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Family Bignoniaceae
Flame flower
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.

Pao zhang hua

Scientific names  Common names
Bignonia ignea Vell. Chinese cracker flower (Engl.)
Bignonia tecomiflora Rusby Flower vine (Engl.)
Bignonia tubulosa Klotzsch Flame flower (Engl.)
Bignonia venusta Ker Gawl. Flame vine (Engl.)
Jacaranda echinata Spreng. Flaming trumpet vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia amabilis Miers      [Invalid] Golden shower (Engl.)
Pyrostegia dichotoma Miers ex K.Schum.  Orange trumpet creeper(Engl.)
Pyrostegia ignea (Vell.) C Presl  Orange trumpet vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia ornata Miers  [Invalid] Pahu-pahu (Hawaii)
Pyrostegia pallida Miers Venusta vine (Engl.)
Pyrostegia parviflora Miers  
Pyrostegia puberula Miers  
Pyrostegia reticulata Miers  
Pyrostegia tecomiflora (Rusby) K.Schum ex Urb.  
Pyrostegia tubulosa (Klotzsch) Bureau & K.Schum.  
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.  
Tecoma venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Lem.  
Tynanthus igneus (Ker-Gawl.) Miers.  
Pyrostegia venusta (Vell.) Barb.Rodr.  
Golden shower is an English common name shared by (1) Spectacular cassia, Cassia spectabilis (2) Flame flower, Pyrostegia venusta (3) Kuisia, Glaphimia glauca (4) Kanya pistula, pudding pipe tree, Cassia fistula
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Cipo-de-sao-joao, Belas.
CHINESE: Pao zhang hua.
HAWAIIAN: Huapala.

"Pyrostegia" is Greek derived: pyro meaning 'fire' and stege meaning 'covering.' names: Species name venusta means pleasing. beautiful, graceful, or charming.

Flame flower is a climbing shrub with 6 to 8 ribbed branchlets. Leaves are compound, with 2 or 3 leaflets, bearing 3-parted terminal tendrils. Leaflets are ovate, acuminate, up to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are reddish orange, in terminal panicled cymes, up to 5 centimeters long with reflexed corolla lobes. Fruit is a capsule, up to 30 centimeters long.

- Recently introduced.
- Grows well in the Baguio area.

- Native to Brazil and Paraguay.

- Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins.
- Phytochemical studies yield chemical constituents from the roots: allantoin, beta-sitosterol, 3b-O-beta-D glupyranosylsitosterol and hesperidin.

- Study of ethanol extract of roots isolated allantoin, beta-sitosterol, 3-beta-O-beta-D-glupyranosylsitosterol, and hesperidin. (20)

- Considered antimicrobial, antioxidant, tonic, and vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic, hyperpigmentant, antibacterial, antifungal, antigenotoxic, wound healing properties.

Parts used
Roots, flowers.

• No recorded folkloric use in the Philippines.
• In Iracambi, used as a tonic and antidiarrheal.

• In Brazil, used as general tonic to treat any inflammatory disease; also for diarrhea, dysentery, leucoderma and vitiligo, and common diseases of the respiratory tract, such as bronchitis, flu, and cold.
• Dye: Flowers yield a dye. (see study below) (22)

