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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Gogo
Entada phaseoloides
ST. THOMAS BEAN

Scientific names  Common names   
Entada phaseoloides (Linn.) Merr. Balonos (Bis.)  Gugu (Pamp., Tag.) 
E. pursaetha  Balugo (Tag., Pamp.)  Kessing (Ibn.) 
Entada scandens Benth.  Barugu (S.L. Bis.)  kezzing (Ibn.) 
Adenanthera gogo  Barugo (S.L. Bis.)  Lipai (Ilk.) 
Lens phaseoloides Linn.  Bayogo (C. Bis., Tag.)  Lipay (Ilk.)
Mimosa blancoana  Dipai (Ig.)  Tamayan (Bag.) 
Mimosa entada  Gogo (Tag., Bis., Tagb., P. Bis.)  St. Thomas bean (Engl.) 
Mimosa scandens Linn. Gogong-bakai (Pamp.)   Matchbox bean (Engl.)
  Gogong-bakay (Pamp.)  Water vine (Engl.)
  Gugo (Tag.)   

Botany
Gogo is a very large, woody climber (liana). Stems are thick as a man's arm, angled, and much twisted. Bark is dark brown and rough. Leaves are tripinnate, the common petioles usually ending in a long, tough tendril. Pinnae are stalked, usually 4 in number. Leaflets are oblong or obovate, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, rigidly leathery and smooth. Flowers are 2 to 3 millimeters long, yellowish white, either crowded in long slender spikes from the axils of the upper leaves or arranged in terminal panicles. Pods, few, pendant, 30 to 100 centimeters long and 7 to 10 centimeters wide, somewhat curved, slightly constricted between the seeds. Seeds are hard, and circular, with their sides flattened, about 5 centimeters across, and chocolate brown.

Distribution
- In forests at low and medium altitudes, from Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao and Palawan.
- Pantropic.

Parts utilized
- Bark, seeds and vines.
- Vines and seeds. The vines may be collected during any time of the year, rinse, section into slices, steam, and sundry.
- The seeds may be collected from January to April. Remove seed coat, roast in a frying pan, sun-dry and pulverize.
- Cultivation: Use seeds and layering for propagation.

Constituents
- Yields saponin; fixed oil, 18%; traces of an alkaloid; sapogenin, oleanolic acid.

- Study reported saponin to be abundant in the bark, less so in the wood, plentiful in the seeds, and absent from the leaves.
- Seeds yield a fatty oil, used as illuminant.
- Study of seeds yielded traced of an alkaloid and 18% of a yellow, tasteless oil.
- Study of stems yielded two new chalcone glycosides 4′-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-2′,4-dihydroxychalcone (1) and 4′-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-2′-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (2) together with one known chalcone glycoside 4′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2′-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone.

Properties
- Slightly bitter-acrid tasting, mildly cooling natured.
- Antirheumatic, relieves gastrointestinal disorders, aids circulation.

- Juice from the bark reportedly irritating to the eyes, causing conjunctivitis.
- Note: The infusion of the cortex (bark) of the gogo vines in water contains saponin which has an emetic effect and also a strongly stimulant effect. Accidental contact with the eye may cause conjunctivitis.

