HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Apocynaceae
Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br.

Tang jiao shu

Scientific names  Common names 
Aeschynomene laevis Noronha Alipauen (Ilk.) 
Alstonia kurzii Hook.f. Andarayan (Ibn.) 
Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. Bita (P. Bis.) 
Alstonia scholaris var. avae A.DC. Bitter bark (Engl.) 
Alstonia scholaris var. blumei A.DC. Dalipauen (Ilk.) 
Alstonia scholaris var. velutina Monach Devil's Tree (Engl.) 
Alstonia spectabilis Kurz Dirita (Ilk.) 
Echites pala Buch.-Ham. ex Spreng. Dita (Tag., Bik., Sul.) 
Echites scholaris Linn. Dilupaon (Ibn.) 
Nerium septapama Jones Lava (Ilk.) 
Pala scholaris (L.) Roberty Lipauen (Ilk.) 
  Oplai (Ibn.)
  Pasuit (Pang.) 
  Polai (Pang.) 
  Tanitan (Bis.) 
  Tangitang (Bis.) 
  Alstonia (Engl.) 
  Autralian fever bark (Engl.) 
  Australian quinine bark (Engl.) 
  Devil's tree (Engl.)
  Devil tree of India (Engl.) 
  Mocua tree (Engl.)
  Milky pine (Engl.)
  Milkywood pine (Engl.)
  Scholar's tree (Engl.)
  White cheese wood (Engl.)
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Chattim, Khami, Satni, Chhatni.
CHINESE: Tang jiao shu.
HINDI: Shaitan ka jhar, Chatian, Chitvan.
INDONESIAN: Pulai, Pule, Rite.
KANNADA: Maddale, Hale, Bantale, Kodale, Janthalla.
LAOTIAN: Tinpet.
MALAY: Pulai, Pulai linlin, Pule.
MALAYALAM: Dalvappala.
MARATHI: Satvin.
NEPALI: Chhataun, Chhatiwan.
PAKISTAN: Chhatim.
SANSKRIT: Phalagaruda, Saptaparna, Saptaparni.
THAI: Sattaban, Teenpet, Teenpethasaban.
VIETNAMESE: Caay mof cua, Caay suwxa.

Gen info
- Historically, the plant was named Echites scholaris by Linnaeus. It was renamed Alstonia scholaris by Robert Brown to commemorate of Prof. Charles Alston (1685-1760), who was professor of botany at the University of Edinburg, scientific writer and keeper of King's garden at Holyrood, and one of the few botanists who resisted the Linnaean taxonomic classification when it was introduced. The species epithet scholaris derives from the use of the wood in making blackboards and wooden slates for schools in South East Asia (Arulmozhi et al., 2007c; Baliga, 2010). (45) (46)
- The name Devil's tree is based on a belief in Western India that the tree is an abode of evil spirits. (50)

Dita is a smooth tree growing 6 to 20 meters high. Branches are lenticellate. Bark is dark grayish, somewhat rough, yielding an abundant, bitter, and milky sap. Leaves are in whorls,4 to 7in a whorl, leathery, narrowly obovate to spatulate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, 3 to 4.5 centimeters wide, pointed at the base, rounded at the apex, glossy green on the upper surface, white or grayish on the underside. Lateral nerves are very numerous, parallel, and terminating in a intramarginal vein. Flowers are crowded, numerous, somewhat hairy, greenish-white, about 1 centimeter long, hairy in the throat, borne in compact, hairy cymes about 10 centimeters long. Fruits is made up of two slender follicles which are pendulous and cylindric follicles, 20 to 40 centimeters long, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are 3 to 4 millimeters long, with brown ciliate hairs on the ends.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Found from Cagayan in northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces, in primary and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (42)

• Contains alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acid.
• Bark yield the alkaloids echitenine, ditamine; crystalline and toxic echitamine; ditaine; and an uncrystallizable and bitter principle.
• Study isolated from the mother-liquors of echitamine hydrochloride, a crystalline alkaloid, echitamidine.
• A petroleum ether extract yielded echikautschin, echicerin, and echiretin.
• The bark contains indole alkaloids, including reserpine, echitamine, alstonine, tetrahydroalstonine, alstonidine, yohimbine and others.
• Antihypertensive effect due to reserpine and echitamine.
• A study revealed three new indole alkaloids: nareline ethyl ether, 5-epi-nareline ethyl ether and scholarine-N(4)oxide.

• Phytochemical screening of stem bark fractions yielded the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, fixed oils and fats. (35)
• Phytochemical screening of extracts of bark, stem, and leaves yielded alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, and glycosides. The bark showed higher amounts of glycosides, alkaloids, gums and mucilage. (see study below) (43)
• Phytochemical screening of crude precipitate yielded steroids and triterpenes, fractions yielded alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and resins, and triterpenoid compounds. (see study below) (47)
• Study of hexane fraction of leaf extract yielded ursolic acid (1), oleanolic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), betulin (4), 2β,3β,28-lup-20(29)-ene-triol (5), lupeol (6), β-amyrin (7), α-amyrin (8), poriferasterol (9), epicampesterol (10), β-sitosterol (11), 6β-hydroxy-4-stigmasten-3-one (12), and ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol (13). (see study below) (49)
• GC-MS study of essential oil of flowers yielded 60 compounds. Main constituents were 2-Dodecyloxirane (31.83%), Benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- (8.49%), Spinacene (6.09%), 1,54-Dibromotetrapentacontane (5.13%), 2,6,10,15-Tetramethylheptadecane (4.91%), Terpinyl acetate (3.74%), Linalool (2.22%), Tritetracontane (2.17%), 1-Cyclohexanol, 2-(3-methyl-1,3-butadienyl)-1,3,3-trimethyl- (1.58%). (51)
• Seeds yield indole alkaloids alstovenine, venenatine, chlorogenine, reserpine, ditamine and echitamine. (54)
• Study of leaves yielded two C13-norisoprenoids identified as megastigmane-3β, 4α, 9-triol (1) and 7-megastigmene-3,6,9-triol (2). Compound 1 is a new compound. (56)
• Study of trunk bark isolated a new indole alkaloids, akuammiginone (1), a new glycosidic indole alkaloid, echitamidine-N-oxide 19-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), and five known alkaloids, echitaminic acid (3), echitamidine N-oxide (4), Nb-demethylalstogustine N-oxide (5), akuammicine N-oxide (6), and Nb-demethylalstogustine (7). (62)
• Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded mixtures of erythrodiol (1a), uvaol (1b), and betulin (1c) in a 1:1:1 ratio, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in a 2:1 ratio, ß-amyrin acetate (3b) and α-amyrin acetate (3b) in a 1:4 ratio, and β-sitosterol (4a) and stigmasterol (4b) in a 3:2 ratio; squalene (5), β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6"-O-fatty acid esters (6), and chlorophyll a (7). (68)
• Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded six pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely: lupeol (1), betulin (2), 3-hydroxy-11-ursen-28,13-olide (3), betulinic acid (4), oleanolic acid (5), and ursolic acid (6). (see study below) (71)
• Study of leaves of A. scholaris isolated two rearranged triterpenoids, alstoscholarinoids A and B, representing subtypes of pentacyclic triterpenoids with unique ring systems. (see study below) (73)
• Study of non-alkaloids fraction of A. scholaris isolated four new triterpenoids, alstolarnoids A-C and D (1-3 and 10) and seven known analogues (4-9 and 11). (see study below) (80)
- GLC study of fatty acid content of hexane extracted oil from mature seeds yielded content of 239 g/kg (weight per kg of dry seeds), containing four fatty acids accounting for 100% of total fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids identified were oleic acid (65.66%) and linoleic acid (12.15%), while saturated fatty acids were palmitic acid (13.77%) and stearic acid (8.42%). (see study below) (84)

• Reported as antimicrobial, antiamoebic, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, antimalarial, febrifuge, stimulant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-diabetic, cardiotonic.
