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Family Bignoniaceae
Garlic vine
Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry

Scientific names Common names
Adenocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Miers Fake garlic (Engl.)
Adenocalymma obovatum Urb. False garlic (Engl.)
Adenocalymma pachypus (K. Schum.) Bureau & K.Schum. Forest garlic (Engl.)
Adenocalymma sagotii Bureau & K.Schum. Garlic creeper (Engl.)
Anemopaegma pachypus K. Schum. Garlic vine (Engl.)
Bignonia alliacea Lam. Purple garlic vine (Engl.)
Bignonia citrifolia Vitman Wild garlic (Engl.)
Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A. H. Gentry  
Pachyptera alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry  
Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith  
Pseudocalymma pachypus (K.Schum.) Sandwith  
Pseudocalymma sagotti (Bureau & K.Schum.) Sandwith  
Pachyptera alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry is a synonym of Mansoa alliacea.
Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry is an accepted species: KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Lata parul.
MANIPURI: Chanamlei
BRAZIL: Cipo de aiho, Aiho de mata.
FRANCE: Liana à l´all.
HINDI: Lahan bel.
KANNADA: Bellulli balli.
MALAYALAM: Veluthullichedi.
MANIPURI: Chanameli.
PERU: Ajo sacha.
SPANISH: Ajos sacha.
TAMIL: Vellullipachai.
VENEZUELA: Bejuco de ajo.

Gen info
- Mansoa alliacea, or garlic vine, is a species of tropical liana in the family Bignoniaceae. It is native to northern South America.
- Among the mestizos of the Amazon rainforest, is called ajo sacha, a Spanish-Quechua name that means "forest garlic" or "wild garlic".
- Etymology: The genus name Mansoa honors Antonio Luiz Patricio da Silva Manso (1788-1848), a Brazilian botanist, physician, and politician. (It was first described and published in Biblioth: Universelle Geneve, ser.2. Vol 17 in 1838.) (15) The species epithet alliaceae derived from Latin alliaceus, a, um meaning "similar to garlic", referring to the garlic odor emitted when the leaves are rubbed. (17)

Pachyptera alliacea is a shrubby vine, with numerous woody vines from the roots that grow 2 to 3 meters to a shrub-like appearance. Leaves are ovate, up to 15 centimeters long, with acute tip, leathery, dull to bright green. Flowers are in clusters, borne at the axils of leaves. Petals are usually deep lavender, with a white throat that fade to a pale lavender, then to almost white.

Mansoa alliacea is a shrub or evergreen semi-woody creeper with 2-3 m long stems and young branches with almost quadrangular section. The leaves, on a 0,7-1,5 cm long petiole, are opposite, bifoliate, often with a simple 5-20 cm long tendril between the leaflets. Leaflets on a 0,5-1,2 cm long petiolule, oblong-ovate with obtuse or acuminate apex and entire margin, 10-20 cm long and 3-9 cm broad, coriaceous, with the leaf blades on the sides of the central nervation slightly curved turned upwards and apex curved downwards, of intense green color and glossy above; the rubbed leaves emit a strong smell of garlic. Axillary or terminal panicle inflorescences, on a 0,8-1,5 cm long peduncle, bearing several imbutiform flowers of purple mauve color with white throat, tending pink and almost white with the time passing, 6,5-9 cm long and of 3-5 cm of diameter; the flower emits a delicate smell of garlic that can be felt only when very close to it. Campanulate calyx, 0,5-0,8 cm long, usually truncated at the apex or slightly five-toothed, of green color, corolla with 5-8 cm long tube and 5 roundish lobes, 1-2,5 cm long, and 4 didynamous stamens. The fruit is a flat linear capsule with rounded apex, 10-50 cm long and 1,5-2,4 cm broad; with the two faces crossed in the centreline by a thin crest, containing numerous seeds with two membranaceous wings, 1,8-6 cm long and 1-1,5 cm broad. (17)

- Introduced.
- Naturalized in the Philippines.
- Native to the Amazon rainforest.
- Grown as ornamental in towns and cities.

- Leaves and flowers yield beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, daucosterol, and fucosterol.
- As in garlic, sulfur compounds are also found - alliin and various allyl sulfides.
- Phytochemical study of aerial parts yielded steroids, terpenoids, and flavanoids.
- Study on essential oil of leaves yielded diallyl disulfide (50.05%), diallyl sulfide (11.77%) and trisulfide di-2-propenyl (10.37%) as main compounds. (see study below) (10)
- Quantitative analysis of different plant parts showed the highest amount of phenol in leaf and flavonoids in roots. (13)
- Study isolated a new cytotoxic naphthoquinone, 4-hydroxy-0-methoxy-α-lapachone, along with 9-methoxy-α-lapachone. (14)
- Study of 95% ethanol extract of leaves and twigs isolated two new pyranonaphthoquinones, 8,9-dimethoxy-α-lapachone (mansonin A) ( 1), and 7-hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxy-α-lapachone (mansonin B) ( 2). (20)
- GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract from dried and coarsely powdered leaves yielded five chemical ingredients, namely: Neophytadiene (1.89%), Phytol (29.30%), Phytol acetate (3.54%), Squalene (59.58%) and dl-alpha-Tocopherol (5.69%) and organosulphur compounds. (21)

