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Family Leguminosae / Fabaceae
Medicago sativa L.
Lan mu xu

Scientific names Common names
Medica sativa Lam. Galeria (Bis.)
Medicago afganica (Bordere) Vassilcz. Alfalfa (Engl.)
Medicago beipinensis Vassilcz. Buffalo grass (Engl.)
Medicago grandiflora (Grossh.) Vassilcz. Buffalo herb (Engl.)
Medicago ladak Vassilcz. Lucerne (Engl.)
Medicago mesopotamica Vassilcz. Purple mediic (Engl.)
Medicago orientalis Vassilcz. Purple medicle (Engl.)
Medicago polia (Brand) Vassilcz.  
Medicago presativa Sinskaya  
Medicago sativa Linn.  
Medicago sogdiana (Brand) Vassilcz.  
Medicago tibetana (Alef) Vassilcz.  
Trigonella upendraw H.J.Chowdhery & R.R.Rao  
Medicago sativa L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Barseem higazi.
CHINESE: Lan mu xu, Mu xu.
CROATIAN: Lucerna.
CZECH: Tolice vojteshka.
DANISH: Foder-Lucerne, Lucerne.
DUTCH: Luzerne.
FRENCH: Luzerne, Luzernlie cultivée.
GERMAN: Blaue Luzerne, Echte Luzerne, Luzerne, Saat-Luzerne.
GREEK: Midiki.
HEBREW: Aspeset, Aspeset tarbutit.
HINDI: Jungli lucerne, Vilaiti gawuth.
ITALIAN: Erba medica, Medica.
JAPANESE: Arufarufa, Murasaki umagoyashi.
KOREAN: Ja ju gae ja ri.
NORWEGIAN: Blålucern, Blålusern.
POLISH: Lucerna, Lucerna sierpowata, Lucerna siewna.
PORTUGUESE: Feno-de-borgonha, Luzerna, Luzerna-de-sequeiro, Melga-dos-prados.
RUSSIAN: Al'fal'fa, Liutserna posevnaia.
SLOVENIAN: Lucerna, Nemshka detelja.
SPANISH: Alfal, Alfalç, Alfalce, Alfalfa, Alfalfa silvestre, Alfalfe, Alfalz, Alfance, Alfás, Alfauce, Alfaz, Alforfa, Almierca, Amelca, Amielcas, Melga, Mielca, Mielcón, Mielga, Ufals, Userda.
SWEDISH: Alfalfa, Blålusern, Blåluzern.
THAI: Thun-anfanfa.
TURKISH: Adi yonca.

Gen info
- Etymology: Alfalfa is derived from Arabic al-fac-facah, which means "Father of all foods."
- Alfalfa is a Spanish modification of the Arabic word al-fasfasa. (24)
- Likely of oriental origin, especially from Persia. - First cultivated in ancient Iran. Introduced to Greece about 490 BC.
- The scientific name of the genus, Medicago, refers to a main tribe of the Persian people, the Medians. (25)
- Ancient Greeks and Romans used the name medica to mean a citrus fruit, believed to have come from the Medes' land. Medes is the root of the scientific name for alfalfa genus, Medicago. (24)

Alfalfa is a herbaceous perennial with deeply penetrating taproot. Stems are procumbent, ascending to erect, arising from a woody base. Leaf is trifoliate, stipules triangular, 5 to 15 millimeters long, pubescent on the lower surface, glabrous on the upper surface, and joined at the base, coarsely toothed. Petiole is pubescent, 5 to 30 millimeters long. Leaflets are narrow, oblong to ovate or obovate, 8 to 28 millimeters by 3 to 15 millimeters, dentate near the apex. Inflorescence are in dense racemes, containing 10 to 35 flowers, on peduncles 1 to 5 centimeters long; pedicel 1.5 to 2 millimeters long; calyx 5-lobed and 3 to 6 millimeters long; corolla purple or blue, rarely white, with yellow cultivars. Pod curled through 2 to 5 coils of 3 to 10 millimeters in diameter, indehiscent, containing 2 to 6 seeds. Seeds are yellow to brown, kidney-shaped to ovoid, 1 to 2.5 millimeters by 1.0 to 1.5 millimeters. (1)

- Cultivated.
- Primarily native to Asia.
- Widely cultivated as forage crop in the US, Canada, Argentina, France and SW Asia.