Phytochemical screening of P venusta showed the presence of carotenoids, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones in pet ether extract and flavonoids and tannins in the methanolic extracts. Results showed antioxidant activity due to the flavonoids and b-carotene, and a potential source of natural antioxidation. (1)
Antioxidant / Flowers and Roots:
Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of P. venusta using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Results showed P. venusta is a natural source of antioxidants. The extracts of flowers and roots contained significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties to serve as inhibitors or scavengers of free radicals. (
ACE Inhibition:
One of the plant extracts studied for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. (3)
Attenuation of Behavior Changes Induced by Lipopolysaccharide:
Extract of P. venusta attenuated the depressive-live and exploratory behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharide. Results support the usefulness of the plant in traditional therapies for disorders like flu and cold, that induce sickness behaviors. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Flowers:
Study of a hydroethanolic extract in Swiss mice demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. PvHE reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity. Extracts showed antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory actions were attributed to the presence of acacetin-7-O-B-glucopyranoside. (6)
Antimicrobial / Wound Healing / Flowers:
Study of flower extract showed potent wound healing capacity as shown by wound contraction and increased tensile strength. Induction in cytokine production may be one of the mechanisms involved in the wound healing acceleration. A PvE also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against B subtilis, S epidermis, S pyogenes, S aureus, E coli, M luteus, P aeruginosa, C albicans among others. (7)
Genotoxicity Evaluation:
Study evaluated the genotoxic effect of extracts of P. venusta in mice using micronucleus (MN) and chromosone aberration (CA) tests.
Pyrostegia venusta did not show genotoxicity activity. (10)
Hyperpigmentant Activity for Vitiligo / Melanogenic / Flowers and Leaves: Study evaluated the melanogenic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from leaves and flowers of P. venusta on B16F10 melanoma cells. Results showed both extracts stimulated B16F10 melanogenesis at very low concentrations. Findings support the folk medicine use of P. venusta on the treatment of hypopigmentation diseases, such as vitiligo. (11)
Vitiligo Treatment / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and hyperpigmented activities of hydroethanolic extract of leaves in Swiss mice model of vitiligo induced by croton oil and monobenzone. Only tropical treatment with HE extract of P. venusta altered melanin specific marker in hair follicles. Topical and oral administration of P. venusta showed significant anti-inflammatory and hyperpigmented effects demonstrated topical and systemic effects in two animal models. (12)
Prevention of Dental Biofilm / Dental Caries: Study evaluated the antibacterial and biological activities of P. venusta in the treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease. Crude extracts, ethyl acetate, and Nunn-butanol fractions showed antibacterial activity. The EA fraction showed the highest inhibition against adherence of S. mutans and C. albicans. Results suggest a potential for the prophylaxis and treatment of caries or periodontal disease. (13)
Anthelmintic: Study of chloroform and methanol extracts of P. venusta showed anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate was used as standard reference. The chloroform extract showed more effective anthelmintic action compared to the methanol extract. (14)
Antitumor Activity / Apoptosis Induction: Study investigated the antitumor activity of P. venusta extracts against melanoma.
The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in in-vivo and in-vitro models. Results showed components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma cells in vitro and promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. (15)
Anticandidal / Antioxidant: Study of flower extracts for in vitro anticandidal and antioxidant activities yielded one flavonoid (quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside) and two phenylpropanoid glycosides (verbascoside and isoverbascoside). The extracts were evaluated against five Candida strains viz., C. albicans, C. krusei ATCC 6258, and clinical isolates strains of Candida sp: C albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilhermondii. Semi-purified fraction and verbascoside showed similar activity to amphotericin B. (1
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Stems: Study of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of stems showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using carrageenan-induced paw edema and hot plate method, respectively. The extracts showed no mortality in mice even at dose of 5000 mg/kbw, and may be considered relatively safe. (1
Benefit for Inflammation and Metabolic Dysfunction Caused by High Carbohydrate Diet: Study evaluat3d the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of flowers (PvHE) supplementation for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic dysfunction induced by high-r3find-carbohydrate (HC) diet in BALB/c mice. PvHE supplementation decreased adiposity and adipocyte area, improved glucose tolerance, reduced serum triacylglycerol levels and systemic inflammatory cells, and reduced some inflammatory mediators levels in adipose tissue and liver. Results suggest benefit in treatment of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction induced by HC diet. (1
Toxicological / Antioxidant / Genotoxic Studies: Study evaluated ethanolic extract of flowers for toxicological, antioxidant, and genotoxicity properties. The extract did not exhibit reproductive toxicity and genotoxic effects. The extract of the species did show antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential, probably attributable to the different flavonoid compounds in the extract. (19)
Natural Melanogenesis Stimulator: Various dermatological disorders i.e., vitiligo, albinism and loss of hair, the tyrosinase stimulators induce cellular melanin biosynthesis, up-regulating CREB phosphorylation and expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2, and tyrosinase. These suggest melanogenesis stimulators may be used for the treatment of hypopigmentation related disorders. This study suggests that purified tyrosinase possesses a skin darkening potential, which could be useful as a safe melanogenic agent for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders or Virgilio. (
Dye / Potential for Cosmetic Use / Flowers: Study reports on the extraction, purification and stability of Pyrostegia venusta dye from its flowers. The dye is reported to have good thermal stability, strong resistance to oxidation and reduction, stable in weak base and weak acid conditions. It was also stable to allergy agent, antioxidant and preservatives. Results suggest potential use in cosmetics. (

- Ornamental cultivation.