- Leaves when crushed emit an odor of garlic, with a hint of onion.
- Considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, febrifuge, antitussive.
- Pharmacologic findings suggest anti-inflammatory, antitussive, anti-rheumatic, analgesic, febrifugal, muscle relaxant, uterine relaxant, and hypotensive properties.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, apoptotic, anticancer, larvicidal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts used
Bark, roots, leaves.


- In the tropics and Amazon rainforest, leaves are used as condiment or spice for its garlic flavor and odor.
- Leaves used for making tea.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, a common remedy for pain and inflammation of arthritis.
- Decoction or infusion of leaves used for colds, flu, fever.
- Cold maceration and tincture of roots used as whole body tonic.
- In the Amazon, bark poultice used on bumps, inflammatory swellings. Infusion of bark or leaves used for rheumatism, arthritis, colds, uterine disorders, inflammation and epilepsy. Root prepared in cane alcohol tincture used as whole body tonic. The Amuesha use a leaf tea to aid fertility.
- Stem and leaf decoction for baths to treat fever, influenza, rheumatism, and colds. Decoction of stem fragments used as external wash to treat fatigue, lameness, and lumbago.
- Decoction of bark used for epilepsy.
- In Guiana, decoction of stems and leaves used as external wash for pains and muscular fatigue. Leaves used for constipation, nausea, and cough. Alcoholic maceration of root bark and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis. Aqueous macerated roots used as tonic. Leaf infusion used for fever and cold. In Peru, dried leaves sued for cold, pneumonia, malaria, and as insecticidal. (22)
- In Venezuela, used as an emetic.
- In Suriname, used for colds, fever, rheumatic complaints, vermifuge, and as tonic in the last month of pregnancy. Decoction and infusion of bark used for general weakness. Dried aerial parts used as vermifuge.
- Ritual: Mayans used it in rituals. Used for good luck and to drive evil spirits away. Used by fishermen for purification, to ensure a good catch. Also used in baths to attract wealth and prosperity. Shamans use it as an ingredient in hallucinogenic potions.
- Repellent: Burning of leaves used to repel bats and insects.

P. alliacea was one of nine common plants studies in India for antimicrobial activity. Eight of 9 plants, including P. alliacea inhibited the growth of the test microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). (5)
Apoptosis / Anti-Breast Cancer: Methanol extract of A. alliaceum flowers was evaluated for growth inhibitory activity on estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells by MTT assay. Results showed inhibition of both cancer cells through apoptosis induction, and suggests a potential pharmaceutical source of potent secondary anticancer metabolites. (6)
Larvicidal Against Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi: Study evaluated various extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum and Allium sativum against larvae of Anopheles stephensi. The hexane extract of P. alliaceum was more effective followed by hexane extract of A. sativum. (7)
Larvicidal: Crude ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum showed promising antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. (9)
Larvicidal / Mosquito Vector / Leaf Essential Oil: Study of various extracts of essential oil and hydrolate of leaves of P. alliaceum inhibited the normal growth and development of mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, prolonging and delaying larva and pupal duration. (see constituents above) (10)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential of M. alliacea extract in an inflammatory pain model through plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in mice. Chromatographic analysis of the extract yielded p-coumaric, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids, luteolin, and apigenin. Extract treatment prevented and reversed CFA-induced mechanical allodynia with maximum inhibition (Imax) of 100% and 90±10% respectively. The extract did not induce adverse effects commonly associated with opioids and analgesic drugs. Results suggest antinociceptive activity without causing adverse effects in tested phamacological doses. The effect may be mediated via δ -opioid receptors. (18)
Effect on Embryonic and Tumorigenic Mouse Cell Lines / Leaves: Low doses of water extract of M. alliacea leaves were applied to cancerous and non cell line. Extract applied to T3-HA cancer cells inhibited growth, and higher doses destroyed colonies of cancer cells. Administration of extract to NIH Swiss mouse cell cultures showed growth inhibition at higher doses, but at concentration of 10.14 mg/ml, cell growth began to increase after three days. Results suggest the extract selectively targets T3-HA mouse cancer cells but not NIH Swiss embryonic mouse cells. (19)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and phyto-derived anthelmintic substances from M. alliacea against the enzyme ß-tubulin and the molecular basis of its function using Invitro and Insilico methods.  Tests showed the methanol extract has dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy at various levels. In silico studies suggest four phytochemicals from methanol extract of M. alliacea i.e., Apigenin-7-O-methylglucuronide, Scutellarin, Luteolin, and Ursolic acid are very likely against ß-tubulin. (23)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ajos sacha capsules and tinctures in the cybermarket.
- Ingredient in herbal formulations for cold, flu, pain and inflammation.