- Pharmaceutically active constituents in M. sativa include acids (lauric, maleic, malic, malonic, myristic, oxalic, palmitic, quinic), alkaloids (stachydrine, homostachydrine), amino acids (arginine, asparginine, cystine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan, valine), the non-protein aminoacid canavanine, coumarins (medicagol), isoflavonoids (coumestrol, biochanin A, genistein), saponins, steroids (campestrol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol) and other constituents such as fructose, vitamins (A, B1, B6, B12, C, E, K), pectin, chlorophyll, minerals and trace elements. (33)
- Leaf extract yielded 37.0 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/ g dry matter. Total flavonoids was 12.6 ± 0.17 mg rutin equivalent/g DM. Analysis also yielded gallic acid, pyrogallol, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid as phenolics, and naringenin, apigenin, apigenin, quercitin, myrcitin and daidezin as flavonoids and isoflavonoids. (see study below) (5)
- Phytochemical screening yielded tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, and flavonoids. (see study below) (15)
- GC-MS study of methanolic extract of seeds yielded 54 compounds.. Major constituents were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenamide, (Z)- , squalene vitamin E. (28)
- Study of alfalfa seed (100g) yielded 33.79 g crude protein, 8.11 g crude oil, crude cellulose 7.78%. (28)

- Reported to be anti-scorbutic, aperient, ecbolic, hemostatic, nutritive, stimulant and tonic.
- Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, antifungal, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, estrogenic, iron-chelating, anxiolytic, cardioprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, sprouts.


Culinary / Nutrition
- Alfalfa sprouts are a common ingredient of South Indian cuisine. (
- High in vitamins (B, A, D, E, and K) and minerals (biotin, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium).
- Brewed as a tea drink.
- Dried alfalfa is considered as good, if not better, than fresh alfalfa.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Decoction used to boost energy.
- Anecdotal reports on use as diuretic, treatment of bladder problems, diabetes, dyspepsia, and asthma.
- In South American traditional medicine, used for diuresis, kidney and vesicular swelling, and lung ailments.
- In Morocco, liquid porridge made of pounded lucerne seeds given to newly delivered mother with no milk. (2
- In China, used to treat fever; in India to treat ulcers; in Iran and Turkey to treat arthritis, in the US n some natural therapies for cancer. Also used for urinary tract infections, menopause, fatigue, and asthma. (2
- Fodder: Cultivated as livestock fodder since the time of ancient Greece and Rome. (
24) Primary use as feed for high-producing dairy cows, because of high energy and protein content and easily digestible fiber. Popular as livestock forage: horses, goats, sheep, cattle.
- Plant serves as a commercial source of chlorophyll and carotene. (6)

- Ethnoveterinary: Plant extracts applied topically to aid healing of skin lesions. (33)

- Contraindications: FDA issued an advisory for children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems to avoid eating alfalfa sprouts because of frequent bacterial contamination (S. enterica, E coli and Salmonella). (6) (29)
- Pregnancy: Avoid use as it may cause uterine stimulation. (6)
- Interactions: May cause decreased anticoagulant effect of warfarin and lowered prothrombin time. Also theorized as possibly interference with immunosuppressive action of corticosteroids or cyclosporine. (6)May increase serum urate and urea levels. Because of high purine content, should be avoided by patients with gout. (
- Side effects:
Increased fecal volume and frequency, loose stools and diarrhea, abdominal discomfort and flatulence or gas have been reported with alfalfa supplementation. (
- Toxicities / Lupus: Alfalfa tablets have been associated with reactivation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In rats, changes in intestinal cellular structure have been reported. (6) Alfalfa contains canavanine, an amino acid known to aggravate symptoms of lupus. Excess intake can also cause breakdown of RBCs. (7) Reactivation of quiescent SLE in humans has been associated with the ingestion of alfalfa tablets which were found to contain canavanine on analysis. Alfalfa seeds may contain substantial amounts of canavanine (8.33 to 13.6 mg/kg), while the herb contains only minimal amounts. (33) Medscape provides a long list of medicines and supplements that may potentially interact with alfalfa. (8)
- Livestock concerns:
Although considered a fodder plant, large quantities may be poisonous. It has been reported to cause jaundice in horses.

Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities:
Study evaluated the phenolics and flavonoids content of M. sativa leaves extract, together with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities. Results showed antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assays, although lower than standard BHT and α- tocopherol. Extract showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity on NO inhibition assay and 51.6% inhibition of XO at concentration of 250 µg/ml. (see constituents above) (5)
Antioxidant / Neuroprotective: Study investigated the neuroprotective effect of a methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Results showed treatment with MS enhances antioxidant defense against BCAO (bilateral carotid artery occlusion)-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity. (9)
Anti-Inflammatory / Inhibition of Liposaccharide Induced Inflammation: In vitro study showed alfalfa sprouts ethyl acetate (ASEA) extract significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1ß production and the NF-kB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Results suggest ASEA supplementation can suppress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. (10)
Antidiabetic / Effects on Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Renal Functions: Study evaluated the potential of an ethanolic leaf extract of M. sativa in combating diabetic hyperglycemia in adult albino rats with alloxan induced diabetic.
Results showed effective glycemic control with potency that is better than metformin. Effect was attributed to the promotion of increased insulin secretion, and possibly, some extra pancreatic mechanism mediating an antihyperglycemic effect. Diabetic induced increase in lipid peroxidation and renal and hepatic markers of dysfunction were normalized by MSE treatment. (11)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of M. sativa for in vitro antioxidant activity using various assays. Results showed a significant correlation between extract concentrations and percentage inhibition of free radicals, metal chelation or inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The activity may be related to polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. Results indicate activity against free radical mediated disease. (12)
Antidiabetic / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the ability of seed extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and lucerne extract to modulate post-challenge carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetes animal model. Results showed decrease in postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic rats, probably through enhancement of insulin secretion. (13)
Improved Motility and Vigor in Ram Semen: The addition of homeopathic medicine Medicago sativa at 12CH, added to GGL diluent, resulted in decreased loss of motility and vigor compared with Aloe vera, coinciding with fertility in ram semen manipulated and evaluated in a farm field. (14)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated various solvent extracts for antibacterial activity against seven important bacterial strains (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, and K. pneumonia). A methanol extract showed significant activity against all tested bacteria, followed by chloroform and ethanol extracts. (see constituents above) (15)
Estrogenic: Estrogenic activity has been reported in ruminants fed large amounts of alfalfa as fodder, probably associated with the coumestrol and isoflavone constituents of alfalfa. In humans, consumption of seeds has been reported to be lactogenic and to affect the menstrual cycle.
(16) Study showed three treatments of guayus (Ilex guayusa Loes) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) extracts produced estrogenic effects in rats as evidenced by estradiol levels and weights of reproductive organs. (23)
Iron Chelating: Study showed the protective effect of M. sativa and A. porrum against iron overload in a rat model. Results showed significant decrease in serum ferritin and iron concentration in iron overload in rats induced by iron dextran. (17)
Hypoglycemic / No Nephropathy Effect: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of M. sativa on blood sugar and kidney histopathological changes in Wistar rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. Results showed that although there was a significant reduction in blood sugar, there was no distinct effect on nephropathy side effects in this short term study. (18)
Inhibition of Liposaccharide-Induced Inflammation: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses betters than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract suggests a potential as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders. (19)
Roots as Substitute for Streptolysin O in ASO Diagnostic Test: Study evaluated the application of alfalfa root extract instead of SLO as a routine test in post-streptococcal infection diagnosis. Study showed the hemolytic effect of roots extracts is similar to SLO and ASO. There is significant similarity in antigenic properties in both alfalfa extract and SLO. The purified extract of alfalfa has potential as alternative suitable reagent instead of SLO for ASO testing. (20)
Anxiolytic Effect : Study evaluated various extracts of aerial parts for anxiolytic activity. Only the methanol extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) anti-anxiety activity as evidenced by average time spent, and number of entries in open arms at dose of 100 mg/kg in mice. (21)
Cardioprotective Effect / Stems: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of MS stems on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats. In ISO induced rats, pretreatment with the extract reversed lipid profile levels to near normal reverted to near normal the significantly increased liver marker and cardiac marker enzymes in ISO induced rats. (22)
Nutraceutical Potential for Beverage Preparations: Study assessed the nutritional composition, amino acid profile, and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and fibrous residual material, two new alfalfa derived products (ADPS) launched as ingredients for beverage preparations. Results showed a high content of proteins (23-30g/100g FDJ and 13-17 g/100 RM), crude fiber (29 g/100 g RM), and minerals (sodium, calcium, iron and zinc). The products exhibited interesting AOC by DPPH and FRAP assays. Results suggest nutraceutical potential for the two new types of ADPS. (26)
Antioxidant / Enzyme Inhibition Activity: Study showed the capability of alfalfa extracts to scavenge free radicals and enzyme inhibition activity, suggesting a potential for pharmaceutical formulations to treat various oxidative stress related chronic diseases and diabetes mellitus associated with α-glucosidase and brain degenerative disease related with cholinesterase inhibition. (27)
Lucerne / Phytotherapy for Prevention of Various Diseases / Review: This review paper suggests that lucerne's ability to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, reduced LDL and triglyceride, and improve blood glucose and HDL might contribute in preventing or treating metabolic disorders related to cardiovacular diseases, oxidative stress, diabetes, and cancer. (30)
Antifungal / Saponin-Rich Fractions / Candida albicans / Aerial Parts and Roots: Study evaluated the antifungal activity of saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa aerial parts and roots and Saponaria officinalis against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains. Results showed the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature Candida biofilm. Also, M. sativa SFx exhibited low cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast line L929. Results suggest potential for the plant derived SFs as novel antifungal therapeutics to support classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. (31)
Hypolipidemic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated aerial parts of M. sativa for phytoconstituents. Two compounds were isolated for the first time and identified as soysaponin I and azukisaponin V. The compounds were found to have hypolipidemic activity. (32)
Antifungal / Root Saponins: Study of alfalfa roots yielded nine triterpene glycosides. Six of the saponins were identified as glycosides of medicagenic acid, two of hederagenin, and one of soya- sapogenol B. Activity against fungus Trichoderma viride was determined for each of the saponin. (32)