• Bitter bark and latex considered tonic and antiseptic.
• Ditamine or ditanin considered to possess antiperiodic properties equal to the best sulphate of quinine without the latter's disagreeable side effects

• At high doses, plant extracts have been shown to cause damage to all major organs of rats and mice The degree of toxicity appears to depend on plant organ studied, season of the year harvested and used. Bark collected in the monsoon season is least toxic; the summer bark, the most. Toxic effects may be due to echitamine, an alkaloid in the bark. (see rituals below) (also see 52, 72, 75)

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

- In the Philippines, the bark is regarded as a remedy for fevers, chronic diarrhea, dysentery.
- Earlier Spanish records report the dita bark alkaloid was used in hospitals as a quinine substitute.
- Tonic wine was prepared by macerating 25 grams on the bark in a bottle of muscatel or sherry.
- Milky latex from the bark placed on cloth and applied as poultice to developing boils.
- Milky juice is applied to ulcers and rheumatic pains.
- Milky juice, mixed with oil, used as drops for earaches.
- Juice of leaves, mixed with fresh ginger root or zedoary, is given to women after confinement.
- Tender leaves, roasted and pulverized, are made into a poultice for unhealthy ulcers and foul discharges.
- Chronic diarrhea, fever: 1% decoction of bark as tea.
- Malaria: 5% decoction of bark as tea.
- Tincture of the bark occasionally used as galactagogue.
- Decoction of the bark used as tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary.
- In eastern Malaysia, decoction of leaves used for beriberi.
- Decoction of leaves given for liver congestion.
- In Java, bark used as stomachic and is used as ingredient into mixtures used for coughs and as vermifuge.
- Bark used as antidote for Antiaris poisoning.
- Late applied to hollow tooth for toothache.
- Powder of Alstonia cortex used for patients with paroxysmal attacks and those positive for malarial parasites in the finger's blood. (A clinical investigation in Queensland showed contrary results, that the drug has little or no demonstrable action in malaria induced in monkeys or naturally occurring in humans.)
- In India, dita bark is used as astringent, tonic, anthelmintic, alterative, antiperiodic and remedy for diarrhea and dysentery.
- In India, ripe fruits used in treatment of syphilis insanity and epilepsy. Milky juice used for treatment of ulcers. Stem bark used as bitter tonic and febrifuge, and for treatment of malaria, diarrhea, and dysentery.
- In India, leaves used for asthma, dropsy, dysentery, fever, headaches and ulcers. Roots used for leprosy and as anthelmintic. Latex used for rheumatism, skin diseases, toothache, tumors, and ulcers. In Indonesia, used for diarrhea, diabetes, and hemorrhoids. In Malaysia, used for beriberi, stomatitis, malaria, fever, and yaws. In Burma, latex used for toothache and ulcers. In Vietnam, bark used for malaria and leaves for lactation. (45)
- In Ayurveda, used in phosphaturia and as blood purifier. (43) Also, infusion of bark soaked overnight used in diabetes. Bark is an essential constituent in many polyherbal preparations.
- Tribal people of Sikkim use bark decoction Saptaparna for treatment of hypertension and cardiac disease. (
- Poultice of young leaves used for ulcers.
- Bark paste applied to skin ulcers.
- In India, used for treatment of malaria, jaundice, intestinal maladies, cancer and other ailments. (45)
- Australian aborigenes used the bark for treatment of abdominal pains and fevers and the latex for neuralgia and toothache. (65)
- In Karnataka, India, used for treatment of fever, asthma, leucorrhea, eczema, indigestion and spider bites.
- Wood: Used for making coffins in Sri Lanka and school boards in Myanmar. (65) The Blaan people of South Cotobato use the wood for construction of 2-stringeds boat lutes, faglung or fuglung, relatives of the kudyapi. Used for making plywood core.
- Ethnoveterinary: Used for fever in cattle (Harsha et al., 2005). (43)

- Ritual:
In Kannada and Karnataka in India, on a new moon day (Ati amasé in Tulu), there is a mass annual ritual of drinking the bitter bark decoction, believed to boost the immune system and prevent diseases.
(50) Studies have indicated that toxicity of the bark was minimum during monsoon season and the concentration of the active principle was maximum in the bark juice on the particular new moon day, which justifies the timing of the described annual medicine drinking event. (82)
- Superstitions:
In India, Tulu-language speaking indigenous communities consider the tree a reincarnation of a mythological demon called Bali and worship its branch during the festival days of Deepavali.
- Fuelwood:
In Sri Lanka, recommended as fuelwood for the patana lands. (65)
- Fiber: Bark yields a fiber which is suitable for pulp and paper production. (65)
- Gum: Latex provides source for good quality chewing gum. (65)

α-Glucosidase inhibitors / Diabetes:
Study showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in the extract of dried leaves. It suggests further examination of A. scholaris as a medicinal supplement for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. (2)
Radioprotective: The study showed that A. scholaris extract protected against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in mice. (3)
Radioprotective / Bark: A study on Alstonia scholaris bark extract to evaluate its radioprotective effect on cytogenetic alterations in the form of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei induction in the bone marrow. Results showed pretreatment provides a radioprotective effect.
