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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Golden shower
Cassia spectabilis DC.
SPECTACULAR CASSIA
Mei li jue ming

Scientific names Common names
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Antsoan-dilau ? (Tag.}
Cassia amazonica Ducke Palucheba ? (Tag.)
Cassia carnaval Speg. Golden shower (Engl.)
Cassia edulis Posada-Ar. Golden wonder (Engl.)
Cassia speciosa Kunth Spectacular cassia (Engl.)
Cassia spectabilis DC. Yellow cassia (Engl.)
Cathartocarpus speciosus (DC.) G.Don Yellow shower (Engl.)
Pseudocassia spectabilis (DC.) Britton & Rose White bark senna (Engl.)
Golden shower is an English common name shared by (1) Spectacular cassia, Cassia spectabilis (2) Flame flower, Pyrostegia venusta (3) Kuisia, Glaphimia glauca (4) Kanya pistula, pudding pipe tree, Cassia fistula
Cassia spectabilis DC. is a synonym of Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby The Plant List
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mei li jue ming.
FRENCH: Casse remarquable, Sene spectaculare.
MALAYSIA: Antsoan dilaw; Panama-ngu.
PORTUGUESE: Cassia de nordeste, Pau-de-ovelha, Tula-de-besouro.
SPANISH: Flor de todos los santos, Algarrobilo, Candelillo, Carnaval, Casia amarilla, Frijolillo, Velero.
SWAHILI: Mhomba.

Botany
Cassia spectabilis is a small- to medium-sized tree, 10 meters or taller, the branchlets softly hairy. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. Leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, up to 15 pairs, 7.5 centimeters long, green and smooth above, finely hairly underneath. Flowering branches are up to 60 centimeters long. Flowers are in racemes, spikes or cymes, clustered, bright yellow, up to 3.5 centimeters across. Perianth consists of a calyx and a corolla of 5 segments each. Pods are cylindrical, brown, and up to 30 centimeters long.

Distribution
Introduced after the Second World War.
Commonly cultivated in gardens, parks and along the highways.

Constituents
• Phytochemical study of the flowers yielded three new piperidine alkaloids: (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (-)-7-hydroxyspectaline and iso-6 -spectaline, together with known (-)spectaline. (4)

Properties
• Studies have suggest antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial properties

Uses
Folkloric
• No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In Thailand, traditionally used for ringworm and skin diseases.

Studies
Antifungal:
Cassia spectabilis methanol leaf extract study showed significant antifungal activity and suggests a potential use in infections caused by C albicans. (1)
Antioxidant / Cox Inhibition: Phytochemical studies isolated a new piperidine alkaloid (3-O-feruloylcassine and known spectaline and 3-O-acetylspectaline which showed moderate antioxidant activities and marginal COX-2 inhibition.
(2)
Antimicrobial: Study showed aqueous extracts of S. spectabilis to be effective against food-borne pathogen B. cereus.
(3)
Anti-Candida Biofilm Activity / Leaves: A methanol leaves extract of C. spectabilis showed a favorable antiyeast activity against C. albicans with an in-vitro biofilm reduction of 96.9% compared to fluconazole 95.4%. (6)
Toxicity Study: Toxicity was evaluated on male crossbred cow calves fed with 20, 40, or 60 g/kg doses of leaves of C. spectabilis for 5 days. There were no signs in the 20 g/kg group. In 40 g/k, all the calves died within 15 days, while at 60 g/kg all calves died within 10 days. Necropsy showed catarrhal gastroenteritis and pericardial petechia, with degenerative changes in the liver and myocardium. At doses of 40 and 60 g/kg, results indicate the plant is highly toxic. (see study below} (7)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and free radical scavenging, and hepatoprotective activities of methanol extracts of C. spectabilis and Polyalthis longifolia. All extracts showed considerable dose dependent in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Phenolic and flavonoid content significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity. (8)
Biosorption of Chromium: Biosorption is the process of removal of heavy metal contaminants from aqueous solutions. Study investigated the biosorption of chromium (Cr VI) using bark of Cassia spectabilis. Results showed both biosorption and bioreduction were involved in the Cr removal. Data examination showed the biosorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. (9)
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Leaves: A leaf extract was evaluated for acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity in Wistar rats. In acute toxicity study there were no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at doses of 2000-5000 mg/kg. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, there were not significant changes in biological and hematological parameters, no significant change in body weight, and no gross and histopathological changes. Results suggest C. spectabilis is non toxic at given dose. (see study above [7]) (10)
Anti-Malarial / Piperidine Alkaloids / Flowers: Study isolated two known piperidine alkaloids from the flowers of Senna spectabilis. On acetylation, the compounds yielded derivatives (-)-O-acetylcassine and (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline. Screened against Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs in culture, the first two alkaloids showed antimalarial activity, more effective in comparison to standard compound chloroquine. (11)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study investigated the antimicrobial properties of various crude extracts of leaf against bacteria (Gram positive: B subtilis, S. aureus; Gram negative: E. coli, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). The methanol and acetone leaf extracts showed good antimicrobial activity. (12)