- Cultivated.
- Capsules, leaf tinctures, and extracts in the cybermarket.

Updated July 2020
March 2016

                                                   PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: File:Medicago sativa Alfals006.jpg / Victor M. Vicente Selvas / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Medicago sativa: Amédee Masclef - Atlas des plantes de France: 1891 / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Close-up / Medicago sativa: / click on image to go to source page / / © SoriaNatural
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Medicago sativa: alfalfa / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Medicago sativa botany / Forages / R.J. Clements

Sorting Medicago names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Alfalfa Benefits / Herb Wisdom
Medicago sativa / Synonyms / The Plant List
Insight into the functional and medicinal properties of Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) leaves extract / Ehsan Karimi, Ehsan Oskoueian*, Armin Oskoueian, Vahid Omidvar, Rudi Hendra and Hani Nazeran / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 17 Feb 2013; 7(7): pp 290-297 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1663
Alfalfa / Concerns, interactions, and Toxicity / Drugs.com
Alfalfa / Medical Health Guide
Alfalfa / Interaction checker / Medscape
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cerebroprotective Effect of Medicago sativa Linn. against Ischemia and Reperfusion Insult / Kundan Singh Bora and Anupam Sharma / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011; Volume 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neq019
Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo / Yong-Han Hong, Wen-Wan Chao, Miaw-Ling Chen and Bi-Fong Lin /
Journal of Biomedical Science, 2009; 16: Article 64 / DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-16-64
Medicago Sativa leaf extract supplementation corrects diabetes induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatic renal functions and exerts antihyperglycaemic action as effective as Metformin / Baxi, D. B., Singh, P. K., Doshi, A. A., Arya, S. Mukherjee, R. and Ramachandran A.V.* / Scholars Research Library Annals of Biological Research, 2010, 1 (3) : 107-119
The effects of plant extracts of Medicago sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum on postprandial glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats / Hanna Winiarska*, Marzena Dworacka, Małgorzata Borowska, Teresa Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Piotr Gorecki, Alina Mścisz, Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
Homeopathic Medicine Improves the Motility and Vigor of Semen in Rams / Antônio Carlos Duenhas Monreal*, Albert Schiaveto de Souza, Simone Marques Caramalac, Silvana Marques Caramalac, Mariana Adalgiza Gilberti Urt, Gabriel Athas and Arthur Lopes / Int J Vet Sci Res 1(1): 003-007.
Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of Medicago sativa against some microbial pathogens / A. Doss, V. Parivuguna, M. Vijayasanthi and Sruthi Surendran / Indian Journal of Science and Technology, May 2011; Vol 4, No 5
Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products: Medicago sativa extractum: Summary report
/ The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products / Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit
The Effects of Medicago Sativa and Allium Porrum on Iron Overload in Rats / Ali Mirzaei, Hamdollah Delaviz, Mahsa Mirzaei & Mohsen Tolooei / Global Journal of Health Science; 2015; 7(7): pp 137-142 / doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n7p137 / PMID: 26153214 / PMCID: PMC4803991