Anti-Cancer / Chemomodulatory / Enhancement of Berberine Effect: Study evaluated the chemomodulatory effect of A. scholaris extract in combination with berberine hydrochloride (BCL), a topoisomerase inhibitor, in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice: The study on the chemomodulatory activity of ASE showed it was effective in the early stages with decreased efficiency in the later tumor developmental stages. (4)
: Study showed the efficacy of AS in inhibiting mutagenic changes induced by benzo(a)pyrene induced fore-stomach carcinoma in female mice. (7)
Anti-Cancer: An anticancer study of various doses of an alkaloid fraction was done in cultured human neoplastic cell lines (HeLa, HepG2, HL60, KB and MCF-7) and in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Results showed a time dependent increase in antineoplastic activity. There was also a dose-dependent decline in viable cells.
Anti-diarrheal: Study showed the aqueous and alcoholic bark extracts of AS significantly reduced the diarrhea in mice. (6)
Anti-malarial: A study of extract of bark of AS was found to be devoid of antimalarial activity in mice infected with P berghei. However, a dose-dependent improvement of conditions and delayed mortality was found in animals receiving the methanol extract. (8)
Immunostimulatory: A study of bark extracts of AS cellular immune response and inhibited a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. (9)
Anti-diabetic / Hypoglycemic: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of powdered leaves in normal volunteers and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.
In NIDDM patients, treatment with with 3 g of powder showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in blood glucose on days 1, 8, and 15. The hypoglycemic effect was attributed to insulin triggering mechanisms and direct insulin-like actions. (10)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging / Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity: Study of ethanolic extract showed AS possess antioxidant properties with significant free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and significant ferric thiocyanate reducing activities. (11)
Of 17 Indian medicinal plants, A scholaris showed the most potent NO scavenging activity. (12) Study evaluated various extracts of bark, stem, and leaves. Aqueous and/or methanolic extracts from bark showed potent antioxidant activity, and at every concentration studied the superoxide radical scavenging was higher than those of standard gallic acid. (see constituents above) (44)
Comparative Antibacterial Study on Bark: Comparative study was done on the phytochemical and antibacterial activities of the bark of A. scholaris and A. macrophylla. Different solvent extracts showed alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, and tannins in both species. The chloroform extract of A. macrophylla showed broader spectrum of antibacterial activity than A. scholaris. (13)
Antitussive / Anti-Asthmatic / Expectorant / Picrinine: Study of alkaloid fractions of Alstonia scholaris leaf showed antitussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities. The main antitussive and antiasthmatic effect were attributed to picrinine. (14)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study
of alkaloid fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf yielded three main alkaloids - picrinine, vallesamine and scholaricine which may produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects peripherally based on in vivo assays. In in vitro testing, the alkaloids exhibited inhibition of inflammatory mediators (COX1, COX2 and 5-LOX. (15)
Antidiarrheal / Spasmolytic: In a castor oil-induced diarrhea model, a crude extract of Alstonia scholaris exhibited antidiarrheal and spasmolytic effects, mediated possibly through the presence of calcium channel blocking constituents, a mechanism that provides mechanistic basis for its medicinal use in diarrhea and colic. (17)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Bark: A study of an aqueous extract of AS bark in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant amelioration in fasting glucose, serum triglycerides, liver glycogen, glycosylated hemoglobin and body weight in diabetic rats. (19)
Antimycobacterial / Bark and Flowers: Study was done to evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to butanolic extracts of bark and flowers of Alstonia scholaris. Results at doses of 100 and 500 µg/ml for flowers and bark, respectively, showed moderate bactericidal activity against clinical strains of sensitive and drug resistant M. tuberculosis. An invitro bioassay showed complete inhibition of the the fast grower MTB. Results show a clear indication of a potent anti-tubercle effect. (21)
In Vitro Cytotoxicity / Roots: Least studied of the plant parts, an in vitro study investigated the cytotoxic properties of the roots of the plant. Results showed time dependent effect. The cell viability was found to decrease with the increase in concentration of the isopropanol extract. (22)
Anti-Aging / Anti-Skin Irritation: A. scholaris decreased retinol-induced skin irritation, increased the ability of the retinoids to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1, which is strongly associated with anti-aging effects. Results suggest a potential compound that may increase the anti-aging function of retinoids while reducing its ability to cause skin irritation. (23)
Aerobiological / Clinical / Immunobiochemical Properties: A West Bengal study showed A. scholaris pollen to be present 8.57% in the air from September until November. Among allergic patients, 28.57% showed positive skin reaction to the pollen extract, seven IgE-binding proteins were found; one component of 29.9 kDa was most important, which can be purified and help in the diagnosis and treatment of AS pollen-susceptible patients. (26)
Radioprotective / Effects against Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations: Study evaluated the radioprotective potential of A. scholaris extract in Swiss albino male mice exposed daily to 7.5 Gy of gamma radiation for 5 consecutive days. Radiation induced augmentation in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol was significantly amelioration by ASE and deficit produced in protein and glutathionne by radiation was mitigated. Results suggest pretreatment provides protection against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in mice.