Updated July 2023 /August 2019 / October 2014
August 2012

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Garlic vine flower (Mansoa alliacea) / David E Mead / Creative Commons CC0 / Public Domain / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Mansoa alliacea in Thailand / PEAK99 / Creative Commons  / CC BY 3.0 / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Mansoa alliacea: Cultivated flowering plant / Tatters   / CC BY SA /  image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts of Bignonia alliaceae
/ Devang Pandya, Vishal Patel, Tusharbindu Desai, Nirali Chaniyara, Mital Sankhavara and Vaishali Koyani / Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Jan 2012; Vol. 3, Issue 1: pp 1339-1344
AJOS SACHA / Tropical Plant Database
Technical Data Report for Ajos Sacha (Mansoa alliacea) / © Copyrighted 2006 by Dr. Leslie Taylor, ND

Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.SI.edu
Antimicrobial Activity of Nine Common Plants in Kerala, India / V. K. Sasidharan, T. Krishnakumar and C. B. Manjula / PJS, 1998, Vol. 127 No. 1 January– March
Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cells by Adenocalymma alliaceum flower
s / Swarna latha Dugasani, Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli and Mallikarjuna Rao, Pichika / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy , Volume 3 (3) July - 2009
Relative larvicidal potential of Pseudocalymma alliaceum and Allium sativum against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston) / Shrankhla, Sweta Bhan, Preeti Sharma, Lalit Mohan and Chand Narayan Srivastava* / European Mosquito Bulletin 30 (2012), 83-90 Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association
Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts of Bignonia alliaceae / Devang Pandya*, Vishal Patel, Tusharbindu Desai, Nirali Chaniyara, Mital Sankhavara and Vaishali Koyani / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 3(1): Jan., 2012]
Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) / Alagarmalai Jeyasankar*, Tamilarasu Chinnamani / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2014; 2(4): 302-307 / doi: 10.12980/JCLM.2.2014JCLM-2014-0009
Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Garlic vine / Common names / Flowers of India
The genus Mansoa (Bignoniaceae): a source of organosulfur compounds / Maria das Graças Bichara Zoghbi, Jorge Oliveira; Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.19 no.3 João Pessoa July/Sept. 2009 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2009000500025
Phytochemical studies on Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) / Illa Patel, Safura Sipai, Dipika Rathod, Gaurav Shrimali, Asha Patel, Esha Rami / International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Research 05/2013; 4(6):1823-1828.
Cytotoxic naphthoquinones from Mansoa alliacea / Hideji Itokawa, Kouji Matsumoto et al / Phytochemistry, March 1992; 31(3): pp 1061-1062 / https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(92)80077-R
Mansoa alliacea / Wikipedia
Mansoa / Wikipedia
Mansoa alliacea / Pietro Puccio and Mareio Beltramini / Monaco Nature Encyclopedia
Mansoa alliacea extract presents antinociceptive effect in a chronic inflammatory pain model in mice through opioid mechanisms / Fernanda Regina Hamann, Indiara Brusco, Gabriela de Campos Severo, Maribel Antonello Rubin et al / Neurochemistry International, 2019; Volume 122: pp 157-169 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuint.2018.11.017
Effect of Mansoa alliacea (Bignonaceae) leaf extract on embryonic and tumorigenic mouse cell lines / Camden M Towne, Jan F Dudt, Durwood B Ray / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2015; 9(29): pp 799-805 / Article No - 79A20554575 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2015.5823
Two new pyranonaphthoquinones from Mansoa alliacea 
/ Jing Luo, Zhen-Long Wu, Ying Wang et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 2021; 46(13): pp 3364-3367 / DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210317.201.
GC-MS Analysis of Ethyl acetate extract of Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H. Gentry leaves  / Sreelakshmi K P, Sapna Shrikumar / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2022; 12(1) /
DOI: 10.52711/2231-5675.2022.00001
Review on garlic creeper-Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H. Gentry (Bignoniaceae) / Sreelakshmi K P, Ragunathan Muthuswamy / International Journal of Phamacognosy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021; 3(1): pp 22-25 / eISSN: 2706-7017 / pISSN: 2706-7009 / DOI: 10.33545/27067009.2021.v3.i1a.25
Anthelmintic activity of Mansoa alliacea against Pheretima posthuma: In vitro and In silico approach / DSNBK Prasanth, S K  Aminabee, Siva Prasad Panda et al / Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020; 44(3): pp 186-196

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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