Effects of Medicago sativa on nephropathy in diabetic rats / MS Mehranjani, MA Shariatzadeh, AR Desfulian, M Noori, MH Abnosi, ZH Moghadam / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2007; Vol 69, Issue 6: pp 768-772 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.39431
Chloroform Extract of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Downregulating ERK/NF-κB Signaling and Cytokine Production / Ki-Choon Choi, Jung-Min Hwang, Sung-Jun Bang, Beom-Tae Kim, Dong-Hern Kim, Minseon Chae, Seung-Ah Lee, Gi Jun Choi, Da Hye Kim, and Jeong-Chae Lee. / Journal of Medicinal Food. May 2013, 16(5): 410-420. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2012.2679.
The use of alfalfa root instead of streptolysin O in ASO diagnostic test / Hamid Chegni, Mojgan Oshaghi, Behnaz Gharegozlou, Mehrangiz Kaviany / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2015; 2 (6): 10-12
Evaluation of anxiolytic effect of Medicago sativa in mice / Kundan Singh Bora* & Anupam Sharma / Pharmaceutical Biology, Vol 50, Issue 7, pp 878-882 (2012) / DOI:10.3109/13880209.2011.641227
ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM LEAVES OF ILEX GUAYUSA LOES. AND MEDICAGO SATIVA IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS / Contero, F.*; Abdo, S.; Vinueza, D.; Moreno, J.; Tuquinga, M.; Paca, N. / PharmacognosyOnLine / Archives, 2015; Vol 2: pp 95-99
Alfalfa / Wikipedia
Medicago sativa: A historical ethnopharmacology and etymological study of the alfalfa / Peyman Mikaili, Jalal Shayegh / Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Jan 2011
Nutraceutical Potential of New Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Ingredients for Beverage Preparations / Maria Guadalupe Soto-Zarazua, Moustapha Bah, Anabela Silvia Gomes Costa, Francisca Rodrigues, et al / Journal of Medicinal Food, 20(10) / https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.0046
Comparative study of in vitro antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) collected during different growth stages / Nuraniye Eruygur, Burak Dincel, Nazire Gulsah Kutuk Dineel and Esra Ucar / Open Chemistry, 16(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2018-0088 
Qualitative Analysis of Alfalfa Seed Methanol Extract by GC-MS and Determination of Antioxidant Properties / Hafize Dilek Tepe / Celal Bayar University Journal of Science, 2019; 15(2): pp 175-180 / DOI: 10.18466/cbayarfbe.493017
Alfalfa / Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.): Traditional applications to the novel phytotherapy for the prevention and treatment of various diseases: A review / Diksha Gupta and Neelam Chaturvedi / South Asiasn J Food Technol. Environ., 2018; 4(1): pp 598-604
New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans / Beata Sadowska, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Marzena Wieckowska-Szakiel, Małgorzata Paszkiewicz, Anna Stochmal, Barbara Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Mariusz Kowalczyk and Barbara Różalska / Journal of Medical Microbiology (2014), 63: pp 1076–1086 / DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.075291-0
Study on the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Medicago sativa and their hypolipidemic activity / Yu CH, Liang DL, Guo JN, Mei QX, Ynag DP / Zhong yao cai: Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 1 Nov 2011; 34(11): pp 1709-1711 / PMID: 22506393 
/ The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products
Isolation and identification of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root saponins: their activity in relation to a fungal bioassay / Wieslaw Oleszek, Keith R Price, Ian J Colquhoun, Marian Jurzysta, Michal Ploszynski, and G Roger Fenwick / Journal of Agricultural and Food Cemistry, 1990; 38(9): pp 1810-1817 / https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00099a006


It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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