Anticonvulsant / Sedative: Study concluded an ethanolic extract of A. scholaris possesses antiepileptic and sedative potential, probably through alteration in the GABA mediated chloride channel of neurons associated with sleep activity. (28)
Antihypertensive Effect: Study of bark decoction of Saptaparna on 30 patients with essential hypertension showed beneficial effects in reducing elevated diastolic blood pressure. (29)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of a dichlormethane fraction of leaves showed peripheral analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and lack of ulcerogenicity. (30)
Antibacterial / Bark: Study investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of various extracts of trunk bark of Alstonia scholaris. The extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The aqueous extract showed the best antibacterial activity. (31) Study of various concentrations of a methanol bark extract showed significant inhibition zones against gram-positive Bacillus coagulans and gram-negative Escherichia coli. (48)
Anticancer / Skin Carcinogenesis / Bark: Study evaluated bark extract of Alstonia scholaris for chemopreventive and anti-oxidative properties on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by DBMA in Swiss albino mice. Results showed decreased tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas along with significant increase in reduced glutathione, SOD and catalase and decreased lipid peroxidation. Results demonstrated chemopreventive potential of bark extract in DMBA-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. (32)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of leaves for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose level, body weight, HbA1c, muscle and liver glycogen, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were measured. (33)
Echitamine Chloride / Inhibition of Glycolysis of Sarcoma 180 Cells: Malignant tumors are reported to exhibit a high degree of glycolytic activity. Echitamine chloride, an indole alkaloid from the bark of A. scholaris, has been reported to have promising anticancer activity against fibrosarcoma in rats. Study showed echitamine chloride affects both cellular and mitochondrial respiration, leading to a reduction of cellular energy pool and loss of viability of S-180 cells. (34)
Enhanced Radiosensitivity in Various Neoplastic Cell Lines: Study demonstrated the radiosensitizing effect of an alkaloid fraction of Alstonia scholaris in various neoplastic cell lines. Pretreatment enhanced cell killing, the greatest observed for HeLa and KB cells. Results showed enhancement of effect of radiation which resulted in disease-free survival of the mice. (36)
Antifungal: Study of different concentration of alcoholic extracts of Alstonia scholaris, A. mexicana and Datura alba showed concentration dependent inhibition of radial growth of Candida albicans. (37)
Antiviral: Study investigated the anti-viral activity of various solvent extracts of Alstonia scholaris. In in-vivo assays, results showed longer survival in mice infected with Coxsackie virus B2. There was also considerable anti-viral activity against polio virus, Herpes simplex, and Hepatitis B virus. (38)
Anti-Arthritic / Antioxidant / Gastroprotective / Leaves: Study of an ethanolic extract of A. scholaris leaves against Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rats showed prominent antiarthritic activity which may be attributed to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant, and antioxidant activities. The extract also significantly reduced gastric lesion indices and gastric juice secretion in ethanol and sodium salicyate induced gastropathy. (39)
Hepatoprotective -Arthritic / Antioxidant / Gastroprotective / Leaves: Study in rats showed hepatoprotective effect of A. scholaris on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride, ß-D-galactosamine, acetaminophen and ethanol. (40)
Anti-Stress / Bark: Study evaluated the effect of stress and its modulation by a methanolic extract of bark of Alstonia scholaris using acute restraint stress model in mice. Results provided support for the anti-stress (adaptogenic), antioxidant, and nootropic activities of A. scholaris. (41)
• Antioxidant / Root-Bark: Study evaluated various solvent fractions of a methanol extract for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The precipitate, fraction, and compound showed a dose dependent inhibition of DPPH radical. An ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity with IC50 of 54.25 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (47)
• Antiproliferative / Triterpenoids and Sterols / Non-Small Cell Carcinoma Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the active components of A. scholaris leaf extract for anti-proliferative effects against non-small cell carcinoma cells. Study yielded eight triterpenoids and five sterols. Ursolic acid (1), betulinic acid (3), betulin (4), and 2β,3β,28-lup-20(29)-ene-triol (5) showed anti-proliferative activity against NSCLC with IC50 of 39.8, 40.1, 240.5 and 172.6 µM, respectively. (see constituents above) (49)
• Toxicity Study / Teratogenic Effect: Study evaluated the teratogenic effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of A. scholaris in pregnant Swiss albino mice at various doses (0-480 mg/kg). Doses up to 240 mg/kg did not induced mortality, congenital malformations or alter normal growth patterns. Doses of 360 or 480 mg/kg resulted inn dose dependent increase in mortality, growth retardation and congenital malformations, characterized by bent tails and syndactyly, along with significant delay in other morphological parameters. (52)
• Antibacterial / Mixture of Latexes of A. scholaris and Calatropis gigantia: Ancient Ayurvedic texts record the use of mixture of latexes of Saptaparna and Arka for dental caries pain. Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the mixture against E. coli and gingivitis bacteria. Results showed the mixture was as effective as control drug ampicillin. The mixture was found more effective than individual samples.  (53)
• Cytotoxicity / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the bioactivities and cytotoxicity of various extracts of three medicinal plants from India viz. Alstonia scholaris, A. venenata and Moringa oleifera. Amon the extracts tested for cytotoxicity on DLA cells, the most active were extracts from A. scholaris and A. venenata. A hexane extract of stem bark of A. scholaris showed an EC50 of 68.75 µg/mL. Results suggest a potential for anticancer drugs against leukemia and lymphoma and use as antioxidants in dietary supplements. (55)
• Antioxidant / Flowers and Fruits:
Study investigated the antioxidant potential of inflorescence and fruits of A. scholaris. A methanol extract of flower showed powerful antioxidant activity by DPPH and Beta-carotene assays, higher activity than the fruit extract. (57)
• Antidiabetic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the ameliorative properties of bioactive compounds of an ethanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed highly significant reduction (p<0.005) of blood glucose. (58)
• Antiplasmodial / Bark and Leaf: Study evaluated various plant parts viz. leaf, stem, bark, root, and fruit of A. scholaris against malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Among the plant parts tested, the bark and leaf exhibited IC50 <3.125 µg/mL followed by stem extract with IC50 3.125 µg/mL. (59)
• Antihypertensive / Vasorelaxant / Stem Bark: Study of stem bark extracts and fractions of A. scholaris showed blood pressure lowering activity in a male spontaneously hypertensive rat model and vasorelaxant effect on pre-contracted aortic rings probably via endothelium independent mechanisms. Potent negative chronotropic and ionotropic effect may also augment its antihypertensive effect. (60)
• Antimicrobial: Study showed A. scholaris is rich in secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids and saponin which exhibited antimicrobial activity. Crude extracts showed significant antibacterial effect against selected pathogens i.e., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. (61)
• Protective Against Bleomycin Induced Chromosomal Damage / Bark: Study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of A. scholaris bark, stem and leaves against bleomycin induced clastogenicity. Bark extract treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced total chromosomal aberrations. Results suggest certain compounds in the bark extract enhance DNA repair capacity. (63)
• Broncho-Vasodilatory Activity / Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract of A. scholaris leaves showed pronounced induction of bronchodilatory activity in anesthetized rats with probably mediated by prostaglandins, calcium antagonisms and endothelium-derived relaxing factor/s. (64)
