / Surendra S. Agrawal, Saurabh Khadase and Gokul Talele / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology / Volume 3 • Issue 1 • April – June 2010
(7)
Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals / Karanayil R. Sini et al / Avicenna J Med Biotech 2011; 3(1): 31-35
(8)
A Study On Antipyretic Activity Of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Plant Methanolic Extract / Amiya Ranjan Padhan et. al. / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Vol.1(3), 2010, 169-171
(9)
Capparis zeylanica L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(10)
Sorting Capparis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(11)
Evaluation of Antiaggressive Activity of Capparis zeylanica Root Extract in Experimental Animal Model / Sunil Kumar MISHRA*, Paras Nath SINGH, Satya Deo DUBEY / Not Sci Biol, 2013, 5(2):127-132
(12)
Anticonvulsant Study of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Root in Wistar Rats / S.K. Mishra, P.N. Singh and S.D. Dubey / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 6: 416-424.
(13)
Antidiarrheal activity of Capparis zeylanica leaf extracts / Karanayil R. Sini, Barij N. Sinha, and Aiyolu Rajasekaran / Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 2011Jan-Mar; 2(1): 39-42
(14)
Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats. / Ruchi Solanki, Amrendra Kumar Chaudhary, Ranjit Singh / J Nat Med 2012 Oct 20;66(4):600-7.
(15)
Capparis zeylanica / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND NEUROPHARMA COLOGICAL STUDIES OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA ROOT BARK / Ramya Kuber Banoth* and Santhrani Thaakur / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, Issue 6, 2014.
(17)
Sedative & anxiolytic studies of Capparis Zeylanica Linn. root extract / Sunil Kumar Mishra , P. N. Singh, S. D. Dubey / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, Dec 2013, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 307-317
(18)
Evaluation of antioxidant activities in ethanolic extract of Capparis Zeylanica Linn. Root. / Sunil Kumar Mishra*, P. N. Singha, S. D. Dubey / Rev. latinoam. quím vol.41 no.1 Naucalpan de Juárez abr. 2013
(19)
In vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extracts
/ Priya, R. Deepa; Jasmine, D. Jacintha; P. Agastian / Journal of Pharmacy Research;2012, Vol. 5 Issue 8, p4449
(20)
In vitro anthelmintic activity of roots of capparis zeylanica linn. / Ravindra D. Bendgude*, Manish S. Kondawar, Sandeep B. Patil, Rupali V.Hirave / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2: 154-158 (2011)
(21)
Wound healing activity of Capparis zeylanica (root) / *Chandan Das, Sujit Dash, Durga Charana Sahoo, Abinash Kumar Sahu, Raghunandan Hota and Dolley Rout / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):15-19
(22)
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. root extract / Sunil Kumar Mishra*, Paras Nath Singh, Satyadev Dubey / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2013, 8(1)
(23)
Sub-acute toxicity study of a novel compound E-Octadec-7-en-5-ynoic acid from Capparis zeylanica Linn roots / Mahmuda Haque and Md. Ekramul Haque / Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2011, 2(4): 708-712
(24)
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF DRIED ROOT POWDER OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA LINN
/ CAROL P. MACWAN *, MAYUREE A. PATEL / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 3, 2010
(25)
In-Vitro Evaluation and Comparative Study of Capparis Zeylanica Leaves and Seeds for Anthelmintic Activity / PB Aswar, SS Khadabadi, BS Kuchekar, RM Rajurkar, SS Saboo and UA Deokate
(26)
Inhibitory effect of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on acetylcholinesterase activity and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia / Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Solanki, Ruchi; Singh, Vandana; Singh, Umesh Kumar / TANG [HUMANITAS MEDICINE, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2012, pp.19.1-19.6
(27)
Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India / Chellaiah Muthu, Muniappan Ayyanar, Nagappan Raja and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine20062:43 / DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-43

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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