Updated June 2020 / October 2016

                                                     PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photo / Content ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flower Close Up / Pyrostegia venusta / Evaldo Resende / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to souce page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flower Close Up/ Pyrostegia venusta growing in Barlovento, La Palma, Canary Islands / File:Pyrostegia venusta (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg / Frank Vincentz / 12 April 2008 / GNU Free Documentation License/ Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Teor de flavonóides e fenóis totais em folhas de Pyrostegia venusta Miers. de mata e de cerrado
Validation of a colorimetric assay for the in vitro screening of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from plant extracts
Preliminary study of the antioxidant properties of flowers and roots of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers
/ Purabi Roy, Sarika Amdekar, Avnish Kumar and Vinod Singh / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 11, Art No 69 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-69 /
PMID: 21861910 / PMCID: PMC3182952
Pyrostegia venusta attenuate the sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. / Veloso CC, Bitencourt AD, Cabral LD, Franqui LS, Dias DF, dos Santos MH, Soncini R, Giusti-Paiva A. /
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Oct 28; 132(1): pp 355-358
Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the flowers of Pyrostegia venusta in mice / Clarice C. VelosoI; Layla D. M. CabralI; Andressa D. BitencourtI et al / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.1 Curitiba Jan./Feb. 2012 Epub Nov 21, 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000209
In vivo antioxidative property, antimicrobial and wound healing activity of flower extracts of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers / Roy P, Amdekar S, Kumar A, Singh R, Sharma P, Singh V / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012 Mar 6; 140(1): pp 186-192 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.008 /
Pyrostegia venusta / Synonyms / The Plant List
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers: A Botanical, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Review
/ Nada M Mostafa, Omayma El-Dahshan and Abdel Nasser B Singab* / Med Aromat Plants 2:123. / doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000123
The Evaluation of the genotoxic potency of the Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, Bignoneaceae, crude extract on bone marrow of mice / Eduardo A. Magalhães; Gabriel J. Silva Júnior; Thiago Augusto de Campos; Luciana P. Silva; Regildo M. G. Silva* / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.20 no.1 Curitiba Jan./Mar. 2010 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2010000100014
Hyperpigmentant activity of leaves and flowers extracts of Pyrostegia venusta on murine B16F10 melanoma / Camila G. Moreira, Cintia D.S. Horinouchi, Claudio S. Souza-Filho, Francinete R. Campos, Andersson Barison, Daniela A. Cabrini, Michel F. Otuki / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 14 June 2012; Volume 141, Issue 3: pp 1005–1011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.047
Pre-clinical evidences of Pyrostegia venusta in the treatment of vitiligo. / Moreira CG, Carrenho LZ, Pawloski PL, Soley BS, Cabrini DA, Otuki MF / J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Jun 20; 168: pp 315-325. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.080.
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers Crude Extract and Fractions: Prevention of Dental Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Capacity / Mayara Brito de Sousa, José Otávio Carrera Silva Júnior, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa, Erika da Silva Valério, Andriele da Mata Lima, Marlon Heggdorne de Araújo, Michelle Frazão Muzitano, Celso Vataru Nakamura, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, and Francisco Martins Teixeira / Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 May; 12(Suppl 2) / doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.182150
Anthelmintic activity of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma / P.V. Nisha, N. Shruti, K. Sweta Swamy, Meera Kumari, A. B. Vedamurthy, V. Krishna, Joy H. Hoskeri* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2012; 4(3): pp 205-208
Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo / Carlos R Figueiredo, Alisson L Matsuo, Felipe V Pereira, Aline N Rabaca, Camyla F Farias, Natalia Girola, Mariana H Massaoka, Ricardo A Azevedo, Jorge A.B Scutti, Denise C Arruda, Luciana P Silva, Elaine G Rodrigues, João Henrique G Lago3, Luiz R Travassos1, Regildo M.G Silva / Pharmacognosy Magazine (2014) Vol10, Issue 38, pp 363-376 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133284
Anticandidal and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions and Isolated Compounds of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers / AMS Pereira, C Hernandes, SIV Pereira, BW Bertoni, SC França, PS Pereira, SH Taleb-Contini / Planta Med 2013; 79 - P7 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1336449
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA PRES. STEMS / Md. Rageeb Md. Usman  and Neelesh Chaubey / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Researh
Hydroethanolic extract of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers flowers improves inflammatory and metabolic dysfunction induced by high-refined carbohydrate diet / Clarice de Carvalho Veloso, Andrea de Castro Perez et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2014; 151(1): pp 722-728 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.046
TOXICOLOGICAL, GENOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA POTENCIAL TOXICOLÓGICO, GENOTÓXICO E ANTIOXIDANTE DE PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA / Amanda Martins VIEL; Luciana Pereira SILVA; Gustavo Rafagnin MARTINS; Betsaida URTREMARI; Alline SEKIYA; Anne Lígia DOKKEDAL; Edislane Barreiros de Souza; Isabel Cristina Cherici CAMARGO; Regildo Márcio Gonçalves SILVA / Bioscience Journal, Mar-Apr 2019; 35(2): pp 570-585 / http://dx.doi.org/10.14393/BJ-v35n2a2019-41790
Chemical constituents from roots of Pyrostegia venusta and considerations about its medicinal importance. / D T Ferreie P S M Alvarez, P J Houghton, R Braz / QJan 2000; uimica Nova, 23(1): pp 42-46
Natural melanogenesis stimulator a potential tool for the treatment of hypopigmentation disease / Kamal Uddin Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali, Vijay Thawani / International Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol 2, Issue 1 / eISSN: 2573-2889
Extraction and Stability of Pyrostegia Venusta Dye / LIN Ze-sen; XU Hong-lei; YANG Qiao-ling; LUO Feng-chan; HE Qiu-xing / Dyestuff and Coloration, 2015-04

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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