• Ameliorative Against Acetic Acid Induced Colitis / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated an alkaloidal fraction of leaves of A. scholaris against acetic acid induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a male Wistar rats. Results showed amelioration of colitis through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties by inhibition of production of oxido-inflammatory mediator and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (66)
• Anticarcinogenic / Antimutagenic: Study evaluated the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of A. scholaris on bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity in mice. Extracts of A. scholaris significantly reduced the number of immature cells and frequency of aberration per cell. (67)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Bactericidal / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of AgNPs using a 10% leaf extract of A. scholaris. The antibacterial property was tested against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.08 nM of AgNPs, suggesting therapeutic efficacy. (69)
• Antioxidant / Anticholinesterase / Bark: Study evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of bark extracts of A. scholaris by DPPH assay and rat brain cholinesterase assay. Ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts showed significant antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Results suggest a potential for use in neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. (70)
• Antibacterial Synergism with Pentacyclic Triterpenoids / Leaves: Study evaluated constituents of leaf extract, antibacterial activity and synergism with pentacyclic triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens. Oleanolic acid (5) and ursolic acid (6) showed antibacterial activity limited to gram-positive bacteria. Ursolic acid showed synergistic effect with ampicillin and tetracycline against both Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The synergism of ursolic acid with antibiotics presents a therapeutic potential. (see constituents above) (71)
• Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Study / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of methanol extract of A. scholaris stem bark. A single dose and short term oral intake of bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw. Toxic effects manifested in long-term treatment at highest dose (500-1000 mg/kg), which was associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Study suggests prolonged use of high doses orally should be discourages and lower doses encouraged. (72)
• Antihyperuricemic / Altoscholarinoids / Leaves: Study of leaves of A. scholaris isolated two rearranged triterpenoids, alstoscholarinoids A and B, representing subtypes of pentacyclic triterpenoids with unique ring systems. Both compounds exhibited potent antihyperuricemic bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. (73) Study evaluated the antiuricemic property of A. scholaris and bioactivity of non-alkaloid fraction and compounds in a mice model in vivo and MSU-induced human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) in vitro. Study of non-alkaloids fraction
isolated four new triterpenoids, alstolarnoids A-C and D (1-3 and 10) and seven known analogues (4-9 and 11). The non-alkaloid fraction significantly decreased serum uric acid in mice at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, and 10 from the bioactive fraction exhibited antihyperuricemic effect in vitro by promoting excretion of UA in MSU-induced HK model at concentration of 5µM. Compounds 1 and 4 also reduced serum UA in mice at 5 mg/kg in vivo. (see constituents above) (80)
• Genotoxicity and Safety Pharmacology Studies / Indole Alkaloids from Leaves: Study evaluated indole alkaloid from leaves of A. scholaris (IAAS) for genotoxicity and safety using mice and dogs. Results showed no abnormal neurobehavioral effects in mice up to 960 mg/kbw of IAAS. In dogs, there were no difference in blood pressure, heart rate, ECG parameters, and respiratory rate and depth up to dose of 60 mg/kbw. Results suggest  IAAS did not induce mutagenicity, clastogenicity, or genotoxicity, and not pharmaco- toxicological effects in respiratory, cardiovascular, or CNS systems. (74)
• Acute and Sub-Acute Toxic Effects / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the acute and sub-acute toxic effects of various doses of hydroalcoholic extracts of stem bark in mice and rats. Swiss albino mice were found most sensitive followed by DBA and C57BL. The extract administered orally was non toxic up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw, while maximum number of deaths occurred after administration of 1100 mg/kg of extract by intraperitoneal route. Rats were more sensitive than mice as LD50 of ASE was less for rats than mice. In sub-acute toxicity testing, 240 mg/kg was more toxic than 120 m/g in measures of mortality and deformity in various organs. The toxic effect of ASE may be due to the presence of echitamine. High doses resulted in marked damage to all major organs. (75)
• Anticancer Effect on Mammary Carcinoma / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer effect of leaves of Alstonia scholaris using cytosolic marker enzymes (AST, ACP, ALP, LDH, GGTP, and 5'-NT) in vitro over breast cancer tissue. These are key enzymes in metabolic pathways and are the target of drugs in chemotherapy. Elevation of these enzyme concentrations signals the presence of malignancy. Study revealed the leaves of ME of A. scholaris o cancer cells/tumor cells in vitro has been justified by its cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect. (76)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves and bark for antimicrobial activity. Isopropanol and methanol extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and was more pronounced against Gram-positive than against Gram-negative bacteria. Bark and leaf extracts showed activity against Enterobacter cloacea. The isopropanol extract showed maximum activity against selected human pathogenic fungus. The isopropanol fraction showed highest antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-mycobacterial activities. (77)
• Toxicity Study on Indole Alkaloids / Leaves: Study evaluated evaluated the toxicity profile of indole alkaloid from leaves. The half-lethal dose (LD50) in mice was 5.48 g/kbw, almost 2740 times the clinical dose in humans. Among five indole alkaloids, the maximum tolerance dose in mice ranged from 0.75 to 4 g/kbw. TA-treated rats did not die nor showed adverse effects of dose-dependent changes in weight, food consumptions, and no gross or histopathological abnormalities in any organ. With daily oral administration, non-observed-adverse-effect-level of TA was 100 mg/kbw. Results indicate TA is safe for clinical use. (78)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Bark: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extract of A. scholaris as reducing and capping agent. The AgNPs showed very strong inhibitory activity against fungal sp., Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results suggest potential for commercial use of phytomedicine-coated AgNPs in biomedical applications and agricultural fungicides and as coating material in drinking water PVC pipelines to control the microbial contamination of water. (79)
• Anti-COVID-19 Ayurvedic Herbs / Mini-Review: Review provides pharmacological details on Ayurvedic herbs viz. Alstonia scholaris, Picrorhiza kurroa, Swertia chirata and Caesalpinia crista on symptoms of COVID-19 through information obtained on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Major symptoms include pro-inflammation, inhibition angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) and reactive oxygen species. All herbs under study are potent against two or more symptoms of COVID-19. All four Ayurvedic herbs present as therapeutic treatment option/supplements. (81)
• Pulmoprotective / Total Alkaloids on Airway Inflammation / Leaves: Study evaluated the protective activity of total alkaloids (TA) extracted from leaves against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation (AI) in rats. Total alkaloids decreased the percentage of neutrophil, number of WBC, levels of ALB, AKP, and LDH in BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), and increased ALB in serum. Total alkaloids inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 in the BALF and lung. Histopathological exam showed attenuation of tissue injury of lungs in LPS-induced AI. (83)