Antimicrobial / Laxative / Leaves: Study of crude extract of leaves showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains of E. coli, S. aureus, and Bacillus sp. Methanol extracts showed moderate laxative activity. (13)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Seeds in the cybermarket.

Last Update June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Cassia spectabilis flowers / Archivo:Cassia-spectabilis-flowers.JPG / Trabajo propio / Solanum / Dominio Publico / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
In situ TEM and SEM studies on the antimicrobial activity and prevention of Candida albicans biofilm by Cassia spectabilis extract / doi:10.1016/j.micron.2009.01.003 / Micron Vol 40, Issue 4, June 2009, Pages 439-443
2)
Lipoperoxidation and Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibitory Piperidine Alkaloids from Cassia spectabilis Green Fruits / J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70 (12), pp 2026–2028 / DOI: 10.1021/np070312g
(3)
Antimicrobial Activity of Senna spectabilis and S. tora / Journ of Plant Sciences 1(1):123-126,2007 /

(4)
Further Bioactive Piperidine Alkaloids from the Flowers and Green Fruits of Cassia spectabilis / Claudio Viegas, Jr., Vanderian da S. Bolzani et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2004, 67 (5), pp 908–910 / DOI: 10.1021/np0303963

(5)
Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6)
Anti-Candida albicans biofilm activity by Cassia spectabilis standardized methanol extract: an ultrastructural study. / Torey A, Sasidharan S. / Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Aug;15(8):875-82
(7)
Toxicity Studies of Cassia spectabilis DC in Crossbred Male Cow Calves / NB Shridhari, K Narayana / The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol 77, No 6, 2007
(8)
Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Liver Injury / Subramanion L. Jothy, Azlan Aziz, Yeng Chen, and Sreenivasan Sasidharan / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/561284
(9)
Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium Using Bark of Cassia spectabilis / Y Tefera, D Prasad
/ Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, Vol 3, No 2, 2014
(10)
EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF CASSIA SPECTABLIS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS / Suhasini K , Shridhar NB, Jagadeesh S Sanganal, Jayashree Pattar, Suguna Rao / Internationl Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology Science
(11)
Antimalarial Activity of Piperidine Alkaloids from Senna spectabilis and Semisynthetic Derivatives
/ Pivatto, Marcos; Baccini, Luciene R.; Sharma, Abhinay; Nakabashi, Myna; Danuello, Amanda; Viegas Junior, Claudio; Garcia, Celia R. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S. /
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society; v. 25, n. 10, p. 1900+, OCT 2014
(12)
Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Cassia spectabilis Leaf Extracts / N Krishnan, S Ramanathan, S Sasidharan, V Murugaiyah and S M Mansor / International Journal of Pharmacology,, 2010
(13)
LAXATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SENNA SPECTABILIS (CAESALPINIACEAE) / LUIS OSPIN0, EUDUBERTT NEGRÓN y RODOLFO SALAS / BOLETIN DEL CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES BIOLÓGICAS VOLUMEN 34, NO. 1,2000, PP: 33 - 43 LA UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULlA, MARACAffiO, VENEZUELA

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.
Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions

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