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Family Fabaceae
Falcata
Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes.
MOLUCCAN ALBIZIA
Chinese

Scientific names Common names
Adenanthera falcata L.. Falcata (Tag.)
Adenanthera falcataria L.. Batai wood (Engl.)
Albizia eymae Fosberg. Falcata wood (Engl.)
Albizia falcata sensu auct. .       Misapplied Moluccan albizia (Engl.)
Albizia falcata (L.) Backer ex Merr. Peacock's plume (Engl.)
Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg Sau (Engl.)
Albizia fulva Lane-Poole  
Albizia fulva C.T.White & Francis  
Albizia molucanna Miq.  
Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes  
Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen  
Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg is a synonym of Falcataria moluccana.
Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Koroi, Malacarma.
BRUNEI: Puah.
COOK ISLANDS> 'Arapitia.
INDONESIAN: Belalu, Jeungjing, Mara, Parasiante, Sengon, Sengon laut.
JAVA: Sengon laut, Sika.
MALAYSIA: Ai-samtuco, Bantai, Batai., Bataiwood, Kayu machis.
MALUKU: Salawaku.
PALAU: Ukall ra ngebard.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Ele, iri.
POHNPEI: Kerosin tree.
SAMOAN: Tamaligi, TAMALIGI PA'EPA'E, TAMALIGI PALAGI.
SRI LANKAN: Mara.

Botany
Falcataria moluccana is a fast growing medium to large deciduous tree attaining a height of to 30 meters or more, with a massive trunk and an open crown. Trunk is straight, cylindrical, and unbuttressed. Bark is , light gray, the inner bark smooth and pink. Leaves are alternate, bipinnately compound, 20 to 40 cm long with 4 to 15 pairs of pinnae; each pinnae 5 to 10 cm long with 8 to 25 falcate leaflets, 10 to 20 mm long and 3 to 6 mm wide, dull gree above, paler below. Flowers are large, bell-shaped, in paniculate axillary racemes, about 20 cm in diameter.; corolla creamy- white to greening-white. Pods are narrow and flat, densely pubescent or glabrous, green and turning brown on maturity, 10 to 13 cm long and 2 cm wide, dehiscent. Seeds are 15-20 per pod, flat, transversely arranged, reniform to oblong, flat, dark brown, about 6 mm long, 3 mm wide. (5)

Distribution
- Cultivated.
- Native to the islands of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

- Species as spread to Southeast Asia, from Myanmar to the Philippines.
- Introduced locally in tropical Africa and America.
- Considered invasive in natural lowland humid forests on Pacific and Indian Ocean Islands. (5)

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis of sawdust yielded alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids. (see study below) (8)
- Bark yields syringaresinol. (9)

Properties
- Considered the fastest growing tree in the world.
- Dust from machining or sawing may be irritating . (see study below) (7) (8)
- Studies have shown phytoremediative and asthma inducing properties.

Parts used
Bark, whole plant.

Uses

Edibility
- Pods reportedly edible. (Soerianegara and Lemmens,1993) .(5)
Folkloric
- Decoction, infusion, or extract of dried bark used to wash tropical ulcers.(3)
- Whole plant extract drunk to help induce sleep. Used to treat venereal diseases. (3)
- Bark eaten to relieve chest congestion.
Others
- Agroforestry: Pure strands help prevent erosion.

- Wood / Fuel: Soft, not durable, prone to attack by termites and beetles. Used for fuel and charcoal production despite low density and energy value. (3)
- Paper / Pulping: Suitable for pulping and papermaking. (3)
- Construction / Commerce: The soft wood is suitable for light construction, furniture, cabinetry, pallets, chopsticks, toys, wooden shoes, tea boxes, matchsticks, etc. Wood trunk are carved for making canoes. Source for making veneer, plywood, particle board. (3) (4)
- Fodder: Leaves used as feed for chicken and goats. Also used as green manure. (5)
- Tanning: Bark yields 'kino' which has tanning properties; also sometimes used as soap. (5)

Studies
A Case of Occupational Asthma:
Study reports on a case of occupational asthma on a 72-yr old man who developed difficulty breathing while cutting Falcata. Confirmatory tests included a bronchial provocations test. (7)
A Toxic Wood Species / Toxicological Analysis of Sawdust: Albizia falcataria has been reported as a causal agent of upper respiratory health problems through occupational exposure to sawdust. Phytochemical analysis showed sawdust compounds were not volatile, suggesting route of exposure as direct ingestion or physical contact. Toxicological screening using Vibrio fischeri exposed to aqueous extracts of A. falcataria showed a mean EC50 greater than 9800 mgL for 5-30 min exposure. Microscopic analysis showed irregular sawdust morphology that can lead to irritation and exacerbate health effects due to wood cell bound chemical exposure. Results suggest A. falcataria be handled as a toxic wood species. (8)
Mycorrhizal Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium on Oil Sludge: Study showed Cladosporium and Albizia mycorrhiza can reduce the levels of Cd on oil sludge 30% annd 35%.. On the comparative, colonization of AMF (Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi) in Albizia root reached 100% in all treatment along the decrease of lead and cadmium. (9)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Cultivated.

August 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Falcataria moluccana: tree / Forest & Kim Starr / click on image to go to source page / CC by SA 3-0 / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Falcataria moluccana: leaves and pods / Forest & Kim Starr / click on image to go to source page / CC by SA 4-0 / Wikimedia Commons
 
 
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. - quickstick GLSE2 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
 
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Falcataria moluccana / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
Falcataria moluccana / Wikipedia
(3)
Falcataria moluccana / Ken Fern: Tropical Plant Database / Useful Tropical Plants
(4)
Falcataria moluccana / Wikipedia
(5)
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) / Invasive Species Compendium / CABI
(6)
Albizia falcataria / James A Duke, 1983 / HortPudueEdu
(7)
A Case of Occupational Asthma Induced by Falcata Wood (Albizia falcataria) / Kimiko Tonioka, Shinji Kumagai, Makoto Kameda, Yoko Kataoka / Journal of Occupational Health, 2006; 48(5): pp 392-395 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.48.392
(8)
Phytochemical and toxicological analysis of Albizia falcataria sawdust / M King, C Catranis, JA Soria and MB Leigh / International Wood Products Journal, 2013; 4(4) / https://doi.org/10.1179/2042645312Y.0000000029
(9)
PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ALBIZIA SPECIES: A REVIEW / KARUPPANNAN KOKILA, SUBRAMANIAN DEEPIKA PRIYADHARSHINI AND VENUGOPAL SUJATHA / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013; 5(3) / ISSN: 0975-1491

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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