• Antibacterial Fatty Acid / Seed Oil: GLC study of fatty acid content of hexane extracted oil of mature seeds showed antibacterial property. The seed oil contained four fatty acids: two unsaturated and two saturated. The oil exhibited profound activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Bacillus sp. High content of linoleic acid suggests potential for the cosmetic industry. (84)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of crude methanol extract of A. scholaris leaf using three wound models in rats: incision, excision, and dead space wound models, measuring parameters of wound contraction, epithelization time, tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and granuloma weight. Enhanced wound contraction and decreased epithelization time was seen in the excision wound model. There was significant increase in tensile strength. Granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in dead space wounds were significantly increased. (85)
• Neuropharmacological Effects / Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the neuropharmacological and cytotoxic potential of M. elengi and A. scholaris leaves. Hole cross and hole board tests were used for assessing sedative effect, thiopental sodium induced sleeping time for hypnotic effect, elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiolytic potential, tail suspension test for antidepressant effect, and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for cytotoxic potential. Results showed the A. scholaris and M. elengi leaf extracts revealed significant neuropharmacological activities and impressive cytotoxic potential. (86)
• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Stem Bark: Study reports on the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using bark extract of Alstonia scholaris. Using disc diffusion method, the ZnONPs were evaluated against fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipelines. Results showed ZnONPs exhibit good antifungal activity than bactericidal effect towards all pathogens tested. (87)
• Safety and Tolerability of Alkaloid Capsules / Clinical Trial: CALAS is a new investigational botanical drug (capsule of alkaloids from the leaf of Alstonia scholaris) used for bronchitis, post-infectious cough, and asthma. A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial evaluated the clinical safety and tolerability of CALAS. Results showed CALAS is safe and well tolerated with no unexpected or clinically relevant safety concerns up to a single dose of 360 mg, and three times daily for 7 days up to 120 mg, supporting further phase II studies. (88)


Updated January 2023 / May 2018 / August 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Alstonia scholaris Blanco1.113-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Alstonia scholaris 091101-0477 Thailand: on my wife's land in village of Nang Saeng near Pak Phli, Nakhon Nayok Province. / Nov 9, 2009 / Tony Rodd / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic / click on photo to see source image / / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Saptaparni Alstonia scholaris in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. / File:Saptaparni (Alstonia scholaris) leaves & flowers in Kolkata W IMG 0534.jpg / 06.10.07 / J M Garg / GNU Free Documentation License, / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / File:Alstonia.scholaris.jpg / Public Domain / Published in : Atlas der Baumarten von Java I Fig. 77 (1913) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Alstonia scholaris / Vinayaraj / CC by SA 4.0 International / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pharmacological activities of Alstonia scholaris linn.(Apocynaceae) - A Review
a-Glucosidase inhibitors from Devil tree (Alstonia scholaris)
Amelioration of Radiation-induced Hematological and Biochemical Alterations by Alstonia scholaris (a Medicinal Plant) Extract / Uma Gupta et al / DOI: 10.1177/1534735408322850 / Integrative Cancer Therapies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 155-161 (2008)
Effect of Alstonia scholaris in Enhancing the Anticancer Activity of Berberine in the Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Mice / doi:10.1089/1096620041224094. / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga. Journal of Medicinal Food. June 2004, 7(2): 235-244
Alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris
Study of Antidiarrheal Activity of Alstonia scholaris Bark
Effect of Sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris Linn) in modulating the benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Ponemone Venkatesh / Toxicology Letters Vol 144, Issue 2, 30 September 2003, Pages 183-193 / doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00205-4
Preliminary evaluation of extracts of Alstonia scholaris bark for in vivo antimalarial activity in mice / J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Apr;29(1):51-7.
Immunostimulating effect of Pule (Alstonia scholaris L. R.Br., Apocynaceae) bark extracts / Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation / 1386-0291 / 1875-8622 / Issue Volume 23, Numbers 2-4/2000
Hypoglycemic effect of powdered Alstonia scholaris (Satona) / Professional Medical Journal, 2002; 9(3): pp 268-271 / DOI: 10.29309/TPMJ/2002.9.03.5423
In Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. / S. ARULMOZHI, PAPIYA MITRA MAZUMDER, PURNIMA ASHOK, L. SATHIYA NARAYANAN1735-2657/07/62-191-196 / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTIC / IJPT 6:191-196, 2007
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia / Journal of Medicinal Food. Fall 2004, 7(3): 343-348. doi:10.1089/jmf.2004.7.343.
Comparative Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies on the bark of Alstonia scholaris R.Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don / M S Khyade and N P Vaikos / Pharmacognosy Journay, Vol 1, No 4, Dec 2009
Pharmacological evaluation of Alstonia scholaris: anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities / Shang JH, Cai XH, Zhao YL, Feng T, Luo XD / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129(3): pp 293-298 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.029
Pharmacological evaluation of Alstonia scholaris: anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. / Shang JH, Cai XH, Feng T, Zhao YL, Wang JK, Zhang LY, Yan M, Luo XD. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 27; 129(2): pp 174-81
Catalogue of Life, China / 2010
Antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic activities of the methanolic crude extract of Alstonia scholaris L. are mediated through calcium channel blockade. / Shah AJ, Gowani SA, Zuberi AJ, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.
/ Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):28-32.
Evaluation of anticancer activity of the alkaloid fraction of Alstonia scholaris (Sapthaparna) in vitro and in vivo / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia*, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga / Phytotherapy Research, 2006; Volume 20(2): pp 103–109 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1810
Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Alstonia scholaris Linn Bark in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
/ Deepti Bandawane, Archana Juvekar, Manasi Juvekar / Ind J Pharm Edu Res, Apr-Jun, 2011/ Vol 45/ Issue 2
Protective effect of Alstonia scholaris against radiation-induced clastogenic and biochemical alterations in mice / Jahan S Goyal PK / J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2010;29(2):101-11.
ANTI MYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT EXTRACTS OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS / Molly Antony, Joel James, Chandra Shekhar Misra,Thankamani et al. / Int J Curr Pharm Res, 2012; 4(1): pp 40-42 / ISSN: 0975-7066
IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS / Misra Chandra Shekhar, Pratyush Kumar, James Joel, Sagadevan Lipin Dev Mundur, Veettil Arun Kumar Thaliyil, V Thankamani / International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology Science 2011; 2: 22-27
Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Significantly Inhibits Retinoid-Induced Skin Irritation In Vitro and In Vivo / Soo-Jin Lee, Sun-A Cho, Su-Sun An, Yong-Joo Na, Nok-Hyun Park et al /Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 190370, 11 pages / doi:10.1155/2012/190370
Sorting Alstonia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne
Devil Tree / Common names / Flowers of India
Aerobiological, clinical, and immunobiochemical studies on Alstonia scholaris pollen from eastern India.
/ Hussain MM, Mandal J, Bhattacharya K / Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Jan;186(1):457-67 / doi: 10.1007/s10661-013-3390-1. Epub 2013 Aug 21.