Uses
Edibility
In the Dutch Indies, young leaves are eaten, raw or cooked.
In Bali and Sumatra, the seeds after certain treatment, are eaten.
In South Africa, pod and seeds are used as coffee substitute.
Folkloric
- For rheumatic lumbar and leg pains, sprains, contusions: use dried vine materials, 15 to 30 gms in decoction.
- For jaundice, edema due to malnutrition: use powdered seeds, 3 to 9 gms taken orally with water.
- Abdominal pains and colic: Pound the kernels of the seeds, mix with oil and apply as poultice onto affected area.
- Counterirritant: Make a paste of the seeds and apply to glandular swellings in the axilla, loins and joints, and swollen hands and feet.
- Used as hair growth stimulant.
- For skin itches, the affected part is washed with a decoction of the bark.
- Stem, macerated in cold water, makes a cleansing soap; also, used as an emetic.
- Seeds used as emetic. Also, used as febrifuge.
- In South Africa, seeds used by infants to bite on during their teething period. Also, used as remedy for cerebral hemorrhage.
Others
Hair: Used extensively in the Philippines and other oriental countries for washing the hair. Also, an ingredient of hair tonics. The bark is soaked in water until soft; the fibers are then spread, the juice is then expressed by rubbing the fibers against each other until it lathers, which is then used to cleanse the scalp. Seeds also used as hair wash.
Poison: Used as a fish poison.
Wood: Bark is used as cordage. In Europe, used for tinder and for making match boxes.
Plaything / Crafts: Large pods and seeds used by children as playthings. Also used for making necklaces.
Illuminant: In the Sunda Islands, a fatty oil extracted from the seeds used as illuminant.
Snuff: In Europe, seeds reportedly used for snuff.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory / Entadamides:
(1) Synthesis of entadamide A and entadamide B isolated from Entada phaseoloides and their inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase: Two sulfur-containing amides, entadamide A and entadamide B, were isolated from the seeds of e. phaseoloides. The study suggests that the entadamides may be a new type of antiinflammatory drug. (2) A study isolated entadamie C, a thrid new sulphur-containing amide, from the leaves of Entada phaseoloides, together with entadamide A.
Antiulcer: ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF THE SEEDS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES: The study indicates that Entada paseoloides possess antiulcer activity. It is possible that entadamide A, B and C, and phaseoloides may be responsible for the effect.
Genotoxicity: In a study of 138 medicinal plant preparations examined for genotoxicity, Entada phaseoloides was one of 12 that exhibited detectable genotoxicity in any system.
Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Seeds: Study of raw seeds of Parkia roxburghii and Entada phaseoloides showed crude proteins and crude lipid (more in P roxburghii). Both seeds were rich in potassium and iron. E phaseoloides seeds were rich a sourdce of minerals such as magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and manganese. Fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acides were relatively high in both.
Saponins / Pursaethosides A-E: Study isolated firve new triterpenoid saponins, pursaethosides A-E from the extract of seed kernels, along with the known phaseoloidin.
Phenolic Acid Glucosides:
Study of seeds of EP yielded three new phenolic acid glucosides: p-cresotyl glucoside, p-cresotyl triglucoside, and salicylic acid tetraglucoside, along with sucrose and triglucoside.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Update August 2010

IMAGE SOURCE: Leguminosae - Entada phaseoloides - Parrana major - Faba marina / This print is among 1200 plates from this most extensive work, published from 1775-1780 by the extremely prolific author Pierre Joseph Buchoz (1731-1807, also spelled as Buch’oz or Buc’hoz). He was a French physician and naturalist who served as physician to the king of Poland / MEEMELINK
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Entada phaseoloides (St. Thomas bean) / Bronze seedpod at Waipoli Rd Kula, Maui. June 16, 2010 / Creative Commons Attribution / Forest & Kim Starr / Plants of Hawaii
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: GNU Free Documentation License / File:Entada phaseoloides, pods.jpg / Tau'olunga / 31 Aug 2007 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Synthesis of entadamide A and entadamide B isolated from Entada phaseoloides and their inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase / Ikegami F. Sekine T, Aburada M et al /
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1989 Jul;37(7):1932-3.
(2)
ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF THE SEEDS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES / Ramakrishna D, Pavan Kumar K et al / Pharmacologyonline 3: 93-99 (2008)

(3)
Entadamide C, a sulphur-containing amide from Entada phaseoloides / Fumio Ikegami et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 28, Issue 3, 1989, Pages 881-882 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(89)80135-9
(4)
Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities in Philippine Medicinal and Food Plants / Clara Y Lim-Sylianco and W Thomas Shier / Summary Toxin Reviews, 1985, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 71-105 / DOI 10.3109/15569548509014414
(5)
Chemical and nutritional evaluation of raw seeds of the tribal pulses Parkia roxburghii G. Don. and Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. / V R Mohan and K Janardhanan / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Volume 44, Issue 1 May 1993 , pages 47 - 53 / DOI: 10.3109/09637489309017422
(6)
Pursaethosides A−E, Triterpene Saponins from Entada pursaetha / Azefack Leon Tapondjou et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (8), pp 1185–1190 / DOI: 10.1021/np0580311
(7)
Two new chalcone glycosides from the stems of Entada phaseoloides / Zhong-xiang Zhao, Jing Jin et al /
Fitoterapia / Article in Press, Corrected Proof - Note to users / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2011.07.005
(8)
Phenolic acid glucosides from the seeds of Entada phaseoloides Merill / Onkar Singh, Mohd Ali & Nida Akhtar / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 13, Issue 8, 2011 / DOI:10.1080/10286020.2011.584444


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