Post-treatment effects of Alstonia scholaris extract against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice / U. Gupta, R. Chaudhary, P.K. Goyal / Iran. J. Radiat. Res., 2010; 8 (3): 169-177
Pharmacological Role of Alstonia scholaris Leaves for its Anticonvulsant and Sedative Action / Rajbala Singh, Harikesh Maurya, Imran Kazmil*, Muhammad Afzal*, Garima Kandpal, Gaurav Gupta, Prashant Kumar, Firoz Anwar* / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics
A clinical evaluation of Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris L., R. Br.) on Essential Hypertension /
Kamlesh Bhogayata, PP Sharma, BR Patel / AYU: 2009; 30(3): pp 318-322
Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Fractions from Alstonia scholaris
/ S. Arulmozhi, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, L. Sathiyanarayanan and Prasad A. Thakurdesai / Pharmacologia, Volume 3 Issue 5, 2012
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TRUNK BARK OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS / A HUSSAIN*, M. K. ZAMAN, A, M RAMTEKE / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol. 3, Issue 4, 2010
Anticancer activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris, on skin carcinogenesis in mice. / Jahan S, Chaudhary R, Goyal PK.
/ Integr Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(3): pp 273-279 /
DOI: 10.1177/1534735409343590
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br / Sinnathambi Arulmozhi, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Prasad Thakurdesai / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 04/2010; 2(1): pp 23-32 / DOI: 10.1016/j.eujim.2009.12.001
Inhibition of Glycolysis and Respiration of Sarcoma180 Cells by Echitamine Chloride / V. Saraswathi, N. Ramamoorthy, S. Subramaniam, V. Mathuram, P. Gunasekaran, S. Govindasamy / Chemotherapy, 01/1998; 44(3):198-205./ DOI: 10.1159/000007115
Treatment with Alstonia scholaris Enhances Radiosensitivity In vitro and In vivo / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia and Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga / Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. December 2003, 18(6): 917-929. / doi:10.1089/108497803322702888.
Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts of Alstonia scholaris, Argemone maxicana and Datura alba to Control Candida albicans / Vijai Malik / Biological Forum – An International Journal 7(1): 241-243(2015)
Anti-arthritic and antioxidant activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. /
Sinnathambi Arulmozhi, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Purnima Ashok / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 06/2011; 3(2): e83–e90. / DOI: 10.1016/j.eujim.2011.04.019
The Protective Effect of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. on Hepatotoxin-induced Acute Liver Damage / Song-chowlin, Chun-chinglin, Yun-holin, S.supriyatna, Shiow-linpan / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 04/2012; 24(02). / DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X96000207
Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn. R.Br. on stress and cognition in mice / Mrugaya P Kulkarni & Archana R Juvekar / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 47, January 2008, Pp 47-52
Alstonia scholaris / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Alstonia scholaris R.Br. (Apocynaceae): Phytochemistry and pharmacology: A concise review / Abhijit Dey / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (06); 2011: 51-57
Studies on phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Alstonia scholaris
/ Mistry Dhruti, Parekh Bhavika and Pithawala Meonis* / Int. J. of Life Sciences, 2016, Vol. 4 (4): 529-538
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don: A Comparative Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. / Mahendra Khyade, Deepak Mahadev Kasote, Nityanand P Vaikos / Journal of ethnopharmacology, Jan 2014; 153(1): pp 1-18 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.025
Alstonia scholaris Linn R Br in the Treatment and Prevention of Cancer: Past, Present, and Future / Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, PhD / Integrative Cancer Therapies, 2010; 9(3): 261–269 / DOI: 10.1177/1534735410376068
The Useful Medicinal Properties of the Root-Bark Extract of Alstonia boonei (Apocynaceae) May Be Connected to Antioxidant Activity / Miracle Oluebubechukwu Obiagwu, Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, and Festus Basden Chinedu Okoye / ISRN Pharmacology, Volume 2014 /
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS: AN IN VITRO STUDY / Jai Bahadur Singh Kachhawa, Neha Sharma, Swati Tyagi, Radhey Shyam Gupta, Krishna Kumar Sharma* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Feb 2012; Vol 12, Issue 2
Anti-Proliferative Activity of Triterpenoids and Sterols Isolated from Alstonia scholaris against Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells / Chao-Min Wang, Kuei-Lin Yeh, Shang-Jie Tsai, Yun-Lian Jhan and Chang-Hung Chou / Molecules 2017, 22(12): 2119 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122119
Essential oil composition from the flowers of Alstonia scholaris of Bangladesh / *Islam, F., Islam, S., Nandi, N. C. and Satter, M. A. / International Food Research Journal, (2013); 20(6): 3185-3188
Induction of developmental toxicity in mice treated with Alstonia scholaris (Sapthaparna) In utero
/ Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga / Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, December 2003; Vol 68, Issue 6: pp 472--478 / https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.10047
An invitro Anti-bacterial and HPTLC Study of Latexes of Alstonia scholaris and Calotropis gigantia to substantiate its ancient usage / Dr.Anjana Devi. S, Dr.N Manoj Kumar MD (Ay) / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), July 2017; Vol 8, No 7.
Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Physio-Chemical Analysis of Alstonia Scholaris Bark./ Shrivastava N, Datar M, Saxena R. C. / Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2010;7(1)
Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Alstonia scholarisAlstonia venenata and Moringa oleifera Plants From India / Gholamreza Bagheri, Mehdi Mirzaei, Raheleh Mehrabi and Javad Sharifi-Rad / Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 11(3): e31129 / DOI: 10.17795/jjnpp-3112
A New C13-Norisoprenoid from Leaves of Alstonia scholaris / Yan Xu, Tao Feng, Xiang-Hai Cai, Xiao-Dong Luo / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, January 2009; Vol 7, Issue 1: pp 21-23 / https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(09)60040-6
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS / Joel James, Arun Kumar Thaliyil Veettil, Kumar Pratyush, Chandra Shekhar Misra, Lipin Dev Mundur Sahadevan, V Thankamani / International Journal of Phytomedicine (2011); Vol 3, No 4.
Antidiabetic Effect of Alstonia scholaris Linn. Bark in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / Narender Boggula, Ananda Kumar Chettupalli, Swetha Reddy Naram Reddy, Vasudha Bakshi / Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2017; 8(1): 3590-3598
IN VITRO ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF KANI HERB ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS AGAINST PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM / C. Christina, S. Prasanna kumar, J. Margret beula, N. Chandra Lekha, N. Jeyaraj, S. Ravikumar* / Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Science, Jul-Aug 2015; 5(4): pp 166 – 169.
Antihypertensive and Vasorelaxant Effect of Alstonia scholarisStem Bark Extracts and Fractions / Bello Idris, Mohammad Zaini Asmawi, Usman Salisu Nasiba, Roziahanim Mahmud and Kabiru Abubakar / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2015; 11(4): 327-334
New Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Alstonia scholaris / Angela A Salm, Mary J Garson, and David J Craik / J. Nat. Prod., 2004, 67 (9), pp 1591–1594 / DOI10.1021/np0498612
Protective effect of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R. Br. against Bleomycin induced chromosomal damage in cultured human lymphocytes, in vitro / Dhruti Mistry & Meonis Pithawala / Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 2018; Vol 41, Issue 2
Evaluation of Alstonia scholaris leaves for broncho-vasodilatory activity. / Channa S, Dar A, Ahmed S, Atta-ur Rahman / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 01 Mar 2005, 97(3): pp 469-476 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.12.009
Alstonia scholaris / WorldAgroForestry
Ameliorative Effect of Alkaloidal Fraction of Leaves of Alstonia scholaris Against Acetic Acid Induced Colitis via Modulation of Oxido-nitrosative and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines / Amit D Kandhare, Mithun V K Patil, Subhash L Bodhankar / Pharmacologia, 2016; Vol 7, Issue 4 / DOI: 10..5567/pharmacologia.2016.170.181
Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of Alstonia scholaris on the albino mice bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity / Md Sultan Ahmad, Sheeba Ahmad, Afsar Ali, Mahammad Afzal / Adv Biomed Res 2016, 5:92 / DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.183140
Chemical Constituents of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. / Consolacion Y Ragasa, Tyson C Batarra, Maria Carmen S Tan, and Ian A van Altena / Der Pharma Chemica, 2016, 8(20):193-196
Study of the interaction of human serum albumin with Alstonia scholaris leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles having bactericidal property / Anukul Maji, Maidu Beg, Amit Kumar Mandal, Somnath Das, Pradeep K Jha, Maidul Hossain / Process Biochemistry, Sept 2017; Vol 60: pp 59-66 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2017.05.022
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Potential of Bark Extracts of Alstonia Scholaris /
Sankhadeep Bhowmik, Santhilna K.S., Praveen TK* / Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, October-December 2015; 2(4): pp 203-205
Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids Isolatyed from Alstonia scholaris
/ Chao-Min Wang, Hsiao-Ting Chen, Chang-Hung Chou et al / Molecules, 21(2) /
DOI: 10.2290/molecules21020139
Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark / Idris Bello, Abdulmenem Suliman Bakkouri, Yasser M Tabana, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi et al / Medical Sciences, 4(1) / DOI: 10.3390/medsci4010004
Potent Antihyperuricemic Triterpenoids Based on Two Unprecedented Scaffolds from the Leaves of Alstonia scholaris / Bin-Yuan Hu, Yun-Li Zhao, Deng-Sen Xiong, Li-Xing Zhao, Xiao-Dong Luo et al / Org. Lett., 2021; 23(11): pp 4158-4162 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01102
Genotoxicity and Safety Pharmacology Studies of Indole Alkaloids Extract from Leaves of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.  / Yun-Li Zhao, Min Su, Xiao-Dong Luo et al / Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 2020; 10: pp 119-129 / DOI: 10.1007/s13659-020-00242-4
The evaluation of the acute toxicity and long term safety of hydroalcoholic extract of Sapthaparna (Alstonic Scholaris) in mice and rats / Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, K Laxminarayan Bairy et al / Toxicology Letters, 2004; 151(2): pp 317-326
In Vitro Evaluation of the Anticancer Effect of Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Leaves on Mammary Carcinoma / Surya Surendren P, Jayanthi G, Smitha K R / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2012; 2(5): pp 142-149 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.2526 / ISSN: 2231-3354
Phytochemical screening of Alstonia scholaris leaf and bark extracts and their antimicrobial activities / Gholamreza Bagheri, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Karina Ramirez-Alarcon, Marcos Fernandez et al / Medicinal Plants and Natural Products, 2020; 66(4) / DOI: 10.14715/cmb/2020.66.4.32
Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Indole Alkaloids from Leaves of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. in Mice and Rats / Yun-Li Zhao, Min Su, Jian-Hua Shang, Xiao-Dong Luo et al / Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 2020; 10: pp 77-88 / DOI: 10.1007/s13659-020-00237-1
Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Alstonia scholaris bark-extract-mediated silver nanoparticles / Prabha Shetty, N Supraja, M Garud, TNVKV Prasad / Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 2014; 4: pp 161-170
Anti-hyperuricemic bioactivity of Alstonia scholaris and its bioactive triterpenoids in vivo and in vitro / Bin-Yuan Hu, Yu-Li Zhao, Xiao-Dong Luo et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2022; Vol 290: 115049 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2022.115049
Pharmacological Perspectives of Ayuvedic Herbs viz. Alstonia scholaris L., Picrorhiza kurroa, Swertia chirata and Caesalpinia crista Against COVID-19: A Mini-Review / Vijay Kumar, Shyam B Singh, Simranjeet / Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry, 2021; 18(7): pp 841-849 /
DOI: 10.2174/1570193X17999201102200944
Alstonia scholaris in the ethnomedicinal and religious tradition of Coastal Karnataka, India / M Jayakara Bhandary / Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 2020; 21(4) / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d210438
Effect of total alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris on airway inflammation in rats
/ Yun-Li Zhao, Jian-Hua Shang, Hong-Mei Shen, Xiao-Dong Luo et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2016; Vol 178: pp 258-265 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.022
Fatty Acid Composition of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R.Br. Seed Oil Having Some Antibacterial Principles
/ Mita Dutta, Sukanta Sen, Subrata Laskar / Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 2010; 7(1)
Evaluation of wound healing activity of leaf extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. in rats / Y L Ramachandra, H V Sudeep, Padmalatha S Rai, K Ramadas / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 4(S1): pp 390-393
Comparative neuropharmacological and cytotoxic profiles of Alstonia scholaris (L.) and Mimusops elengi (L.) leaves / Kishore Kumar Sarkar, Md Muzibar Rahman, Diswajit Biswas et al / Advances in Traditional Medicine, 2021; 21: pp 499-506 / DOI: 10.1007/s13596-020-00463-5
Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy and brine shrimp lethality assay of Alstonia scholaris stem bark extract mediated ZnONPs / Nookala Supraja, TNVKV Prasad, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam et al / Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 2018; Vol 14: pp 69-77 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.04.004
The safety and tolerability of alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris leaves in healthy Chinese volunteers: a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial / Zhong-Ping Gou, Yun-Li Zhao, Lin-Ling Zou, Yin Wang, Shi-Qing Shu, Xiao-Hong Zhu et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2021; 59(1): pp 482-491 /  DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2021.1893349

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL